Masatoshi Makuuchi

Japanese Red Cross, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (699)2580.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A 57-year-old woman with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) was scheduled to undergo living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), but the operation was cancelled because the only potential donor had chronic alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). One year later, FAP-related neurological symptoms progressed rapidly, and emergency LDLT was planned. The donor's hepatic function had returned to normal range after 1 year of abstinence. The left liver graft volume was equivalent to 37.7% of the standard liver volume (SLV) of the recipient. However, a liver biopsy revealed mild fibrosis (score: F1). LDLT was successfully performed without any complications. The recipients' neurological findings returned to normal. One year after LDLT, the liver graft volume was equivalent to about 90% of the SLV, and the fibrosis had improved. LDLT using a graft with a fibrosis score of up to F1 might be an acceptable alternative for recipients with normal hepatic function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Hepatology Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/hepr.12490 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 3rd version of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Hepatocellular Carcinoma was revised by the Japan Society of Hepatology, according to the methodology of evidence-based medicine, which was published in October 2013 in Japanese. Here, we briefly describe new or changed recommendations with a special reference to the two algorithms for surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment. © 2015 The Japan Society of Hepatology.
    Hepatology Research 01/2015; 45(2). DOI:10.1111/hepr.12464 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To resect tumors infiltrating to the right hepatic vein at its root, right hemihepatectomy or that following portal vein embolization (PVE) is applied. If the IRHV is sizable, the IRHV preserving liver resection can be another option. Methods: Between 1994 and 2007, the IRHV preserving liver resection was performed in 21 patients (IRHV group). The short-term outcomes after surgery of them p. Results: There were no mortality and no significant difference between the IRHV and RH groups concerning the blood loss, the morbidity rates and the duration of hospital stay. The median operation time was shorter in the IRHV group than in the RH group (393 vs. 480 min, p = 0.0409). The median weight of resected specimen of the IRHV group was 293 g (range: 20-982), which was significantly lighter than that of the RH group (median: 680 g [250-4,300], p < 0.001). The median percentage of resected volume to standard liver volume was significantly smaller in the IRHV group than in the RH group (25.8 vs. 52.2%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The IRHV preserving liver resection remains a safe and useful procedure. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Digestive surgery 12/2014; 31(4-5):377-383. DOI:10.1159/000369498 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    Canhong Xiang, Zhe Liu, Jiahong Dong, Keiji Sano, Masatoshi Makuuchi
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Anatomical resection of the ventral part of Segment VIII (S8vent) is demanding and there are no accurate methods to identify the demarcation line inside the liver. The current authors have proposed a method to solve the problem. Presentation of Case The tumor was located in the S8vent and was 4 cm in size. One tributary of the middle hepatic vein (MHV), designated V8i, was running between S8vent and the dorsal part of Segment VIII (S8dor). Another tributary of the MHV, designated V8-5i, was running between S8vent and the ventral part of S5 (S5vent). About 5 ml of indigo carmine dye was injected into the proximal part of P8vent. After the small tributary of V8-5i was exposed, it was followed all the way to the main trunk of the MHV. The portal pedicle of S8vent was then ligated and divided. Next, the V8i was gradually exposed from the distal MHV to its trunk. Discussion A recent study showed that the subsegmental border visualized between the ventral and dorsal region always coincided with the plane of V8i, so the subsegmental plane can be divided along with V8i by preserving the very small tributaries near the liver surface and following them to determine where they meet as they run into V8i. Also, the landmark vein of V8-5i in the transverse S8-S5 intersegmental plane was determined for the first time. Conclusion Proposed here is a more accurate method of dividing the liver parenchyma along the intersegmental and intersubsegmental demarcation.
