Caroline H Shiboski

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

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Publications (44)125.54 Total impact

  • Caroline H Shiboski, Stephen C Shiboski
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking as a risk factor for oral candidiasis in HIV-infected adults. Chattopadhyay A, Patton LL. J Oral Pathol Med 2013;42(4):302-08. Caroline H. Shiboski, DDS, MPH, PhD, Stephen C. Shiboski, PhD PURPOSE/QUESTION: Is smoking an independent risk factor for OC among adults with HIV/AIDS, and does smoking modify the relationship between OC and other important risk factors like CD4 cell count? This investigation was supported by USPHS Grant 5T32DE07191, P30-HD27360, and R29DE11369 from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Cohort study Level 2: Limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence Not applicable.
    The journal of evidence-based dental practice 12/2013; 13(4):180-2.
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated epithelial lesions is substantially higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than in HIV-uninfected individuals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the increased risk of HPV infection in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. We found that HIV proteins tat and gp120 were expressed within the oral and anal mucosal epithelial microenvironment of HIV-infected individuals. Expression of HIV proteins in the mucosal epithelium was correlated with the disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ). Treatment of polarized oral, cervical and anal epithelial cells, and oral tissue explants with tat and gp120 led to disruption of epithelial TJ and increased HPV pseudovirion (PsV) paracellular penetration in to the epithelium. PsV entry was observed in the basal/parabasal cells, the cells in which the HPV life cycle is initiated. Our data suggest that HIV-associated TJ disruption of mucosal epithelia may potentiate HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-associated neoplasia.
    Virology 11/2013; 446(1-2):378-88. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers have reported rampant caries among methamphetamine users. The authors investigated the prevalence of dental disease and associated risk behaviors in methamphetamine users compared with those in heroin users. This pilot project was a cross-sectional study of an ongoing cohort of young adult injection-drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco. Participants completed an oral health questionnaire administered by a research assistant, and dentists performed clinical examinations to record the participants' data in terms of scores on the decayed-missing-filled surfaces (DMFS) index, presence of residual roots, scores on an oral hygiene index and whether any salivary hypofunction was observed. The prevalence of dental disease among 58 young adult IDUs was strikingly high compared with that in the U.S. general population; however, the authors found no difference in the level of dental disease between users of methamphetamine and users of heroin. The mean DMFS score and number of decayed surfaces exceeded 28 in both groups. Although the authors detected no difference in dental disease between methamphetamine and heroin users, they found a high prevalence of caries and caries-associated behaviors in the sample of young adult IDUs. Given the high level of dental disease observed in this population of young adult IDUs, one next step may be to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of providing low-intensity preventive measures (such as distribution of chlorhexidine rinses or xylitol gum or application of fluoride varnishes) through outreach workers.
    Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 09/2012; 143(9):992-1001. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose new classification criteria for Sjögren's syndrome (SS), which are needed considering the emergence of biologic agents as potential treatments and their associated comorbidity. These criteria target individuals with signs/symptoms suggestive of SS. Criteria are based on expert opinion elicited using the nominal group technique and analyses of data from the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance. Preliminary criteria validation included comparisons with classifications based on the American–European Consensus Group (AECG) criteria, a model-based “gold standard”obtained from latent class analysis (LCA) of data from a range of diagnostic tests, and a comparison with cases and controls collected from sources external to the population used for criteria development. Validation results indicate high levels of sensitivity and specificity for the criteria. Case definition requires at least 2 of the following 3: 1) positive serum anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB or (positive rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody titer >1:320), 2) ocular staining score >3, or 3) presence of focal lymphocytic sialadenitis with a focus score >1 focus/4 mm2 in labial salivary gland biopsy samples. Observed agreement with the AECG criteria is high when these are applied using all objective tests. However, AECG classification based on allowable substitutions of symptoms for objective tests results in poor agreement with the proposed and LCA-derived classifications. These classification criteria developed from registry data collected using standardized measures are based on objective tests. Validation indicates improved classification performance relative to existing alternatives, making them more suitable for application in situations where misclassification may present health risks.
