Ulrike Mayer

University of Tuebingen, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (49)369.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In multicellular organisms, cellular differences in gene activity are a prerequisite for differentiation and establishment of cell types. In order to study transcriptome profiles, specific cell types have to be isolated from a given tissue or even the whole organism. However, whole-transcriptome analysis of early embryos in flowering plants has been hampered by their size and inaccessibility. Here, we describe the purification of nuclear RNA from early stage Arabidopsis thaliana embryos using fluorescence-activated nuclear sorting (FANS) to generate expression profiles of early stages of the whole embryo, the proembryo and the suspensor. We validated our datasets of differentially expressed candidate genes by promoter-reporter gene fusions and in situ hybridization. Our study revealed that different classes of genes with respect to biological processes and molecular functions are preferentially expressed either in the proembryo or in the suspensor. This method can be used especially for tissues with a limited cell population and inaccessible tissue types. Furthermore, we provide a valuable resource for research on Arabidopsis early embryogenesis. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
    Development 11/2014; · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma-membrane proteins such as ligand-binding receptor kinases, ion channels, or nutrient transporters are turned over by targeting to a lytic compartment-lysosome or vacuole-for degradation. After their internalization, these proteins arrive at an early endosome, which then matures into a late endosome with intraluminal vesicles (multivesicular body, MVB) before fusing with the lysosome/vacuole in animals or yeast [1, 2]. The endosomal maturation step involves a SAND family protein mediating Rab5-to-Rab7 GTPase conversion [3]. Vacuolar trafficking is much less well understood in plants [4-6]. Here we analyze the role of the single-copy SAND gene of Arabidopsis. In contrast to its animal or yeast counterpart, Arabidopsis SAND protein is not required for early-to-late endosomal maturation, although its role in mediating Rab5-to-Rab7 conversion is conserved. Instead, Arabidopsis SAND protein is essential for the subsequent fusion of MVBs with the vacuole. The inability of sand mutant to mediate MVB-vacuole fusion is not caused by the continued Rab5 activity but rather reflects the failure to activate Rab7. In conclusion, regarding the endosomal passage of cargo proteins for degradation, a major difference between plants and nonplant organisms might result from the relative timing of endosomal maturation and SAND-dependent Rab GTPase conversion as a prerequisite for the fusion of late endosomes/MVBs with the lysosome/vacuole.
    Current Biology 05/2014; 24(12):p1383–1389. · 9.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane trafficking is essential to fundamental processes in eukaryotic life, including cell growth and division. In plant cytokinesis, post-Golgi trafficking mediates a massive flow of vesicles that form the partitioning membrane but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, we identify functionally redundant Arabidopsis ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs) BIG1-BIG4 as regulators of post-Golgi trafficking, mediating late secretion from the trans-Golgi network but not recycling of endocytosed proteins to the plasma membrane, although the TGN also functions as an early endosome in plants. In contrast, BIG1-4 are absolutely required for trafficking of both endocytosed and newly synthesized proteins to the cell-division plane during cytokinesis, counteracting recycling to the plasma membrane. This change from recycling to secretory trafficking pathway mediated by ARF-GEFs confers specificity of cargo delivery to the division plane and might thus ensure that the partitioning membrane is completed on time in the absence of a cytokinesis-interphase checkpoint. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02131.001.