    10/2014; 5(12). DOI:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.10.041
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of peretinoin, an acyclic retinoid, on the survival of patients with hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had completed curative therapy and participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00535-014-0996-1 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate the feasibility and prognostic benefits of third or more hepatectomy (third or more Hx) for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. Background: Second hepatectomy (second Hx) has been accepted as an effective treatment of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after first hepatectomy (first Hx). However, the feasibility and efficacy of third or more Hx have not been adequately assessed. Methods: Data were reviewed from 1340 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent curative hepatectomy. Among them, 941, 289, and 110 underwent first Hx, second Hx, and third or more Hx, respectively. Surgical outcomes and long-term survival were compared among the groups. Results: Surgical duration was significantly longer in third or more Hx (median, 6.4 hours) than in second Hx (median, 5.9 hours). Postoperative bile leakage and wound infection were more frequently observed in third or more Hx versus second Hx (12.5% vs 6.2%, [P = 0.04] and 2.9% vs 0.4% [P = 0.03], respectively). Three and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 36.8% and 27.1% in first Hx, 24.4% and 17.9 % in second Hx, and 26.1% and 12.8% in third or more Hx, respectively (P < 0.01 [first Hx vs third Hx], P = 0.95 [second Hx vs third or more Hx]). The 5-year overall survival rates from each resection were similar among the groups (65.3%, 60.5%, 68.2%, respectively). The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates from initial hepatectomy in patients who received third or more Hx were 91.4% and 75.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Third or more Hx is technically demanding in terms of surgical duration and morbidity compared with second Hx. However, aggressive repeat resection offers a survival similar to second Hx, leading to cumulative long-term survival from initial resection.
    Annals of Surgery 09/2014; DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000882 · 7.19 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 09/2014; 219(3):S131. DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.07.313 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a good candidate for surgical resection. However, the significance of the size of the tumor in solitary HCC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of tumor size on overall and recurrence-free survival of patients with solitary HCC. We retrospectively reviewed 616 patients with histologically confirmed solitary HCC who underwent curative surgical resection between 1994 and 2010. The characteristics and prognosis of patients with HCC were analyzed stratified by tumor size. A total of 403 patients (65 %) had tumors < 5 cm, 172 (28 %) had tumors between 5 and 10 cm, and 41 (7 %) had tumors > 10 cm. The incidence of microvascular invasion, satellite nodules, and advanced tumor grade significantly increased with tumor size. The 5-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates of HCC < 5 cm were 69.6 % and 32 %, respectively, which were significantly better than those of HCC between 5 and 10 cm (58 % and 26 %, respectively) and HCC > 10 cm (53 % and 24 %, respectively). On multivariate analysis, cirrhosis (p = 0.0307), Child-Pugh B (p = 0.0159), indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min > 10 % (p = 0.0071), microvascular invasion (p < 0.0001), and satellite nodules (p = 0.0009) were independent predictors of poor survival, whereas tumor size > 5 cm was not. Although recurrence rates are high, surgical resection for solitary HCC offers good overall survival. Tumor size was not a prognostic factor. Solitary large HCC > 10 cm would be a good candidate for hepatectomy as well as solitary HCC between 5 and 10 cm.
    World Journal of Surgery 08/2014; 38(11). DOI:10.1007/s00268-014-2704-y · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The International Study Group for Liver Surgery (ISGLS) proposed a definition for bile leak after liver surgery. A multicentre international prospective study was designed to evaluate this definition.Methods Data collected prospectively from 949 consecutive patients on specific datasheets from 11 international centres were collated centrally.ResultsBile leak occurred in 69 (7.3%) of patients, with 31 (3.3%), 32 (3.4%) and 6 (0.6%) classified as grade A, B and C, respectively. The grading system of severity correlated with the Dindo complication classification system (P < 0.001). Hospital length of stay was increased when bile leak occurred, from a median of 7 to 15 days (P < 0.001), as was intensive care stay (P < 0.001), and both correlated with increased severity grading of bile leak (P < 0.001). 96% of bile leaks occurred in patients with intra-operative drains. Drain placement did not prevent subsequent intervention in the bile leak group with a 5–15 times greater risk of intervention required in this group (P < 0.001).Conclusion The ISGLS definition of bile leak after liver surgery appears robust and intra-operative drain usage did not prevent the need for subsequent drain placement.