    Arthritis care & research. 04/2012; 64(4):475-87.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the prevalence of extraglandular manifestations in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) among participants enrolled in the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) Registry. A total of 1,927 participants in the SICCA registry were studied, including 886 participants who met the 2002 American-European Consensus Group (AECG) criteria for primary SS, 830 "intermediate" cases who had some objective findings of primary SS but did not meet AECG criteria, and 211 control individuals. We studied the prevalence of immunologic and hematologic laboratory abnormalities, specific rheumatologic examination findings, and physician-confirmed thyroid, liver, and kidney disease, as well as lymphoma among SICCA participants. Laboratory abnormalities, including hematologic abnormalities, hypergammaglobulinemia, and hypocomplementemia, frequently occurred among primary SS cases and were more common among the intermediate cases than among control participants. Cutaneous vasculitis and lymphadenopathy were also more common among primary SS cases. In contrast, the frequency of physician-confirmed diagnoses of thyroid, liver, and kidney disease and lymphoma was low and only primary biliary cirrhosis was associated with primary SS case status. Rheumatologic and neurologic symptoms were common among all SICCA participants, regardless of case status. Data from the international SICCA registry support the systemic nature of primary SS, manifested primarily in terms of specific immunologic and hematologic abnormalities. The occurrence of other systemic disorders among this cohort is relatively uncommon. Previously reported associations may be more specific to select patient subgroups, such as those referred for evaluation of certain neurologic, rheumatologic, or other systemic manifestations.
    Arthritis care & research. 01/2012; 64(6):911-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Four oral mucosal infections were identified as Global Oral Health Priorities: (a) HIV and associated viral, bacterial, and fungal infections; (b) tuberculosis; (c) NOMA; and (d) sexually transmitted diseases. Huge global inequalities exist in all four. HIV-associated infections constitute the major challenge. Oral manifestations of AIDS can be specifically diagnostic, indicating a significant role for dentists within health teams. The World Workshops in Oral Health & Disease in AIDS have identified a research program, elements of which are being implemented. Data on oral mucosal involvement in tuberculosis, syphilis, and gonorrhea are incomplete in developed countries and virtually non-existent in low- and middle-income countries, indicating the need for further epidemiological studies. Oral manifestations of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases are largely associated with general health, so action programs should be integrated with agencies treating the systemic diseases. NOMA is very much in the oral health domain. It is a preventable disease associated with malnutrition and unidentified bacterial factors. Prevalence is probably grossly overestimated at present; but nevertheless it constitutes a challenge to the profession, especially in the NOMA belt. Current treatment is surgical, but plans for its eradication should be achievable. The global oral health community, especially the IADR, has a major role to play.