    eLife Sciences 04/2014; 3:e02131. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are the predominant coat proteins of membrane vesicles in post-Golgi trafficking of mammalian cells. Each AP complex contains a specific medium subunit, μ-adaptin, that selects cargo proteins bearing sequence-specific sorting motifs. Much less is known about the AP complexes and their μ subunits in plants. Because of uncertain homology, the μ-adaptins of Arabidopsis have been designated muA through muD [Happel et al. (2004) Plant J 37(5):678-693]. Furthermore, only muD has been assigned to a specific AP complex, AP-3, involved in Golgi-vacuolar trafficking [Niihama et al. (2009) Plant Cell Physiol 50(12):2057-2068, Zwiewka et al. (2011) Cell Res 21(12):1711-1722, and Wolfenstetter et al. (2012) Plant Cell 24(1):215-232]. In contrast, the μ subunit of neither the post-Golgi trafficking AP-1 complex nor the endocytic AP-2 complex has been identified. Here, we report the functional analysis of redundant AP-1 μ-adaptins AP1M1 (also known as muB1) and AP1M2 (also known as muB2). Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that both AP1M2 and its less strongly expressed isoform AP1M1 are complexed with the large subunit γ-adaptin of AP-1. In addition, AP1M2 was localized at or near the trans-Golgi network. Knockout mutations of AP1M2 impaired pollen function and arrested plant growth whereas the ap1m1 ap1m2 double mutant was nearly pollen-lethal. At the cellular level, the absence of AP1M2 entailed inhibition of multiple trafficking pathways from the trans-Golgi network to the vacuole and to the plasma membrane in interphase and to the plane of cell division in cytokinesis. Thus, AP-1 is crucial in post-Golgi trafficking in plant cells and required for cell division and plant growth.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane fusion is mediated by SNARE complexes. Although membrane fusion is required for separating daughter cells in eukaryotic cytokinesis, SNARE complexes involved are not known. In plants, membrane vesicles targeted to the cell division plane fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane, progressing from the center to the periphery of the cell. In Arabidopsis, the cytokinesis-specific Qa-SNARE KNOLLE interacts with two other Q-SNAREs, SNAP33 and NPSN11, whose role in cytokinesis is not clear. Here we show by coimmunoprecipitation that KNOLLE forms two SNARE complexes that differ in composition. One complex is modeled on the trimeric plasma-membrane type of SNARE complex, comprising promiscuous Qb,c-SNARE SNAP33 and R-SNARE VAMP721,722 also involved in innate immunity. In contrast, the other KNOLLE-containing complex is tetrameric and comprises Qb-SNARE NPSN11, Qc-SNARE SYP71 and also VAMP721,722. Elimination of only one or the other type of KNOLLE complex by mutation including the double mutant npsn11 syp71 causes a mild or no cytokinesis defect. In contrast, the two double mutants snap33 npsn11 and snap33 syp71 eliminate both types of KNOLLE complexes and display knolle-like cytokinesis defects. Thus, the two distinct types of KNOLLE complexes appear to jointly mediate membrane fusion in Arabidopsis cytokinesis.
    Journal of Cell and Molecular Biology 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane fusion is mediated by SNARE complexes. Although membrane fusion is required for separating daughter cells in eukaryotic cytokinesis, SNARE complexes involved are not known. In plants, membrane vesicles targeted to the cell division plane fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane, progressing from the center to the periphery of the cell. In Arabidopsis, the cytokinesis-specific Qa-SNARE KNOLLE interacts with two other Q-SNAREs, SNAP33 and NPSN11, whose role in cytokinesis is not clear. Here we show by coimmunoprecipitation that KNOLLE forms two SNARE complexes that differ in composition. One complex is modeled on the trimeric plasma-membrane type of SNARE complex, comprising promiscuous Qb,c-SNARE SNAP33 and R-SNARE VAMP721,722 also involved in innate immunity. In contrast, the other KNOLLE-containing complex is tetrameric and comprises Qb-SNARE NPSN11, Qc-SNARE SYP71 and also VAMP721,722. Elimination of only one or the other type of KNOLLE complex by mutation including the double mutant npsn11 syp71 causes a mild or no cytokinesis defect. In contrast, the two double mutants snap33 npsn11 and snap33 syp71 eliminate both types of KNOLLE complexes and display knolle-like cytokinesis defects. Thus, the two distinct types of KNOLLE complexes appear to jointly mediate membrane fusion in Arabidopsis cytokinesis.