    HPB 08/2014; 17(1). DOI:10.1111/hpb.12322 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) have been developed in various surgical fields and have been shown to accelerate postoperative recovery without increasing the incidence of adverse events. Whether ERP can be safely applied to patients undergoing complex liver surgery with a risk of liver failure remains unclear. We created an ERP by rearranging our conventional postoperative treatments and applied this program to patients undergoing major hepatectomy between 2008 and 2013. The ERP elements included greater perioperative education, individualized postoperative fluid therapy, and early mobilization. The success of the ERP was evaluated on postoperative day (POD) 6 based on the criterion of independence from continuous medical intervention with the exception of an abdominal drainage tube. Adherence to each item in the ERP was evaluated, and risk factors for delayed accomplishment were analyzed. Altogether, 200 patients were included, and 165 patients (82.5 %) completed the ERP. Multivariate analyses showed that (1) an age of 65 years or older and (2) a red blood cell transfusion were independent risk factors for delayed accomplishment. The performance of thoracotomy or choledocojejunostomy did not significantly affect accomplishment of the ERP. Oral intake starting on POD 1 was achieved in 179 patients (89.5 %), and termination of intravenous drip infusions on POD 5 was feasible in 72.5 %. An ERP for major hepatectomy was completed in more than 80 % of the patients. Earlier bowel movement can be challenged. The liquid in-out balance should be adjusted on an individual basis, rather than uniformly, especially for patients over 65 years of age or who required a red blood cell transfusion.
    World Journal of Surgery 05/2014; 38(10). DOI:10.1007/s00268-014-2613-0 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Presence of hepatic vein tumor thrombosis (HVTT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is regarded as signaling an extremely poor prognosis. However, little is known about the prognostic impact of surgical treatment for HVTT. Our database of surgical resection for HCC between October 1994 and December 2011 in a tertiary care Japanese hospital was retrospectively analyzed. We statistically compared the patient characteristics and surgical outcomes in HCC patients with tumor thrombosis in a peripheral hepatic vein, including microscopic invasion (pHVTT), tumor thrombosis in a major hepatic vein (mHVTT), and tumor thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVCTT). Among 1525 hepatic resections, 153 cases of pHVTT, 21 cases of mHVTT, and 13 cases of IVCTT were identified. The median survival times (MSTs) in the pHVTT and mHVTT groups were 5.27 and 3.95 years, respectively (P=0.77), and the median time to recurrence (TTR) was 1.06 and 0.41 years, respectively (P=0.74). On the other hand, the MST and TTR in the patient group with IVCTT were 1.39 years and 0.25 year respectively; furthermore, the MST of Child-Pugh class B patients was significantly worse (2.39 vs. 0.44 years, P=0.0001). Multivariate analyses revealed IVCTT (risk ratio [RR] 2.54, P=0.024) and R 1/2 resection (RR 2.08, P=0.017) as risk factors for the overall survival CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic resection provided acceptable outcomes in HCC patients with mHVTT or pHVTT when R0 resection was feasible. Resection of HCC may be attempted even in patients with IVCTT, in the presence of good liver function.
    Journal of Hepatology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.04.032 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective prophylactic therapies have not been established for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. Peretinoin represents one novel option for patients with hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC), and it was tested in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients with curative therapy were assigned to one of the following regimens: peretinoin 600, 300 mg/day, or placebo for up to 96 weeks. The primary outcome was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Of the 401 patients initially enrolled, 377 patients were analyzed for efficacy. The RFS rates in the 600-mg group, the 300-mg group, and the placebo group were 71.9, 63.6, and 66.0 % at 1 year, and 43.7, 24.9, and 29.3 % at 3 years, respectively. The primary comparison of peretinoin (300 and 600-mg) with placebo was not significant (P = 0.434). The dose-response relationship based on the hypothesis that "efficacy begins to increase at 600 mg/day" was significant (P = 0.023, multiplicity-adjusted P = 0.048). The hazard ratios for RFS in the 600-mg group vs. the placebo group were 0.73 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.51-1.03] for the entire study period and 0.27 (95 % CI 0.07-0.96) after 2 years of the randomization. Common adverse events included ascites, increased blood pressure, headache, presence of urine albumin, and increased transaminases. Although the superiority of peretinoin to placebo could not be validated, 600 mg/day was shown to be the optimal dose, and treatment may possibly reduce the recurrence of HCV-HCC, particularly after 2 years. The efficacy and safety of peretinoin 600 mg/day should continue to be evaluated in further studies.