    Advances in dental research 05/2011; 23(2):227-36.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine associations between labial salivary gland (LSG) histopathology and other phenotypic features of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The database of the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA), a registry of patients with symptoms of possible SS as well as those with obvious disease, was used for the present study. LSG biopsy specimens from SICCA participants were subjected to protocol-directed histopathologic assessments. Among the 1,726 LSG specimens exhibiting any pattern of sialadenitis, we compared biopsy diagnoses against concurrent salivary, ocular, and serologic features. LSG specimens included 61% with focal lymphocytic sialadenitis (FLS; 69% of which had focus scores of ≥1 per 4 mm²) and 37% with nonspecific or sclerosing chronic sialadenitis (NS/SCS). Focus scores of ≥1 were strongly associated with serum anti-SSA/SSB positivity, rheumatoid factor, and the ocular component of SS, but not with symptoms of dry mouth or dry eyes. Those with positive anti-SSA/SSB were 9 times (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 7.4-11.9) more likely to have a focus score of ≥1 than were those without anti-SSA/SSB, and those with an unstimulated whole salivary flow rate of <0.1 ml/minute were 2 times (95% CI 1.7-2.8) more likely to have a focus score of ≥1 than were those with a higher flow rate, after controlling for other phenotypic features of SS. Distinguishing FLS from NS/SCS is essential in assessing LSG biopsies, before determining focus score. A diagnosis of FLS with a focus score of ≥1 per 4 mm², as compared to FLS with a focus score of <1 or NS/SCS, is strongly associated with the ocular and serologic components of SS and reflects SS autoimmunity.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 04/2011; 63(7):2021-30. · 7.48 Impact Factor
  • C Shiboski, T Hodgson, S J Challacombe
    Advances in dental research 04/2011; 23(1):7-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance is part of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group, the largest HIV clinical trial organization in the world, and it is funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The alliance's main objective is to investigate the oral complications associated with HIV/AIDS as the epidemic is evolving-in particular, the effects of potent antiretrovirals on the development of oral mucosal lesions and associated fungal and viral pathogens. Furthermore, oral fluids are being explored for their potential monitoring and diagnostic role with respect to HIV disease and coinfections. This article presents an overview of the alliance, its scientific agenda, and an outline of the novel interventional and noninterventional clinical studies ongoing and developing within the AIDS Clinical Trials Group infrastructure in the United States and internationally.
    Advances in dental research 04/2011; 23(1):28-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Few existing studies have examined health and oral health needs and treatment-seeking behavior among the homeless and injection drug users (IDUs). This paper describes the prevalence and correlates of health and oral health care needs and treatment-seeking behaviors in homeless IDUs recruited in San Francisco, California, from 2003 to 2005 (N = 340). We examined sociodemographic characteristics, drug use patterns, HIV status via oral fluid testing, physical health using the Short Form 12 Physical Component Score, self-reported needs for physical and oral health care, and the self-reported frequency of seeking medical and oral health care. The sample had a lower health status as compared to the general population and reported a frequent need for physical and oral health care. In bivariate analysis, being in methadone treatment was associated with care-seeking behavior. In addition, being enrolled in Medi-Cal, California's state Medicaid program, was associated with greater odds of seeking physical and oral health care. Methamphetamine use was not associated with higher odds of needing oral health care as compared to people who reported using other illicit drugs. Homeless IDUs in San Francisco have a large burden of unmet health and oral health needs. Recent cuts in Medi-Cal's adult dental coverage may result in a greater burden of oral health care which will need to be provided by emergency departments and neighborhood dental clinics.
