[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hair is composed mainly of keratin protein and a small amount of lipid. Protein hydrolysates, in particular those with low molecular weight distribution have been known to protect hair against chemical and environmental damage. Many types of protein hydrolysates from plants and animals have been used in hair and personal care such as keratin hydrolysates obtained from nails, horns and wool. Most of these hydrolysates are obtained by chemical hydrolysis and hydrothermal methods, but recently hydrolyzed hair keratin, feather keratin peptides, and feather meal peptides have been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Bacillus spp in submerged fermentation. RESULTS: Keratin peptides were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of keratinases using Bacillus subtilis AMR. The microorganism was grown on a feather medium, pH 8.0 (1% feathers) and supplemented with 0.01% of yeast extract, for 5 days, at 28[degree sign]C with agitation. The supernatant containing the hydrolysates was colleted by centrifugation and ultra filtered in an AMICON system using nano--membranes (Millipore -- YC05). The Proteins and peptides were analyzed using HPTLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Commercial preparations of keratin hydrolysates were used as a comparative standard. After five days the feather had been degraded (90-95%) by the peptidases and keratinases of the microorganism. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed multiple peaks that correspond to peptides in the range of 800 to 1079 Daltons and the commercial hydrolysate was in the range of 900 to 1400 Da. HPTLC showed lower molecular mass peptides and amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate when compared with the commercial hydrolysate . A mild shampoo and a rinse off conditioner were formulated with the enzymatic hydrolysate and applied to hair fibers to evaluate the hydration, with and without heat, using a Corneometer(R) CM 825. The hydration was more efficient with heat, suggesting a more complete incorporation of hydrolysates into the fibers. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed deposits of organic matter in the junction of the cuticles that probably collaborates to the sealing of the cuticles, increasing the brightness and softness. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the enzymatic method to produce keratin peptides for hair care products is an attractive and eco- friendly method with a great potential in the cosmetic industry.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratinases are enzymes of great importance involved in pathogenic processes of some fungi. They also have a widespread ecological role since they are responsible for the degradation and recycling of keratin. On the one hand, studying them furthers our knowledge of pathogenicity mechanisms, which has important implications for human health, and on the other hand, understanding their ecological role in keratin recycling has biotechnological potential. Here, a wild-type keratinolytic Candida parapsilosis strain isolated from a poultry farm was treated with ethyl methanesulfonate in order to generate mutants with increased keratinase activity. Mutants were then cultured on media with keratin extracted from chicken feathers as the sole source of nitrogen and carbon. Approximately 500 mutants were screened and compared with the described keratinolytic wild type. Three strains, H36, I7 and J5, showed enhanced keratinase activity. The wild-type strain produced 80 U/mL of keratinolytic activity, strain H36 produced 110 U/mL, strain I7, 130 U/mL, and strain J5, 140 U/mL. A 70% increase in enzyme activity was recorded for strain J5. Enzymatic activity was evaluated by zymograms with proteic substrates. A peptidase migrating at 100 kDa was detected with keratin, bovine serum albumin and casein. In addition, a peptidase with a molecular mass of 50 kDa was observed with casein in the wild-type strain and in mutants H36 and J5. Gelatinase activity was detected at 60 kDa. A single band of 35 kDa was found in wild-type C. parapsilosis and in mutants with hemoglobin substrate.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 03/2011; 44(3):212-6. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three Bacillus species (B. subtilis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1270, B. subtilis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1273, and B. licheniformis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1274), isolated from the poultry industry, were evaluated for keratinase production using feathers or feather meal as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources in a submerged fermentation. The three Bacillus spp. produced extracellular keratinases and peptidases after 7 days. Feather meal was the best substrate for keratinase and peptidase production in B. subtilis 1273, with 412 U/mL and 463 U/ml. The three strains were able to degrade feather meal (62-75%) and feather (40-95%) producing 3.9-4.4 mg/ml of soluble protein in feather meal medium and 1.9-3.3 mg/ml when feather medium was used. The three strains produced serine peptidases with keratinase and gelatinase activity. B. subtilis 1273 was the strain which exhibited the highest enzymatic activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the cell-associated and extracellular peptidases of Trypanosoma