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2014; 50(2). DOI:10.1007/s00535-014-0956-9 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. As a minimally invasive modality, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been increasingly applied not only for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, but also for that of colorectal liver metastasis (CLM). However, RFA for CLM has been shown to be associated with a high local recurrence rate, and no optimal treatment for RFA failure has been established yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of surgical resection for local recurrence after RFA. Material and methods. A retrospective study of 17 patients, who underwent surgery for local recurrence after RFA for resectable CLM, was carried out. The surgical procedures involved in the actual surgery were compared with those envisioned for the primary resection if RFA had not been selected. Results. Surgical resection for RFA recurrence was more invasive than the envisioned surgical procedure in 10 cases (58%). In addition, the proportions of cases that required technically demanding procedures among the patients receiving surgery for RFA recurrence were higher than those in envisioned operations; major hepatectomy, eight cases [47%] versus two cases [12%] (p < 0.0205); excision and/or reconstruction of the major hepatic veins, three cases [18%] versus zero case [0%] (p = 0.035); excision of diaphragm: three cases [18%] versus zero case [0%] (p = 0.035). The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 92%, 45% and 45%, respectively. Conclusions. Surgical resection for RFA recurrence for CLM required more invasive and technically demanding procedures. Thus, RFA for CLM should be limited to unresectable cases, and patients with resectable CLM should be thoroughly advised not to undergo RFA, but rather surgical resection.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2014; 49(5). DOI:10.3109/00365521.2014.893013 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrence-free survival (RFS) may not be a surrogate for overall survival (OS) in patients with resectable colorectal liver metastases (CLM). We investigated whether a new composite tool-time to surgical failure (TSF)-is a suitable endpoint. The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for CLM at our center over a 17-year period were reviewed. Patients with liver-limited tumors (n = 371) who had not received previous treatment for metastasis were eligible for analysis. TSF was defined as the time until unresectable relapse or death. The correlations between TSF and OS, and between RFS and OS, were assessed for all the eligible patients. The median OS, TSF, and RFS were 5.7, 2.7, and 0.7 years, respectively, and the 5-year OS, TSF, and RFS rates were 52.6, 39.8, and 23.7 %, respectively, for all patients. The rates of first, second, and third relapse were 75.5, 77.6, and 70.8 %, respectively, and repeat resections were performed in 54.3 % (first relapses), 40.7 % (second relapses), and 47.1 % (third relapses) of patients. The concordance proportions of TSF and RFS for OS events were 0.83 and 0.65, respectively. The correlation between TSF and OS was stronger than that between RFS and OS in terms of the predicted probabilities. The correlation between TSF and OS was stronger than that between RFS and OS after curative hepatic resection. TSF could be a suitable endpoint for CLM overall management.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 02/2014; 21(6). DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-3504-1 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the prognostic factors and outcomes after several types of treatments in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibody, so-called “non-B non-C HCC” using the data of a nationwide survey. Background: The proportion of non-B non-C HCC is rapidly increasing in Japan. Methods: A total of 4741 patients with non-B non-C HCC, who underwent hepatic resection (HR, n = 2872), radiofrequency ablation (RFA, n = 432), and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE, n = 1437) as the initial treatment, were enrolled in this study. The exclusion criteria included extrahepatic metastases and/or Child-Pugh C. Significant prognostic variables determined by a univariate analysis were subjected to a multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: The degree of liver damage in the HR group was significantly lower than that in the RFA and TACE groups. The HR and TACE groups had significantly more advanced HCC than the RFA group. The 5-year survival rates after HR, RFA, and TACE were 66%, 49%, and 32%, respectively. Stratifying the survival rates, according to the TNM stage and the Japan Integrated Staging (JIS) score, showed the HR group to have a significantly better prognosis than the RFA group in the stage II and in the JIS scores “1” and “2.” The multivariate analysis showed 12 independent prognostic factors. HR offers significant prognostic advantages over TACE and RFA. Conclusions: The findings of this large prospective cohort study indicated that HR may be recommended, especially in patients with TNM stage II and JIS scores “1” and “2” of non-B non-C HCC.