    Journal of Urban Health 10/2010; 87(6):920-30. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe, apply, and test a new ocular grading system for assessing keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) using lissamine green and fluorescein. Prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study. The National Institutes of Health-funded Sjögren's Syndrome International Registry (called Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance [SICCA]) is developing standardized classification criteria for Sjögren syndrome (SS) and is creating a biospecimen bank for future research. Eight SICCA ophthalmologists developed a new quantitative ocular grading system (SICCA ocular staining score [OSS]), and we analyzed OSS distribution among the SICCA cohort and its association with other phenotypic characteristics of SS. The SICCA cohort includes participants ranging from possibly early SS to advanced disease. Procedures include sequenced unanesthetized Schirmer test, tear break-up time, ocular surface staining, and external eye examination at the slit lamp. Using statistical analyses and proportional Venn diagrams, we examined interrelationships between abnormal OSS (>or=3) and other characteristics of SS (labial salivary gland [LSG] biopsy with focal lymphocytic sialadenitis and focus score >1 positive anti-SS A antibodies, anti-SS B antibodies, or both). Among 1208 participants, we found strong associations between abnormal OSS, positive serologic results, and positive LSG focus scores (P < .0001). Analysis of the overlapping relationships of these 3 measures defined a large group of participants who had KCS without other components of SS, representing a clinical entity distinct from the KCS associated with SS. This new method for assessing KCS will become the means for diagnosing the ocular component of SS in future classification criteria. We find 2 forms of KCS whose causes may differ.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 03/2010; 149(3):405-15. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Equatorial Africa has among the highest incidences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the world, thus earning the name "KS Belt." This was the case even before the HIV epidemic. To date, there is no clear evidence that HHV-8 seroprevalence is higher in this region but interpretation of the available literature is tempered by differences in serologic assays used across studies. We examined representatively sampled ambulatory adults in Uganda, which is in the "KS Belt," and in Zimbabwe and South Africa which are outside the Belt, for HHV-8 antibodies. All serologic assays were uniformly performed in the same reference laboratory by the same personnel. In the base-case serologic algorithm, seropositivity was defined by reactivity in an immunofluorescence assay or in 2 enzyme immunoassays. A total of 2,375 participants were examined. In Uganda, HHV-8 seroprevalence was high early in adulthood (35.5% by age 21) without significant change thereafter. In contrast, HHV-8 seroprevalence early in adulthood was lower in Zimbabwe and South Africa (13.7 and 10.8%, respectively) but increased with age. After age adjustment, Ugandans had 3.24-fold greater odds of being HHV-8 infected than South Africans (p < 0.001) and 2.22-fold greater odds than Zimbabweans (p < 0.001). Inferences were unchanged using all other serologic algorithms evaluated. In conclusion, HHV-8 infection is substantially more common in Uganda than in Zimbabwe and South Africa. These findings help to explain the high KS incidence in the "KS Belt" and underscore the importance of a uniform approach to HHV-8 antibody testing.
    International Journal of Cancer 02/2010; 127(10):2395-401. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance (OHARA) is part of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG), the largest HIV clinical trials organization in the world. Its main objective is to investigate oral complications associated with HIV/AIDS as the epidemic is evolving, in particular, the effects of antiretrovirals on oral mucosal lesion development and associated fungal and viral pathogens. The OHARA infrastructure comprises: the Epidemiologic Research Unit (at the University of California San Francisco), the Medical Mycology Unit (at Case Western Reserve University) and the Virology/Specimen Banking Unit (at the University of North Carolina). The team includes dentists, physicians, virologists, mycologists, immunologists, epidemiologists and statisticians. Observational studies and clinical trials are being implemented at ACTG-affiliated sites in the US and resource-poor countries. Many studies have shared end-points, which include oral diseases known to be associated with HIV/AIDS measured by trained and calibrated ACTG study nurses. In preparation for future protocols, we have updated existing diagnostic criteria of the oral manifestations of HIV published in 1992 and 1993. The proposed case definitions are designed to be used in large-scale epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, in both US and resource-poor settings, where diagnoses may be made by non-dental healthcare providers. The objective of this article is to present updated case definitions for HIV-related oral diseases that will be used to measure standardized clinical end-points in OHARA studies, and that can be used by any investigator outside of OHARA/ACTG conducting clinical research that pertains to these end-points.
    Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 08/2009; 38(6):481-8. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    Arthritis & Rheumatology 06/2009; 61(5):711-4. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most HIV-infected patients receiving virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy continue to have abnormal, generalized T cell activation. We explored whether the degree of ongoing cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) replication was associated with higher virus-specific T cell activation and the failure to achieve normal absolute CD4+ T cell counts in the face of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Longitudinally collected PBMC and saliva specimens obtained from HIV-infected patients on effective antiretroviral therapy for at least one year (plasma HIV RNA <75 copies/mL) were examined using a multiplex CMV, EBV and KSHV DNA PCR assay. Eleven cases were chosen who had CD8+ T cell CD38+HLA-DR+ expression >10% and plateau absolute CD4+ T cell counts <500 cells/microL. Five controls from the same study had CD8+ T cell CD38 expression <10% and plateau absolute CD4+ T cell counts >500 cells/microL. Among all subjects combined, 18% of PMBC samples were positive for CMV DNA, and 27%, 73% and 24% of saliva samples were positive for CMV, EBV and KSHV DNA, respectively. No significant differences or trends were observed between cases and controls in proportions of all CMV, EBV or KSHV DNA positive specimens, proportions of subjects in each group that intermittently or continuously shed CMV, EBV or KSHV DNA in saliva, or the median number of genome copies of CMV, EBV and KSHV DNA in saliva. Overall, number of genome copies in saliva were lower for KSHV than for CMV and lower for CMV than for EBV. Although replication of CMV, EBV and KSHV persists in many antiretroviral-suppressed, HIV-infected patients, we observed no evidence in this pilot case-control study that the magnitude of such human herpesvirus replication is associated with abnormally increased CD8+ T cell activation and sub-normal plateau absolute CD4+ T cell counts following virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
    PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(4):e5277. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the type and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among adults with primary HIV infection (PHI) compared with HIV-negative adults at high risk for HIV disease, and in relation to HIV viral load. We conducted standardized oral examinations to identify specific oral mucosal lesions among adults with PHI, both pre-seroconversion and post- seroconversion-recently infected, compared with HIV-negative adults. We compared the group with oral lesions to those without oral lesions with respect to HIV-RNA load and CD4 + T-cell count. Among 115 adults (predominantly men), pseudomembranous candidiasis was the most common oral lesion among those with PHI, and was found in 4% of the 23 participants in pre-seroconversion and in 9% of 69 participants with post-seroconversion recent infection, compared with none found among 23 HIV negatives. Among those with PHI, the median viral load was higher and the median CD4 + T-cell count lower among the 15 participants with an oral lesion of any type than among the 77 participants without oral lesions (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). This finding suggests that individuals with PHI who have oral lesions may be more likely to transmit HIV because of their higher viral load.
    Oral Diseases 10/2008; 14(6):497-9. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a study among pediatric renal (RTRs) and liver transplant recipients (LTRs) to determine: a) the overall burden of oral disease; and b) the frequency with which this population utilizes dental care services in relation to sociodemographic factors and oral disease burden. In this cross-sectional survey, study procedures included the completion of a standardized questionnaire (by parents/guardians), oral mucosal examination, assessment of caries, gingival enlargement, and plaque index. The 142 children (82 RTRs and 60 LTRs) enrolled from April 2002 to November 2005 were predominantly Latino (41 percent) and Caucasian (34 percent). Forty-three percent had at least one carious surface (in either a deciduous or permanent tooth), 19 percent had five or more carious surfaces, and 25 percent had gingival enlargement. We found only one case of oral candidiasis. Even though 72 percent of parents/guardians reported their child had a regular source of dental care, only 49 percent had a dental cleaning and 44 percent had dental radiographs in the past year, reflecting a low prevalence of preventive dental care. Among children with no regular source of dental care, there were statistically significantly higher proportions of Latinos, younger children, and families with an annual household income <$35,000. While the prevalence of oral mucosal disease and gingival enlargement was low, the prevalence of children with caries was high, and there was low use of preventive dental care. Strategies to improve this population's utilization of preventive dental care are needed.
    Journal of Public Health Dentistry 07/2008; 69(1):48-55. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Katja V Greenberg, Gary C Armitage, Caroline H Shiboski
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    ABSTRACT: Tacrolimus is a new-generation immunosuppressant as successful as cyclosporin in suppressing organ transplant rejection. Although cyclosporin is known to cause gingival enlargement (GE), tacrolimus has not been associated with this condition. We sought to explore the prevalence of GE among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) in relation to cyclosporin and tacrolimus while controlling for the effect of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and supragingival plaque. RTRs were recruited from our institution's Kidney Transplant Unit. Participants completed a standardized questionnaire and received a complete oral examination, including a soft tissue examination and a periodontal examination measuring probing depth, recession, bleeding on probing, plaque index (PI), and GE. Among 115 RTRs, 39 (34%) presented with GE, with the highest prevalence among those taking cyclosporin and CCBs (76%) and the lowest among tacrolimus users not on a CCB (15%). Tacrolimus was not found to be associated with GE. Cyclosporin was found to be associated with GE in a univariate analysis stratified by the use of CCBs, but multivariate analysis revealed that the only significant risk factors for GE were the use of CCBs and the widespread presence of abundant supragingival plaque (PI > or =2 on >40% of tooth surfaces). This study confirmed that tacrolimus is not associated with GE. Cyclosporin taken at the currently recommended low dosage and not in combination with a CCB may not be associated with a significant risk for GE in individuals with good oral hygiene. CCBs should be avoided among patients taking cyclosporin and those with poor oral hygiene.