cruzi grown in modified Roitman's complex (MRC) medium were analyzed by measuring peptidase activity in gelatin-containing zymograms. Our results showed that the cell-associated peptidases as well as peptidases extracellularly released by T. cruzi displayed two distinct proteolytic classes: cysteine and metallopeptidase activities. The major cysteine peptidase, cruzipain, synthesized by T. cruzi cells was detected in cellular parasite content, as a 50kDa reactive polypeptide, after probing with anti-cruzipain antibody. In addition, metallo-type peptidases belonging to the matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) family were revealed, after Western blotting, as a 97kDa protein band in cellular extract and an 85kDa polypeptide in both cellular and secreted parasite extracts. The MMP-9-like activity present in cells and spent culture medium was immunoprecipitated by an anti-MMP-9 polyclonal antibody. The surface location of MMP-9-like proteins in T. cruzi was also evidenced by means of flow cytometry analysis. Furthermore, doxycycline that has direct MMP-9 inhibiting properties in vitro, inhibited MMP-9-like activities in gel zymography, immunoprecipitation and flow cytometry analyses. This is the first report of the presence of MMP-9-like molecules in T. cruzi. The presence of a matrix extracellular-degrading enzyme may play a role in the T. cruzi-host cell interaction, making this enzyme a potential target for future drug development against this pathogenic trypanosomatid.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidases are a group of enzymes which have a catalytic function that is to hydrolyze peptide bonds of pro-teins. The enzymes that hydrolyze peptide bonds at the amino-or carboxy-terminus are classified as exopeptidases, and those that cleave peptide bonds inside the polypeptide are endopeptidases. Endopeptidases, such as cysteine-, metalo-, ser-ine-and threonine peptidases as well as some exopeptidases, have been characterized in Trypanosoma cruzi. Understand-ing the pathogenesis of T. cruzi requires the identification of functional properties of those peptidases, as they are implied in virulence, are important for host-parasite interactions and are critical for successful survival in their hosts. Here we examine the main T. cruzi peptidases, focusing on their biological roles, especially concerning the parasite-mammalian host relations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida lipolytica and Candida rugosa were isolated from blood samples from a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (31 years old) and a patient with sickle cell disease (1-year-old), respectively. Isolates were grown for 48 h at 37 degrees C in either Sabouraud or tryptone soy broth (TSB). Peptidases were tested for using substrate sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels with gelatin, casein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or hemoglobin. Enzymography analyses were made on the following substrates: human albumin, IgG and human fibrinogen, which had been incubated with the concentrated supernatants. For C. lipolytica, a approximately 60-kDa gelatin-degrading serine proteolytic activity was found in the TSB supernantant as well as a metallopeptidase activity capable of hydrolysing human albumin, IgG and human fibrinogen. With C. rugosa, albumin, IgG and human fibrinogen substrates were degraded by an aspartyl-like peptidase activity. Supernatants from C. rugosa also showed three serine proteolytic activities towards gelatin (approximately 50 kDa, TSB), casein ( approximately 94 kDa, TSB) and BSA ( approximately 120-kDa, Sabouraud), in addition to a metallopeptidase capable of degrading casein ( approximately 110 kDa, Sabouraud). Little is known about peptidases of C. rugosa and C. lipolytica and this preliminary data may prove useful for future work on host-parasite relationship and antifungal agents.
FEMS Yeast Research 10/2007; 7(6):1004-12. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) of Leishmania (L.) donovani is a vital enzyme which releases purines or pyrimidines of foreign DNA to be used in the synthesis of parasite DNA. As a bivalent DNA vaccine, the VR1012-NH36 was immunoprotective against visceral and cutaneous murine leishmaniasis. In this work we tested the immunotherapy against Leishmania (L.) chagasi infection, using two doses of 100 or 20 microg VR1012-NH36 vaccine (i.m. route), and, as a possible immunomodulator, aqueous garlic extract (8 mg/kg/day by the i.p. route), which was effective in immunotherapy of cutaneous murine leishmaniasis. Liver parasitic load was significantly reduced following treatment with 100 microg (91%) and 20 microg (77%) of the DNA vaccine, and by 20 microg DNA vaccine and garlic extract (76%) (p=0.023). Survival was 33% for saline controls, 100% for the 100 microg vaccine, and 83 and 67% for the 20 microg vaccine with and without garlic extract addition, respectively. Garlic treatment alone did not reduce parasite load (p>0.05), but increased survival (100%). The NH36-DNA vaccine was highly effective as a new tool for the therapy and control of visceral leishmaniasis, while the mild protective effect of garlic might be related to an unspecific enhancement of IFN-gamma secretion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmission blocking vaccines are one of the control strategies for vector-transmitted protozoan diseases. Antibodies raised in the vaccinated host prevent the development of the parasite in the insect vector, interrupting the epidemiological cycle. The FML antigen of Leishmania donovani in combination with saponin (FML-vaccine and Leishmune) induced 92-97% of protections against zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. We assayed the ability of FML to inhibit Leishmania donovani and Leishmania chagasi procyclic promastigote-binding to dissected Lutzomyia longipalpis midguts. We found a dose-dependent inhibition, more pronounced on L. donovani (80%) than on L. chagasi promastigotes (p<0.001). On the other hand, the Fab-IgG serum fraction of Leishmune vaccinated dogs (IgG2 predominant), also inhibited parasite binding in a dose-response (p<0.0001) with an equally potent effect against L. donovani or L. chagasi (p = 0.061). The transmission blocking properties of the Leishmune vaccine was also assessed by an in vivo membrane assay, with sand flies fed with 1.5 x 10(7) amastigotes, human blood and, vaccinated or normal control dog sera. Significantly higher values were found in rate of infection (p<0.025) and intensity of infection (number of parasites/insect) (p<0.05) of control sand flies, making a very reduced infection index (20.7%) in the vaccine group. Our results disclosed that the Leishmune vaccine is a TBV, and that the dog antibodies present in sera, even 12 months after vaccination, lead to a significant effective protection of 79.3%.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fucose-mannose ligand (FML) complex of Leishmania donovani is a promising vaccine candidate against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis, and its main component is a 36-kDa nucleoside hydrolase (NH36). In this study, we tested the immune response and protection induced by the purified FML, the recombinant NH36 (rNH36), and NH36 DNA vaccines against the agents of visceral (L. chagasi) and cutaneous (L. mexicana) leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Mice developed weak humoral response to the vaccines alone, except for those immunized with FML. However, all three vaccine groups presented elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1, and IgG2a levels after infection with L. chagasi, whereas no differences were observed between vaccine and control groups after infection with L. mexicana. A strong intradermal reaction to L. donovani and L. mexicana antigens was observed in mice immunized with rNH36 or FML, whereas mice immunized with NH36 DNA only reacted against L. donovani antigens. Experimental infection of immunized mice demonstrated that FML and rNH36 induced significant protection against L. chagasi infection with reductions in parasite loads of 79%. FML also conferred partial protection against L. mexicana infection. The best protection was observed in mice immunized with the VR1012-NH36 DNA vaccine, which induced an 88% reduction in L. chagasi parasite load and a 65% reduction in L. mexicana lesion size. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis indicated the DNA vaccine induced a two- to fivefold increase in gamma interferon-producing CD4(+) T cells, indicating a Th1-type immune response. Our results showed that the NH36 DNA vaccine induced a strong immunoprotection against visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, suggesting that this DNA vaccine represents a very good candidate for use against several Leishmania species.
Infection and Immunity 03/2005; 73(2):812-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel triterpenoidal saponin, called pulcherrimasaponin (CP05), isolated from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima Benth. shows remarkable similarities to the previously described potent adjuvant, QS21 saponin (Quillaja saponaria Molina). On the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, its structure was established as [3beta,16alpha,28[2E,6S[2E,6S(2E,6S)]]]-olean-12-en-28-oic acid 3-[[O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-16-hydroxy-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-[O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-6-deoxy-alpha-l-mannopyranosyl-(1-->2)-6-O-[6-[[2-O-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-6-(beta-d-xylopyranosyloxy)-2,7-octadienyl]-[(6-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-beta-d-xylopyranosyl]oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester. In vivo toxicity assays disclosed similar and transitory local swelling and loss of hair but no lethality for mice. The haemolytic index was higher for QS21 (5 microg/ml) than for CP05 (13 microg/ml). Mouse vaccination with either CP05 or QS21 in combination with the fucose-mannose ligand (FML) antigen of Leishmania donovani showed anti-FML responses, significantly enhanced over the saponin and saline controls, in IgM, IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3. Antibody levels were similar for both vaccines in most subtypes. However, QS21-FML vaccine showed a 1.5 to 2.1 proportional increase over the CP05-FML vaccine in IgG, IgG2a and IgG3 responses. The delayed type of hypersensitivity against leishmanial antigen was impressively increased for CP05-FML and for QS21-FML-treated animals over controls (p<0.005). Enhancement was similar for both vaccines (p<0.05). The safety analysis and the effect on humoral and cellular immune responses demonstrated that the novel Calliandra pulcherrima Benth. CP05 saponin is a potential candidate for a vaccine adjuvant.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential effect of the fucose mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine on immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis was assayed on five mongrel dogs experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani and on 21 Leishmania chagasi naturally infected dogs when seropositive to FML but completely asymptomatic. The clinical signs of the experimentally infected, symptomatic dogs only disappeared after the complete vaccination. Protection was obtained in 3/5 animals that remained asymptomatic, IDR positive and parasite free, 1 year after infection. Furthermore, the asymptomatic, FML-vaccine treated dogs showed stable anti-FML IgG1 levels, increasing IgG2 levels and 79-95% of positive DTH response, during the whole experiment. Twenty-two months after complete vaccination, no obits due to visceral leishmaniasis were recorded and 90% of these dogs were still asymptomatic, healthy and parasite free. On the other hand, 37% (17/46 dogs) kala-azar obits were recorded in a control group that received no treatment during the same period, and that was FML-seropositive and asymtpomatic at the beginning of the assay. Our results indicate that the FML-vaccine was effective in the immunotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis of asymptomatic infected dogs. Normal proportions of CD4 and CD21 lymphocytes were detected in PBMC by FACS analysis, in dogs submitted to immunotherapy, suggesting their non-infectious condition. All animals showed as well significantly increased percents of CD8 lymphocytes as expected for Quillaja saponin (QuilA) vaccine treatments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of aldehyde groups at C-23 and C-24 of the triterpen aglycon moiety was disclosed in 1H NMR spectra of both the Riedel de Haen saponin (R) (delta 9.336) and Quillaja saponaria QuilA saponin (delta 9.348). The sign of the C-28 acylated linked moiety (delta 176) was present in both saponins, while the delta 171 at C-28 (carboxy group) corresponding to the deacylated saponin, was only detected in the QuilA preparation, indicating 50% of hydrolysis of the ester moiety, probably due to the storage in aqueous solution. The normoterpen moiety was present in both saponins (signals at delta 14-18). The chemical removal of saponin glicidic moieties gave rise to their sapogenin fractions. Their 1H NMR spectra showed the presence of two signals (delta 9.226 and 9.236) for sapogenin R and two signals (delta 9.338 and 9.352) for the QuilA sapogenin. The intensity of the signals suggested two conformational isomers of sapogenin R in the ratio 53% of equatorial aldehyde group to 47% of axial aldehyde group, and two conformational isomers of QuilA sapogenin in the ratio 76% of equatorial aldehyde group to 24% of axial aldehyde group. The chemical treatment abolished the saponin slight in vivo toxicity, reduced their hemolytic potential, did not affect their aldehyde contents, but gave rise to an enriched axial aldehyde-containing sapogenin R with enhanced potential on antibody humoral response (anti-IgM, IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3) and to an enriched equatorial aldehyde-containing QuilA-sapogenin that induced a mainly cellular specific immune response (increased intradermal response to leishmanial antigen and IFNgamma sera levels) and effective protection against murine infection by L. donovani (77% reduction in liver parasitic load). Our results suggest that the Riedel de Haen saponin is probably a Quillaja saponaria saponin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fucose mannose ligand (Leishmania donovani FML)-saponin vaccine has earlier shown its immunoprophylactic potential against visceral leishmaniasis in the CB hamster (87.7% of parasite load reduction), Balb/c (84.4%) and Swiss albino mouse (85-93%) models. In this investigation its specific immunotherapeutic efficacy against L. donovani infection in Balb/c mice was studied. The effects of vaccine treatment on the humoral response, delayed type of hypersensitivity to promastigote lysate (DTH), cytokine levels in sera and reduction of the liver parasitic load of L. donovani infected mice, were examined. The types and subtypes of anti-FML antibodies increased significantly in the vaccinees over the saline and saponin controls. As expected for a saponin vaccine, the highest ratios were found in relation to IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b (4.4, 5 and 2.5, respectively). The DTH response and the in vitro ganglion cell proliferative response against FML antigen were also significantly higher than controls (P<0.005). Concomitantly, an impressive and specific decrease of liver parasitic burden was detected only in vaccine-treated animals (94.7%). Our results indicate that the therapeutic FML-vaccine has a potent effect on modulation of the murine infection leading to the reduction of parasitic load and signs of disease, being a new potential tool in the therapy and control of visceral leishmaniasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canine antibody IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 anti-FML responses were investigated in dogs vaccinated with the fucose-mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine of Leishmania donovani and in dogs with naturally acquired visceral leishmaniosis. While similar