ABSTRACT: We recently showed regional differences in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within Japan, which is generally ethnically homogenous, suggesting that factors other than genetic may contribute to the difference. We examined regional differences in the amounts of dietary nutrient intake, especially protein in our search for an explanation.
Annually, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy reports the numbers of patients entering maintenance dialysis in each prefecture of Japan. We used these numbers from 1984 to 2002 to calculate the annual ESRD incidence in each of 12 regions of Japan. The regional differences were analyzed in relation to the amounts of nutrient intake reported annually by National Nutrition Survey in corresponding regions for these 19 years. Each year, approximately 15,000 subjects from 5000 households in randomly selected 300 districts were included to obtain a representative sample of the entire population of Japanese in a manner of age, sex, and body mass matched.
There were marked regional differences in the annual ESRD incidence and small regional differences in dietary intake of each nutrient. Multiple regression analysis showed that the annual ESRD incidence was negatively correlated with energy intake (r = -0.65, F = 240, n = 228) and positively correlated with animal protein intake (r = 0.25, F = 30). Across 12 regions in the values averaged for 19 years in each region, however, the incidence of ESRD was negatively correlated only with the amounts of energy intake (r = -0.74, F = 12, n = 12), but not with animal protein (r = 0.07, F = 0.04).
The present study, relating regional differences between ESRD dynamics and the amounts of nutrient intake in a nationwide population of Japan, revealed that the renal protective effects of dietary restriction of protein, suggested by animal models of progressive nephropathies but yet unproved by large-scale clinical trials, remained unestablished even on a macro level of whole Japan through mapping approaches.
Journal of Renal Nutrition 04/2007; 17(2):118-25. · 1.57 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Nocturnal polyuria has been well known in renal insufficiency. Recently, we found that as renal function deteriorated in chronic kidney disease (CKD), natriuresis was enhanced during the night with nocturnal blood pressure elevation. In the present study, we investigated whether nocturnal polyuria in CKD was due to the inability to concentrate urine, as previously proposed, or based on osmotic diuresis mainly by natriuresis.
In 27 CKD patients, circadian rhythms of urinary sodium, potassium, urea and osmolar excretion rates (U(Na)V, U(K)V, U(urea)V, U(osm)V) as well as of urinary volume (V) and free-water clearance (C(H(2)O)) were estimated during both daytime (6:00 to 21:00) and nighttime (21:00 to 6:00). Then, the night/day ratios of these parameters were analysed in relation to creatinine clearance (C(cr)) as a marker of glomerular filtration rate.
C(cr) had significantly negative relationships with night/day ratios of V (R = -0.69; P < 0.0001), U(osm)V (R = -0.54; P = 0.004) and U(Na)V (R = -0.63; P = 0.0005), but no correlation with night/day ratios of C(H(2)O) (R = -0.33; P = 0.1), U(K)V (R = -0.29; P = 0.1) or U(urea)V (R = -0.31; P = 0.1). Linear and multiple regression analysis identified nocturnal natriuresis rather than urea excretion as an independent determinant of nocturia.
As renal function deteriorated, nocturnal polyuria was seen, being consistent with classical recognition. Furthermore, this increase in nocturnal urine volume seemed related to osmotic diuresis mainly by natriuresis rather than to water diuresis or urea excretion.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 08/2006; 21(8):2172-7. · 3.40 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We recently showed that there were clear regional differences in the dynamics of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within Japan, which has an ethnically homogenous population. We speculate on the reason for these regional differences by correlating the regional distributions in the incidence of ESRD due to each of the following individual causes of ESRD: chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN), diabetic nephropathy (DMN) and polycystic kidney disease (PKD).
The number of ESRD patients entering maintenance dialysis therapy due to individual causes of renal disease in each prefecture was reported annually for a 6-year period by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. After combining data from several prefectures into 11 geopolitical regions in Japan, the mean annual incidence of ESRD across the 11 regions was correlated among the three causes of ESRD.
There were significant regional differences in the incidence of ESRD due to CGN (P<0.0001) and DMN (P=0.0015), the distributions of which were similar to each other across the 11 regions. In contrast, no regional differences were found in the incidence of ESRD due to PKD (P=0.6) as the major genetic disorder of the kidneys, suggesting that genetic backgrounds are relatively uniform throughout Japan. The regional distributions due to PKD were not correlated with those due to other causes: CGN and DMN.
Risk factors common to nephropathy progression, rather than an underlying disease incidence and genetic predisposition, might contribute to regional differences in the overall ESRD incidence in Japan. Other possibilities such as the prevalence of underlying diseases, and acceptance or rejection rates into treatment programmes must be considered further for better explanations.
Nephrology 08/2005; 10(4):400-4. · 1.31 Impact Factor
Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 06/2005; 94(5):967-8.