    Journal of Periodontology 04/2008; 79(3):453-60. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate oral disease prevalence among Zimbabwean women by HIV serostatus and CD4 cell count and to assess accuracy of oral disease diagnoses made by nurses as compared with an oral surgeon. Standardized oral mucosa examinations were performed by trained nurse-examiners and by an oral surgeon among women recruited in Harare, Zimbabwe. A total of 461 women (320 HIV-infected, 141 uninfected) were seen by nurses and an oral surgeon within a 2-week period. Oral candidiasis (OC) was the most common lesion diagnosed in nearly one quarter of HIV-infected women, whereas hairy leukoplakia and Kaposi sarcoma were found in <3%. The prevalence of OC diagnosed by nurses or the surgeon was significantly higher among women with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm than in women with a CD4 count from 200 to 499 cells/mm3 or a CD4 count >499 cells/mm3. The sensitivity of nurse examinations compared with examinations by the oral surgeon among HIV-infected women for the diagnosis of OC was 73%, the specificity was 95%, and the kappa-statistic was 0.71. OC was the most common lesion in HIV-infected women and was strongly associated with a low CD4 cell count. Interexaminer agreement was good for the diagnosis of OC among HIV-infected women. This study suggests that OC may play a role, in combination with other clinical indicators as a marker of disease progression in resource-poor settings.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2008; 47(5):579-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Caroline H Shiboski, Brian L Schmidt, Richard C K Jordan
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    ABSTRACT: To explore distribution of stage at diagnosis and relative survival rates among US adults with oral cavity cancer in relation to race, and over time. We obtained 1973-2002 oral cancer incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, and computed proportions for each oral cavity site by stage at diagnosis, tumor size, and 5-year relative survival rates among Whites and Blacks. A total of 46 855 cases of oral cavity cancer were reported to the SEER registry among adults > or =20 years between 1973 and 2002. African-Americans had a significantly higher proportion of cancer, mainly in the tongue, that had spread to a regional node or to a distant site at diagnosis than Whites: 67% versus 49% of tongue cancers reported from 1973 to 1987 (P < 0.001), and 70% versus 53% of those reported from 1988 to 2002 (P < 0.001). They had a significantly higher proportion of tongue cancer that were >4 cm in diameter at time of diagnosis (59% versus 44%; P < 0.001), and black men in particular experienced lower 5-year relative survival rates than white men, in particular, for tongue cancer (25% versus 43% from 1973 to 1987, and 31% versus 53% from 1988 to 2002). There are significant racial disparities with respect to stage at diagnosis and survival among adults with oral cancer reported to the SEER registry from 1973 to 2002. One possible explanation for the lower survival among Blacks may be a difference in access to, and utilization of, healthcare services.
    Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology 07/2007; 35(3):233-40. · 1.80 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
125.54 Total Impact Points


  • 1993–2011
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Orofacial Sciences
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Division of Periodontology
      • • Center for AIDS Prevention Studies
      • • School of Dentistry
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2008
    • Obafemi Awolowo University
      • Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Pathology
      Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria
    • University of Zimbabwe
      • College of Health Sciences
      Harare, Harare Province, Zimbabwe
  • 2006
    • University College London
      • Division of Medicine
      London, ENG, United Kingdom