    Molecular biology of the cell 03/2013; · 5.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracellular membrane fusion requires complexes of syntaxins with other SNARE proteins and regulatory Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins. In membrane fusion mediating, e.g., neurotransmitter release or glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mammals, SM proteins preferentially interact with the inactive closed, rather than the active open, conformation of syntaxin or with the assembled SNARE complex. Other membrane fusion processes such as vacuolar fusion in yeast involve like membranes carrying cis-SNARE complexes, and the role of SM protein is unknown. We investigated syntaxin-SM protein interaction in membrane fusion of Arabidopsis cytokinesis, which involves cytokinesis-specific syntaxin KNOLLE and SM protein KEULE. KEULE interacted with an open conformation of KNOLLE that complemented both knolle and keule mutants. This interaction occurred at the cell division plane and required the KNOLLE linker sequence between helix Hc and SNARE domain. Our results suggest that in cytokinesis, SM protein stabilizes the fusion-competent open form of syntaxin, thereby promoting trans-SNARE complex formation.
    Developmental Cell 05/2012; 22(5):989-1000. · 12.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polarized tip growth is a fundamental cellular process in many eukaryotic organisms, mediating growth of neuronal axons and dendrites or fungal hyphae. In plants, pollen and root hairs are cellular model systems for analysing tip growth. Cell growth depends on membrane traffic. The regulation of this membrane traffic is largely unknown for tip-growing cells, in contrast to cells exhibiting intercalary growth. Here we show that in Arabidopsis, GBF1-related exchange factors for the ARF GTPases (ARF GEFs) GNOM and GNL2 play essential roles in polar tip growth of root hairs and pollen, respectively. When expressed from the same promoter, GNL2 (in contrast to the early-secretory ARF GEF GNL1) is able to replace GNOM in polar recycling of the auxin efflux regulator PIN1 from endosomes to the basal plasma membrane in non-tip growing cells. Thus, polar recycling facilitates polar tip growth, and GNL2 seems to have evolved to meet the specific requirement of fast-growing pollen in higher plants.
    Nature Cell Biology 12/2011; 14(1):80-6. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In plant cytokinesis, Golgi/trans-Golgi network-derived vesicles are targeted to the plane of cell division where they fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane (cell plate). This membrane fusion requires a specialised syntaxin (Qa-SNARE), named KNOLLE in Arabidopsis. KNOLLE is only made during the M-phase of the cell cycle, targeted to the plane of cell division and degraded in the vacuole at the end of cytokinesis. To identify the parts of KNOLLE required for proper targeting and function in membrane fusion, we generated chimeric syntaxins comprising complementary fragments from KNOLLE and MVB-localized PEP12 (SYP21). Surprisingly, targeting of the chimeric protein was not specified by the C-terminal membrane anchor. Rather the N-terminal region including helix Ha and the adjacent linker to helix Hb appeared to played a critical role. However, deletion of this N-terminal fragment from KNOLLE (KN(Δ1-82) ) had the same effect as its presence in the chimeric protein (KN(1-82) -PEP12(64-279) ), suggesting that targeting to the plane of cell division occurs by default, i.e. when no sorting signal would target the syntaxin to a specific endomembrane compartment. Once the full-length syntaxin accumulated at the plane of division, phenotypic rescue of the knolle mutant only required the SNARE domain plus the adjacent linker connecting helix Hc to the SNARE domain from KNOLLE. Our results suggest that targeting of syntaxin to the plane of cell division occurs without active sorting, whereas syntaxin-mediated membrane fusion requires sequence-specific features.
    The Plant Journal 08/2011; 68(5):755-64. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Syntaxins and interacting SNARE proteins enable membrane fusion in diverse trafficking pathways. The Arabidopsis SYP1 family of plasma membrane-localized syntaxins comprises nine members, of which KNOLLE and PEN1 play specific roles in cytokinesis and innate immunity, respectively. To identify mechanisms conferring specificity of action, we examined one member of each subfamily-KNOLLE/SYP111, PEN1/SYP121 and SYP132-in regard to subcellular localization, dynamic behavior and complementation of knolle and pen1 mutants when expressed from the same promoters. Our results suggest that cytokinesis-specific syntaxin requires high-level accumulation during cell-plate formation, which necessitates de novo synthesis rather than endocytosis of pre-made protein from the plasma membrane. In contrast, syntaxin in innate immunity does not need upregulation of expression but instead requires pathogen-induced and endocytosis-dependent retargeting to the infection site. This feature of PEN1 is not afforded by SYP132. Additionally, PEN1 could not substitute for KNOLLE because of SNARE domain differences, as revealed by protein chimeras. In contrast, SYP132 was able to rescue knolle as did KNOLLE-SYP132 chimeras. Unlike KNOLLE and PEN1, which appear to have evolved to perform specialized functions, SYP132 stably localized at the plasma membrane and thus might play a role in constitutive membrane fusion.
    Traffic 06/2011; 12(9):1269-80. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane traffic contributes to plant growth and development. However, the functional significance of SNARE proteins involved in membrane fusion of the early secretory pathway has not been explored with respect to plant development. Here we analyze the Arabidopsis v-SNARE SEC22. Loss of SEC22 function impairs gametophyte development, as indicated by reciprocal crosses between wild-type plants and plants heterozygous for T-DNA insertions in the SEC22 gene. sec22 mutant pollen becomes abnormal during the bicellular stage, eventually giving rise to degenerated pollen grains. Most mutant embryo sacs fail to support embryogenesis and display unfused polar nuclei in their central cell. Immunolocalization by both light and electron microscopy revealed an association of mutant-complementing Myc-tagged SEC22 with the central and peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Ultrastructural analysis of developing sec22 mutant pollen demonstrated Golgi fragmentation and consumption. As a consequence, the plasma membrane-targeted syntaxin SYP124 was retained in the ER. Our results suggest that SEC22 plays an essential role in early secretory traffic between the ER and the Golgi.
    The Plant Journal 01/2011; 66(2):268-79. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: *At the end of the cell cycle, the plant cell wall is deposited within a membrane compartment referred to as the cell plate. Little is known about the biogenesis of this transient membrane compartment. *We have positionally cloned and characterized a novel Arabidopsis gene, CLUB, identified by mutation. *CLUB/AtTRS130 encodes a putative TRAPPII tethering factor. club mutants are seedling-lethal and have a canonical cytokinesis-defective phenotype, characterized by the appearance of bi- or multinucleate cells with cell wall stubs, gaps and floating walls. Confocal microscopy showed that in club mutants, KNOLLE-positive vesicles formed and accumulated at the cell equator throughout cytokinesis, but failed to assemble into a cell plate. Similarly, electron micrographs showed large vesicles loosely connected as patchy, incomplete cell plates in club root tips. Neither the formation of KNOLLE-positive vesicles nor the delivery of these vesicles to the cell equator appeared to be perturbed in club mutants. Thus, the primary defect in club mutants appears to be an impairment in cell plate assembly. *As a putative tethering factor required for cell plate biogenesis, CLUB/AtTRS130 helps to define the identity of this membrane compartment and comprises an important handle on the regulation of cell plate assembly.
    New Phytologist 08/2010; 187(3):751-63. · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Each plant starts life from the zygote formed by the fusion of an egg and a sperm cell. The zygote gives rise to a multicellular embryo that displays a basic plant body organization and is surrounded by nutritive endosperm and maternal tissue. How the body organization is generated had already been studied before the genome sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana was completed 10 years ago, but several regulatory mechanisms of embryo development have since been discovered or analysed in more detail. Although this progress did not strictly depend on the availability of the genome sequence itself, several advances were considerably facilitated. In this review, we mainly address early embryo development, highlighting general mechanisms and crucial regulators, including phytohormones, that are involved in patterning the embryo and were mainly analysed in the post-genome decade. We also highlight some unsolved problems, provide a brief outlook on the future of Arabidopsis embryo research, and discuss how the knowledge gained from Arabidopsis could be translated to crop species.
    The Plant Journal 03/2010; 61(6):959-70. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: How the apical-basal axis of polarity is established in embryogenesis is still a mystery in plant development. This axis appeared specifically compromised by mutations in the Arabidopsis GNOM gene. Surprisingly, GNOM encodes an ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) that regulates the formation of vesicles in membrane trafficking. In-depth functional analysis of GNOM and its closest relative, GNOM-LIKE 1 (GNL1), has provided a mechanistic explanation for the development-specific role of a seemingly mundane trafficking regulator. The current model proposes that GNOM is specifically involved in the endosomal recycling of the auxin-efflux carrier PIN1 to the basal plasma membrane in provascular cells, which in turn is required for the accumulation of the plant hormone auxin at the future root pole through polar auxin transport. Thus, the analysis of GNOM highlights the importance of cell-biological processes for a mechanistic understanding of development.
    European journal of cell biology 02/2010; 89(2-3):138-44. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The basic body plan of the adult plant is established during embryogenesis, resulting in the juvenile form of the seedling. Arabidopsis embryogenesis is distinguished by a highly regular pattern of cell divisions. Some of these divisions are asymmetric, generating daughter cells with different fates. However, their subsequent differentiation might still depend on cell-cell communication to be fully accomplished or maintained. In some cases, cell fate specification solely depends on cell-cell communication that in general plays an important role in the generation of positional information within the embryo. Although auxin-dependent signalling has received much attention, other ways of cell-cell communication have also been demonstrated or suggested. This review focuses on aspects of pattern formation and cell-cell communication during Arabidopsis embryogenesis up to the mid-globular stage of development.
    European journal of cell biology 01/2010; 89(2-3):225-30. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plastid-targeted proteins pass through the cytosol as unfolded precursors. If proteins accumulate in the cytosol, they can form nonspecific aggregates that cause severe cellular damage. Here, we demonstrate that high levels of plastid precursors are degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in Arabidopsis thaliana cells. The cytosolic heat shock protein cognate 70-4 (Hsc70-4) and E3 ligase carboxy terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) were highly induced in plastid protein import2 plants, which had a T-DNA insertion at Toc159 and showed an albino phenotype and a severe defect in protein import into chloroplasts. Hsc70-4 and CHIP together mediated plastid precursor degradation when import-defective chloroplast-targeted reporter proteins were transiently expressed in protoplasts. Hsc70-4 recognized specific sequence motifs in transit peptides and thereby led to precursor degradation through the UPS. CHIP, which interacted with Hsc70-4, functioned as an E3 ligase in the Hsc70-4-mediated protein degradation. The physiological role of Hsc70-4 was confirmed by analyzing Hsc70-4 RNA interference plants in an hsc70-1 mutant background. Plants with lower Hsc70 levels exhibited abnormal embryogenesis, resulting in defective seedlings that displayed high levels of reactive oxygen species and monoubiquitinated Lhcb4 precursors. We propose that Hsc70-4 and CHIP mediate plastid-destined precursor degradation to prevent cytosolic precursor accumulation and thereby play a critical role in embryogenesis.
    The Plant Cell 12/2009; 21(12):3984-4001. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plant membrane compartments and trafficking pathways are highly complex, and are often distinct from those of animals and fungi. Progress has been made in defining trafficking in plants using transient expression systems. However, many processes require a precise understanding of plant membrane trafficking in a developmental context, and in diverse, specialized cell types. These include defense responses to pathogens, regulation of transporter accumulation in plant nutrition or polar auxin transport in development. In all of these cases a central role is played by the endosomal membrane system, which, however, is the most divergent and ill-defined aspect of plant cell compartmentation. We have designed a new vector series, and have generated a large number of stably transformed plants expressing membrane protein fusions to spectrally distinct, fluorescent tags. We selected lines with distinct subcellular localization patterns, and stable, non-toxic expression. We demonstrate the power of this multicolor 'Wave' marker set for rapid, combinatorial analysis of plant cell membrane compartments, both in live-imaging and immunoelectron microscopy. Among other findings, our systematic co-localization analysis revealed that a class of plant Rab1-homologs has a much more extended localization than was previously assumed, and also localizes to trans-Golgi/endosomal compartments. Constructs that can be transformed into any genetic background or species, as well as seeds from transgenic Arabidopsis plants, will be freely available, and will promote rapid progress in diverse areas of plant cell biology.
    The Plant Journal 03/2009; 59(1):169-78. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary plant cell wall is laid down over a brief period of time during cytokinesis. Initially, a membrane network forms at the equator of a dividing cell. The cross-wall is then assembled and remodeled within this membrane compartment. Callose is the predominant luminal component of the nascent cross-wall or cell plate, but is not a component of intact mature cell walls, which are composed primarily of cellulose, pectins and xyloglucans. Widely accepted models postulate that callose comprises a transient, rapid spreading force for the expansion of membrane networks during cytokinesis. In this study, we clone and characterize an Arabidopsis gene, MASSUE/AtGSL8, which encodes a putative callose synthase. massue mutants are seedling-lethal and have a striking cytokinesis-defective phenotype. Callose deposition was delayed in the cell plates of massue mutants. Mutant cells were occasionally bi- or multi-nucleate, with cell-wall stubs, and we frequently observed gaps at the junction between cross-walls and parental cell walls. The results suggest that the timely deposition of callose is essential for the completion of plant cytokinesis. Surprisingly, confocal analysis revealed that the cell-plate membrane compartment forms and expands, seemingly as far as the parental wall, prior to the appearance of callose. We discuss the possibility that callose may be required to establish a lasting connection between the nascent cross-wall and the parental cell wall.
    The Plant Journal 01/2009; 58(1):13-26. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During plant cytokinesis membrane vesicles are efficiently delivered to the cell-division plane, where they fuse with one another to form a laterally expanding cell plate. These membrane vesicles were generally believed to originate from Golgi stacks. Recently, however, it was proposed that endocytosis contributes substantially to cell-plate formation. To determine the relative contributions of secretory and endocytic traffic to cytokinesis, we specifically inhibited either or both trafficking pathways in Arabidopsis. Blocking traffic to the division plane after the two pathways had converged at the trans-Golgi network disrupted cytokinesis and resulted in binucleate cells, whereas impairment of endocytosis alone did not interfere with cytokinesis. By contrast, inhibiting ER-Golgi traffic by eliminating the relevant BFA-resistant ARF-GEF caused retention of newly synthesized proteins, such as the cytokinesis-specific syntaxin KNOLLE in the ER, and prevented the formation of the partitioning membrane. Our results suggest that during plant cytokinesis, unlike animal cytokinesis, protein secretion is absolutely essential, whereas endocytosis is not.
    Current Biology 01/2008; 17(23):2047-53. · 9.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana is marked by a predictable sequence of oriented cell divisions, which precede cell fate determination. We show that mutation of the TORMOZ (TOZ) gene yields embryos with aberrant cell division planes and arrested embryos that appear not to have established normal patterning. The defects in toz mutants differ from previously described mutations that affect embryonic cell division patterns. Longitudinal division planes of the proembryo are frequently replaced by transverse divisions and less frequently by oblique divisions, while divisions of the suspensor cells, which divide only transversely, appear generally unaffected. Expression patterns of selected embryo patterning genes are altered in the mutant embryos, implying that the positional cues required for their proper expression are perturbed by the misoriented divisions. The TOZ gene encodes a nucleolar protein containing WD repeats. Putative TOZ orthologs exist in other eukaryotes including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the protein is predicted to function in 18S rRNA biogenesis. We find that disruption of the Sp TOZ gene results in cell division defects in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Previous studies in yeast and animal cells have identified nucleolar proteins that regulate the exit from M phase and cytokinesis, including factors involved in pre-rRNA processing. Our study suggests that in plant cells, nucleolar functions might interact with the processes of regulated cell divisions and influence the selection of longitudinal division planes during embryogenesis.
    The Plant Cell 08/2007; 19(7):2246-63. · 9.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
369.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2014
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Center for Plant Molecular Biology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2001
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Division of Genetics
      München, Bavaria, Germany