levels of total IgG antibodies were seen in the seropositive naturally infected dogs and in vaccinees, significant differences between the groups were found regarding their IgG1/IgG2 anti-FML antibody composition (P<0.005). Higher IgG1 absorbencies were seen in infected dogs, while the IgG2 subtype was predominant in pre-immune sera, and in vaccinated animals, both after the first and the third dose (P<0.005). The average ratio between IgG1/IgG2 was then 1.124 for infected animals and 0.733 for FML-vaccinees. Also, a significant increase in IgG2 antibodies was observed from the first to the third vaccine injection (P<0.005). In the infected dogs, a high correlation between their IgG absorbance (Abs) values and the number of symptoms (P=0.017) was disclosed. Thus, the analysis of IgG subclasses disclosed a dichotomous response to visceral leishmaniosis: IgG1 associated to natural infection and IgG2 associated to a humoral response subsequent to the FML-vaccine treatment. An IgG1/IgG2>or=1 would characterize the sera of visceral leishmaniasis infected animals evoluting towards the overt disease while ratios <or=1 would characterize the sera response of vaccinated protected dogs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The FML antigen of Leishmania donovani, in combination with either Riedel de Haën (R), QuilA, QS21 saponins, IL12 or BCG, was used in vaccination of an outbred murine model against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Significant and specific increases in anti-FML IgG and IgM responses were detected for all adjuvants, and in anti-FML IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b and delayed type of hypersensitivity to L. donovani lysate (DTH), only for all saponins and IL12. The QS21-FML and QuilA-FML groups achieved the highest IgG2a response. QuilA-FML developed the strongest DTH and QS21-FML animals showed the highest serum IFN-gamma concentrations. The reduction of parasitic load in the liver in response to each FML-vaccine formulation was: 52% (P<0.025) for BCG-FML, 73% (P<0.005) for R-FML, 93% (P<0.005) for QuilA-FML and 79.2% (P<0.025) for QS21-FML treated animals, respectively. Protection was specific for R-FML and QS21-FML while the QuilA saponin treatment itself induced 69% of LDU reduction. The FML-saponin vaccines promote significant, specific and strong protective effects against murine visceral leishmaniasis. BCG-FML induced minor and non-specific protection while IL12-FML, although enhancing the specific antibody and IDR response, failed to reduce the parasitic load of infected animals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Naturally exposed dogs of an endemic area were vaccinated with the fucose mannose ligand (FML) antigen of Leishmania donovani in formulation with QuilA saponin. The 100% of vaccinees were seropositive to FML and showed intradermal reaction to L. donovani lysate, 2 months after vaccination. The absorbency values and size of intradermal reaction were both significantly higher in vaccinees than in controls along a 3.5 years period (ANOVA, P<0.0001). The 25% of the control animals (two dogs on the first year and six dogs on the fourth year, respectively) and 5% of the vaccinees (one dog during the fourth year) developed clinical and fatal disease until the end of experiment. This difference was significant (chi(2)=3.93, P<0.05). This means that 95% protection against kala-azar was achieved in vaccinees, after FML-QuilA vaccination (80% of vaccine efficacy (VE)). Leishmania infection was also confirmed, 3.5 years after vaccination, in saline controls that showed positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leishmania DNA and FML-serology with no intradermal reaction. Higher seropositivities and intradermal reactions with no Leishmanial DNA were detected in vaccinees. The FML-QuilA vaccine induced a significant, long lasting and strong protective effect against canine kala-azar in the field.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracardiac transfusion of plasma, mononuclear cell fraction and blood of infected hamster donors induced visceral leishmaniasis in normal hamster receptors. At the moment of transfusion, the donors already showed all the typical signs of the disease: ascites, cachexia, as well as splenomegaly and a high parasite load in the spleen and liver. All transfused hamsters developed typical visceral leishmaniasis between 90 and 120 days, indicating that all blood products were infectious. Transfusion of the mononuclear cell fraction induced the highest values of parasitic load (spleen, 766 Leishman Donovan Units (LDU); liver, 2650 LDU), splenomegaly and hepatomegaly (spleen-liver/body relative weight: 1.130 and 6.870, respectively). Animals that received the plasma fraction also developed visceral leishmaniasis, showing similar parasitic load (spleen, 107 LDU; liver, 220 LDU) and spleen-liver/body relative weight (1.005 and 6.35, respectively) than those transfused with whole blood. The finding of typical Leishmania donovani infection in animals transfused with plasma demonstrates the possibility of the extracellular location of parasites, free in this blood fraction deprived of red and white blood cells. Fluorescence-assisted cell sorter analysis (FACS) of plasma showed the presence of particles corresponding in size to amastigotes, which fluoresced strongly with the serum of a patient with Kala-azar (73%), but not with normal serum.