    Annals of Surgery 02/2014; 259(2):336-345. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0b013e31829291e9 · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy for resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) is controversial because no trial demonstrated its benefit. We conducted the phase III trial to evaluate UFT/leucovorin (LV) for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). The primary endpoint has not been available until 2014, we first report the feasibility and safety data of UFT/LV arm. In this multicenter trial, patients who underwent curative resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to receive surgery alone or surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT/LV. The primary endpoint was relapse-free survival. Secondary endpoints included overall survival and safety. A total of 180 patients were enrolled, 90 were randomly assigned to receive UFT/LV therapy. Eighty two of whom were included in safety analyses. In the UFT/LV group, the completion rate of UFT/LV was 54.9%, the relative dose intensity was 70.8% and grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 12.2% of the patients. Elevated bilirubin levels, decreased hemoglobin levels, elevated alanine aminotransferase levels, diarrhea, anorexia were common. Most other adverse events were grade 2 or lower and tolerable. In conclusions, UFT/LV is a safe regimen for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who have undergone resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Further studies are warranted to improve completion rate, but UFT/LV is found to be a promising treatment in this setting.
    01/2014; 8(1):48-56. DOI:10.5582/ddt.8.48
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    ABSTRACT: Liver resection is the mainstay of curative treatment for localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the impact of surgery for HCC on quality of life (QOL) has not been well assessed. Health-related QOL was assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire in 108 patients who underwent a liver resection for HCC between January 2004 and January 2008. The QOL assessment was scheduled before and every 3 months after the operation. Patients were divided into two groups based on patient-, tumor-, and surgery-related variables. The physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) were compared between the two groups. Altogether, 69 patients (64 %) completed the consecutive QOL assessments until 6 months after surgery. At 3 months, the PCS scores were significantly lower for women and for patients who had undergone thoracotomy than among men (p = 0.010) and patients who had not undergone thoracotomy (p = 0.048), respectively. No significant differences in any of the PCS scores were observed at 6 months. No significant differences in the MCS scores were observed between the groups throughout the investigation, and improvement relative to the preoperative status was observed at 6 months. Physical impairments in the QOL after surgery had returned to the baseline at 6 months, and the postoperative mental QOL improved relative to the preoperative state. The surgical candidates were expected to have a satisfactory QOL regardless of the preoperative status and surgical outcomes. A thoracoabdominal approach had a transient negative impact on the physical health status.
    World Journal of Surgery 12/2013; 38(4). DOI:10.1007/s00268-013-2342-9 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Masatoshi Makuuchi, Sumihito Tamura, Yasuhiko Sugawara
    12/2013; 2(6):307-8. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2304-3881.2013.10.05
  • Annals of surgery 11/2013; DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000383 · 7.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

20k Citations
2,580.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Japanese Red Cross
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Health Informatics
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2009–2012
    • Japan Red Cross Fukuoka Hospital
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1980–2012
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery
      • • Division of Surgery
      • • Department of Pediatric Surgery
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2011
    • Red Cross
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2010
    • Kinki University
      • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2008
    • Yamagata University
      • Department of Gastroenterological, General, Breast and Thyroid Surgeryery
      Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan
  • 2007–2008
    • Tokyo Medical University
      • • Department of Surgery V
      • • Division of Radiology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002–2007
    • Nihon University
      • Department of Digestive Surgery
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Niigata University
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
    • Matsunami General Hospital
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1991–2007
    • Shinshu University
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      Shonai, Nagano, Japan
  • 2006
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Surgery
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Shandong Academy of Sciences
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
    • Showa General Hospital
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Yokohama City University
      • Department of Gastroenterology
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2001–2006
    • Yale University
      • Department of Cell Biology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1998–2005
    • University of Milan
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1989–2005
    • National Cancer Center
      • • Center for Cancer Control and Information Services
      • • Department of Diagnostic Radiology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2004
    • Kyushu University
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2003
    • Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
    • Juntendo University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2001–2002
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000
    • St. Marianna University School of Medicine
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Kawasaki Si, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1991–2000
    • Nagano University
      長野, Nagano, Japan
  • 1999
    • The Jikei University School of Medicine
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1984–1990
    • National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan