Qi Fang

Shandong University, Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China

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Publications (146)280.12 Total impact

  • Cen Qian · Qi Fang · Lei Wang · Gong-Yin Ye
    Toxins 08/2015; 7(8):2888-2905. DOI:10.3390/toxins7082888 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The small cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, is an important pest of cruciferous corps, and Pteromalus puparum is a predominant pupal endoparasitoid wasp of this butterfly. For successful development of parasitoid offspring, female parasitoids usually introduce one or several kinds of maternal factors into the hemocoels during oviposition to suppress host immunity. To investigate the early changes in host immune-related genes following parasitization, we analyzed transcriptomes of parasitized and unparasitized, control, host pupae. Approximately 17.7 and 19.3 million paired-end reads were generated from nonparasitized and parasitized host pupae, and assembled de novo into 45,639 transcripts and 27,659 nonredundant unigenes. The average unigene length was 790 bp. A total 18,377 of 27,659 unigenes were annotated and we identified 557 differentially expressed unigenes in host pupae at 1 h after parasitization, of which 21 were immune-related. Parasitization led to downregulation of most pattern recognition receptors and upregulation of all serine protease inhibitors. The transcirptomic profile of P. rapae is considerably affected by parasitization. This study provides valuable sources for future investigations of the molecular interaction between P. puparum and its host P. rapae. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/arch.21250 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotransmitter signaling systems play crucial roles in multiple physiological and behavioral processes in insects. Genome wide analyses of de novo transcriptome sequencing and gene specific expression profiling provide rich resources for studying neurotransmitter signaling pathways. The rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis is a destructive rice pest in China and other Asian countries. The characterization of genes involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis and transport could identify potential targets for disruption of the neurochemical communication and for crop protection. Here we report de novo sequencing of the C. suppressalis central nervous system transcriptome, identification and expression profiles of genes putatively involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis, packaging, and recycling/degradation. A total of 54,411 unigenes were obtained from the transcriptome analysis. Among these unigenes, we have identified 32 unigenes (31 are full length genes), which encode 21 enzymes and 11 transporters putatively associated with biogenic aminergic signaling, acetylcholinergic signaling, glutamatergic signaling and GABAergic signaling. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR results indicated that 12 enzymes were highly expressed in the central nervous system and all the transporters were expressed at significantly high levels in the central nervous system. In addition, the transcript abundances of enzymes and transporters in the central nervous system were validated by qRT-PCR. The high expression levels of these genes suggest their important roles in the central nervous system. Our study identified genes potentially involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis and transport in C. suppressalis and these genes could serve as targets to interfere with neurotransmitter production. This study presents an opportunity for the development of specific and environmentally safe insecticides for pest control.
    BMC Genomics 07/2015; 16:525. DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1742-7 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three regioisomeric sulfone-bridged phenyl-pyrene derivatives have been synthesized by post-oxidizing the corresponding sulfide-bridged phenyl-pyrene isomers. The photophysical properties and two crystal structures of these sulfones were investigated and compared with those of their parent compounds. These sulfones all display remarkable solid-state photoluminescence efficiencies as well as good fluorescence quantum yield in solutions.
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A Chemistry 06/2015; 311. DOI:10.1016/j.jphotochem.2015.06.003 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the title indolinone derivative, C 10 H 10 INO, all the non-H atoms, except the terminal methyl C atom, are almost coplanar. The molecules are arranged into columns extending along the a -axis direction and interact with the molecules in adjacent columns via C—H...O hydrogen bonds [H...O distance = 2.57 (3) Å] and I...I short contacts of 3.8986 (3) Å. A one-dimensional zigzag iodine chain along the a axis is apparent between two neighbouring columns.
    06/2015; 71(6):712-715. DOI:10.1107/S2056989015009937
  • Ying Chen · Qiang Lv · Zhiqiang Liu · Qi Fang
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    ABSTRACT: Two pyrene derivatives were prepared by the condensation between diaminomaleonitrile and 1-pyrene-aldehyde or 2-pyrene-aldehyde. Both of them exhibit high selectivity for Cu2 + and ClO− in combination with significant fluorescence enhancement in certain buffer solutions, respectively.
    Inorganic Chemistry Communications 02/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.inoche.2014.12.011 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three 1-phenylindolin-2-one derivatives, namely 1-phenylindolin-2-one, C14H11NO, (I), 5-bromo-1-phenylindolin-2-one, C14H10BrNO, (II), and 5-iodo-1-phenylindolin-2-one, C14H10INO, (III), have been synthesized and their structures determined. Compounds (I) and (II) crystallized in the centrosymmetric space groups Pbca and P21/c, respectively, while compound (III) crystallized in the polar space group Aea2. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the molecular dipole moment gradually decreases in the order (I) > (II) > (III). The relatively smaller dipole moment of (III) and the larger non-electrostatic intermolecular interactions may be the main reasons for the noncentrosymmetric and polar structure of (III).
    01/2015; 71(1). DOI:10.1107/S2053229614026874
  • Gang Xu · Qi Fang · Jia Huang · Gongyin Ye
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    ABSTRACT: Introducion: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) superfamily, which mediate fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the insect central nervous system and play roles in many cognitive processes. The insect nAChRs are the molecular targets of a class of insecticides, neonicotinoids. Like mammalian nAChRs, insect nAChRs are considered to be made up of two subunits, encoded by multiple α- and β subunit genes. The nAChR subunit genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Tribolium castaneum and Nasonia vitripennis have been cloned previously based on their genome sequences. The rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis is an important agricultural pest of Lepidoptera, which cause a serious loss to rice production in China. Identification and characterization of C. suppressalis nAChR genes could provide valuable information for this important family of receptor genes and for the study of the molecular modes of neonicotinoid action and resistance for current and future chemical control strategies. Results: We searched our transcriptome database of C. suppressalis with the silkworm nAChRs by Blastp and cloned all putative nAChR genes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Like silkworm B. mori of Lepidoptera, C. suppressalis also have nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits, which possesses two genes showing low identity with others, including β2 and β3. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR reveals the expression profiles of nAChR genes in various tissues and at different developmental stages in C. suppressalis. Conclusions: C. suppressalis possesses twelve nAChR genes as same as the silkworm B. mori , including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. The different expression profiles of nAChR genes provides a foundational knowledge to explore and understand the molecular basis of nAChRs in this striped stem borer and for the study of molecular targets of agricultural pest. Key Words: nAChRs, expression profiles, molecular targets, Chilo suppressalis
    Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting 2014; 11/2014
  • Yu Zhu · Qi Fang · Gongyin Ye
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    ABSTRACT: Chitin binding protein has been studied in many oganisms, like invertebrates, plants and bacterial. Many studies shows it can binding to chitins, carbohydrates and pathogenic bacterias. In this study, we cloned a chitin binding protein-like venom protein(CBPL) from Pteromalus puparum, a pupal parasitoid of pieris rapae. The full length of the cDNA is 448bp and encoded 97aa. The predicted results showed that theoretical isoelectric points of PpCBPL were 4.4, and the related molecular weights were 10.5KD. Its cDNA encoding a typical Peritrophin-A domain. Real time quantitative RT-PCR results verified that the mRNA expression levels of PpCBPL were remarkable high in venom gland. We expressed the recombinant PpCBPL in E.coli. The chitin binding assay shows that the recombinant PpCBPL can binding to chitin beads, but can’t binding to cellulose. The recombinant PpCBPL did not possess the antimicrobial ability for E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pichia pastoris.
    Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: By pi-extending and ring-capping the bis-fused TTF moiety (namely TTP), several electrically conductive crystals of 12-S-atom TTP derivatives have been synthesized: (1) bis(vinylenedithio)-TTP which can be isolated as triclinic P-1 (t-BV-TTP) and monoclinic P21 (m-BV-TTP) polymorphs separately, (2) bis(ethylenedithio)-TTP (BE-TTP), (3) ethylenedithio-methylenedithio-TTP (EM-TTP), (4) ethylenedithio-vinylenedithio-TTP (EV-TTP). The structure of t-BV-TTP and EM-TTP crystals can be classified as all-parallel beta-type, in which all molecules in the same 2-D molecular slab or in different slabs are all parallel packed. Differently, m-BV-TTP and BE-TTP crystals can be described as herring-bone beta-type, in which the molecules in neighbouring 2-D slabs are alternately in two directions. Among the above four beta-type structures, EM-TTP crystal shows highest conductivity (sigma= 7×10-3 omega-1cm-1 along [100] direction). The EV-TTP crystal belongs to a kind of three-by-three kappa-type structure and its conductivity was measured to be 3×10-3 omega-1cm-1 along [100] direction. The calculated hole mobilities of the title TTP derivatives, by DFT method and by the host-caged approach, are larger than that of the dithiophene-TTF (DT-TTF) crystal.
    CrystEngComm 11/2014; 17(4). DOI:10.1039/C4CE01928H · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For successful parasitization, parasitiods usually depend on the chemosensory cues for the selection of hosts, as well as a variety of virulence factors introduced into their hosts to overcome host immunity and prevent rejection of progeny development. In bracovirus-carrying wasps, the symbiotic polydnaviruses act in manipulating development and immunity of hosts. The endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis carrying bracovirus as a key host immunosuppressive factor is a superior endoparasitoid of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. So far, genomic information for C. chilonis is not available and transcriptomic data may provide valuable resources for global studying on physiological processes of C. chilonis, including chemosensation and parasitism at molecular level. Here, we performed RNA-seq to characterize the transcriptome of C. chilonis adults. We obtained 27,717,892 reads, assembled into 38,318 unigenes with a mean size of 690 bp. Approximately, 62.1% of the unigenes were annotated using NCBI databases. A large number of chemoreception-related genes encoding proteins including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, odorant-binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, transient receptor potential ion channels, and sensory neuron membrane proteins were identified in silico. Totally, 72 transcripts possessing high identities with the bracovirus-related genes were identified. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of several transcripts at different developmental stages (including egg, larva, pupae, and adult) by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results revealed that some genes had adult-specific expression, indicating their potential significance for mating and parasitism. Overall, these results provide comprehensive insights into transcriptomic data of a polydnavirus-carrying parasitoid of a rice pest.
    Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 10/2014; 88(4). DOI:10.1002/arch.21214 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are crucial for insects to detect food, mates, predators, or other purposes. They are mostly located on antennae and other olfactory sensilla. In this study, we identified an OBP from the venom of Pteromalus puparum, designated as PpOBP. The cDNA of PpOBP is 517 bp in length, encoding 132 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PpOBP was clustered with OBP68 and OBP67 of Nasonia vitripennis. PpOBP was highly expressed in the venom apparatus at the transcriptional and translational levels. PpOBP was located in all parts of venom apparatus including venom gland, venom reservoir, and Dufour's gland. During 0–6 days post adult eclosion, the PpOBP mRNA level peaked at 2 days in the venom apparatus, whereas the protein remained at a high level. In the venom apparatus, the PpOBP mRNA was significantly upregulated following feeding with honey and parasitization. We propose that PpOBP is involved in parasitoid-host interactions.
    Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 09/2014; 88(2). DOI:10.1002/arch.21206 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Middle East-Minor 1 cryptic species (MEAM1), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a globally invasive pest. It spreads widely due to its high fecundity and mutualistic interactions with the virus they vector. Feeding on virus (tomato yellow leaf curl China virus, TYLCCNV)-infected host plants improves their fecundity, however, the key factor regulating the signaling transduction in reproduction of whitefly remains to be identified. Here, we cloned a full length cDNA encoding an insulin-like peptide in MEAM1 (BtILP1) and investigated its expression profile, functions, and the expression induced by feeding on virus-infected tobacco plants. The full length cDNA of BtILP1 was 590 bps and encoded an open reading frame containing 149 amino acid residues. Multiple sequences alignment results showed BtILP1 contained the structural features typical of the insulin family. Expression dynamics associated with development showed the expression level of BtILP1 peaked at 5 days posteclosion (PE). During 1 to 3 days PE, BtILP1 was expressed highly in the head and abdomen of female adults and highly in the head during 5 to 7 days PE. Knockdown of the BtILP1 expression also impaired vitellogenin gene expression at both transcript and protein levels. Downregulating BtILP1 expression decreased fecundity of female adults and hatching rate of eggs. Feeding on virus-infected tobacco increased BtILP1 expression in MEAM1 female adults. We infer feeding on begomovirus-infected tobacco enhances the reproduction of MEAM1 by inducing BtILP1 expression. Our results give a new sight into the mutualistic interactions between virus and its insect vector.
    Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 02/2014; DOI:10.1002/arch.21151 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three regioisomeric sulfur-bridged pyrene-thienoacenes (PTAs) have been synthesized. The crystal structures and optoelectronic properties of these ring-fused PTAs and their ring-opened precursors have been fully investigated. Among these isomers, the [3,4]-extended compound (4-S-PTA) shows the most pronounced spectral red-shift and highest quantum yield as well as large transistor mobility.
    Organic Letters 01/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1021/ol402971n · 6.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C10H8INO2, which differ in the degree of planarity. The iodo-indoline-2,3-dione skeleton of mol-ecule 1 is essentially planar [mean deviation = 0.003 (2) Å for the nine non-H atoms of the indoline core, with a maximum deviation of 0.033 (1) Å for the I atom]. The I atom and O atom in the 3-position of mol-ecule 2 deviate by 0.195 (1) and 0.120 (2) Å, respectively, from the least-squares plane through the nine non-H atoms of the indoline core. Mol-ecules 1 and 2 are roughly coplanar, the mean planes through their cores making a dihedral angle of 6.84 (1)°. This coplanarity results in a layer-like structure parallel to (6,11,17) in the crystal, the distance between adjacent least-squares planes through the cores of mol-ecules 1 and 2 being 3.37 (1) Å. In such a layer, mol-ecules 1 and 2 are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [11-1]. The chains are further coupled to construct a kind of double-chain structure via I⋯O inter-actions [3.270 (2) Å].
    Acta Crystallographica Section E Structure Reports Online 01/2014; 70(Pt 1):o67. DOI:10.1107/S1600536813033539 · 0.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During oviposition many parasitoid wasps inject various factors, such as polydnaviruses (PDVs), along with eggs that manipulate the physiology and development of their hosts. These manipulations are thought to benefit the parasites. However, the detailed mechanisms of insect host-parasitoid interactions are not fully understood at the molecular level. Based on recent findings that some parasitoids influence gene expression in their hosts, we posed the hypothesis that parasitization by a braconid wasp, Cotesia chilonis, influences the expression of genes responsible for development, metabolism and immune functions in the fatbody and hemocytes of its host, Chilo suppressalis. We obtained 39,344,452 reads, which were assembled into 146,770 scaffolds, and 76,016 unigenes. Parasitization impacted gene expression in fatbody and hemocytes. Of these, 8096 fatbody or 5743 hemocyte unigenes were down-regulated, and 2572 fatbody or 1452 hemocyte unigenes were up-regulated. Gene ontology data showed that the majority of the differentially expressed genes are involved in enzyme-regulated activity, binding, transcription regulator activity and catalytic activity. qPCR results show that most anti-microbial peptide transcription levels were up-regulated after parasitization. Expression of bracovirus genes was detected in parasitized larvae with 19 unique sequences identified from six PDV gene families including ankyrin, CrV1 protein, cystatin, early-expressed (EP) proteins, lectin, and protein tyrosine phosphatase. The current study supports our hypothesis that parasitization influences the expression of fatbody and hemocyte genes in the host, C. suppressalis. The general view is that manipulation of host metabolism and immunity benefits the development and emergence of the parasitoid offsprings. The accepted beneficial mechanisms include the direct impact of parasitoid-associated virulence factors such as venom and polydnavirus on host tissues (such as cell damage) and, more deeply, the ability of these factors to influence gene expression. We infer that insect parasitoids generally manipulate their environments, the internal milieu of their hosts.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74309. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074309 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parasitoid wasps inject venom into the host to protect their offspring against host immune responses. In our previous study, we identified a calreticulin (CRT) in Pteromalus puparum venom. In this study, we expressed the wild-type and the coiled-coil domain deletion mutant P. puparum calreticulins (PpCRTs) in Escherichia coli and prepared polyclonal antibody in rabbit against PpCRT. Western blot analysis showed that PpCRT protein was not only present in the venom but also in all the tissues tested. Real time PCR results indicated that PpCRT mRNA was highly expressed in the venom gland. The transcript level of PpCRT in the venom gland was peaked at 2 days post-eclosion, while the PpCRT protein in the venom was maintained at a constant level. Both recombinant wild-type and mutant PpCRT proteins could bind to the surface of P. puparum eggs. Recombinant PpCRT inhibited hemocyte spreading and cellular encapsulation of the host Pieris rapae in vitro, and the coiled-coil domain is important for the inhibitory function of PpCRT. Immunocytochemistry results showed that PpCRT entered P. rapae hemocytes, and the coiled-coil domain played a role in this process. After injection of recombinant PpCRT into P. rapae pupae, real time PCR results showed that PpCRT inhibited transcript levels of host encapsulation-related genes, including calreticulin and scavenger receptor genes. In conclusion, our results suggest that P. puparum venom protects its offspring against host cellular immune responses via its functional component PpCRT to inhibit the expression of host cellular response-related genes.
    Insect biochemistry and molecular biology 08/2013; 43(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ibmb.2013.07.010 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insect hosts have evolved potent innate immunity against invasion by parasitoid wasps. Host/parasitoids live in co-evolutionary relationships. Nasonia vitripennis females inject venom into their dipteran hosts just prior to laying eggs on the host's outer integument. The parasitoid larvae are ectoparasitoids because they feed on their hosts within the puparium, but do not enter the host body. We investigated the influence of N. vitripennis venom on the gene expression profile of hemocytes of their hosts, pupae of the housefly, Musca domestica. We prepared venom by isolating venom glands and treated experimental host pupae with venom. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to determine the influence of venom on hemocyte gene expression. At 1 h post treatment, we recorded decreases in transcript levels of 133 EST clones derived from forward a subtractive library of host hemocytes and upregulation in transcript levels of 111 EST clones from the reverse library. These genes are related to immune and stress response, cytoskeleton, cell cycle and apoptosis, metabolism, transport, and transcription/translation regulation. We verified the reliability of our data with reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis of randomly selected genes, and with assays of enzyme activities. These analyses showed that the expression level of all selected genes were downregulated after venom treatment. Outcomes of our experiments support the hypothesis that N. vitripennis venom influences the gene expression in host hemocytes. We conclude that the actions of venom on host gene expression influence host biology in ways that benefit the development and emergence of the next generation of parasitoids.
    Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 08/2013; 83(4). DOI:10.1002/arch.21107 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are located in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are a distinct class of ligand-gated calcium channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. Intracellular calcium level has a definite role in innate and adaptive immune signaling. However, very few information are accessible about calcium transients of invertebrate immunocytes, especially of insect hemocytes, the effector cells of insect immunity. In this study, we show that the RyR-stimulating agent flubendiamide inhibit hemocyte spreading and phagocytosis in the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae. Furthermore, we cloned a cDNA encoding a ryanodine receptor (PrRyR) from the hemocytes of P. rapae. It encodes 5107 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 578.2 kDa. PrRyR shares a common feature with known RyRs: a well-conserved COOH-terminal domain with two consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large hydrophilic NH2-terminal domain. In the larval stage, PrRyR was highly expressed in epidermis tissue and also expressed in hemocytes at a moderate level. In the adult stage, PrRyR was expressed at high levels in thoraces and legs, while low levels in abdomens and antennae. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that its expression did not display any significant change in response to bacterial challenge. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry assay displayed that PrRyR was detected and presented on hemocytes. We also showed that flubendiamide, a RyR-activating insecticide, induced Ca(2+) release and thereby confirmed functional expression of the PrRyR in the hemocytes of P. rapae.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2013; 41. DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2013.04.006 · 3.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
280.12 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2015
    • Shandong University
      • • State Key Laboratory for Crystal Materials
      • • Institute for Crystal Materials
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2014
    • China National Rice Research Institute
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 2007–2014
    • Zhejiang University
      • • Institute of Insect Sciences
      • • State Key Lab of Rice Biology
      • • College of Agriculture and Biotechnology
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Durham University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2003
    • University of Jinan (Jinan, China)
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China