[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the antifatigue effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in 90 subjects (21 men and 69 women) with idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel designed trial. A bespoke 20% ethanol extract of P. ginseng (1 g or 2 g day(-1)) or a placebo was administered to each group for 4 weeks, and then fatigue severity was monitored using a self-rating numeric scale (NRS) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) as a primary endpoint. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (GSH) contents and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) activity were determined. After 4-week, P. ginseng administration decreased the total NRS score, but they were not statistically significant compared with placebo (P>0.05). Mental NRS score was significantly improved by P. ginseng administrations as 20.4±5.0 to 15.1±6.5 [95% CI 2.3∼8.2] for 1 g and 20.7±6.3 to 13.8±6.2 [95% CI -0.1∼4.2] for 2 g compared with placebo 20.9±4.5 to 18.8±2.9 [95% CI 4.1∼9.9, P<0.01]. Only 2 g P. ginseng significantly reduced the VAS score from 7.3±1.3 to 4.4±1.8 [95% CI 0.7∼1.8] compared with the placebo 7.1±1.0 to 5.8±1.3 [95% CI 2.2 ∼3.7, P<0.01]. ROS and MDA levels were lowered by P. ginseng compared to placebo. P. ginseng 1 g increased GSH concentration and GSH-Rd activity. Our results provide the first evidence of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng in patients with ICF, and we submit that these changes in antioxidant properties contribute in part to its mechanism. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) KCT0000048.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61271. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: Panax ginseng has been extensively used as an adaptogen and is among the top 10 selling herbal supplements in the United States over the past decade. However, there have been few reports about the toxicity of P. ginseng in human studies. Given the lack of toxicological studies in human, this study investigated whether P. ginseng administration causes any noticeable toxic effects in healthy volunteers. Methods: This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel group trial in healthy volunteers. The subjects were required to be healthy, free from any significant disease, as assessed at screening by physical examination, medical history, and laboratory (hematological and biochemical) tests. Eligible subjects received P. ginseng extract (1 g/day or 2 g/day) or placebo over a 4-week period. Results: Although mild adverse events, such as dyspepsia, hot flash, insomnia, and constipation, were reported in both P. ginseng and placebo group, no serious untoward reactions were reported following P. ginseng administration. Nonsignificant changes were observed in hematological and biochemical tests. Conclusions: P. ginseng administration for 4 weeks was shown to be safe, tolerable, and free of any untoward toxic effect in healthy male and female volunteers. Future results from ongoing multicenter collaborative efforts to evaluate short- and long-term effects of P. ginseng may contribute to our current understanding of safety and tolerability of this herbal product.
Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 08/2012; · 1.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown aetiology characterized by prostatic enlargement coincident with distinct alterations in tissue histomorphology. Instead of therapeutic agents that can cause severe side effects, plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH. In this study, we investigated whether the Melandrium firmum methanolic extract (MFME) improves BPH, using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Castration was performed via the scrotal route under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia. BPH in castrated rats was generated via daily subcutaneous injections of TP (3 mg kg(-1)) dissolved in corn oil, for 4 weeks. MFME was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1) for 4 weeks, along with the TP injections. The control group received injections of corn oil subcutaneously. At the scheduled termination of the experiment, all rats were killed and their prostates weighed; the relative prostate weight (prostate/body weight ratio) was calculated, and histomorphological changes in the prostate were examined. Additionally, we measured the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and the prostate. Experimentally induced BPH led to marked decreases in the relative prostate weight and the DHT levels in the serum and the prostate. Histologically, BPH was evident in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and MFME treatment suppressed the severity of the lesions. These results indicate that MFME effectively inhibits the development of BPH induced by testosterone in a rat model. Further studies will be needed to identify the compound(s) responsibility for inducing the protective effect against BPH and determine its mechanism of action.
Asian Journal of Andrology 03/2012; 14(2):320-4. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fruit of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. is commonly prescribed in Asian countries as a tonic formula. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extracts of the fruit of C. officinalis (ECO) was investigated in a mouse model of acetaminophen- (APAP-) induced liver injury. Pretreatment of mice with ECO (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg for 7 days) significantly prevented the APAP (200 mg/kg) induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, and LDH). Parallel to these changes, ECO treatment also prevented APAP-induced oxidative stress in the mice liver by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA) and restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and HO-1) and glutathione. Liver injury and collagen accumulation were assessed using histological studies by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Our results indicate that ECO can prevent hepatic injuries associated with APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by preventing or alleviating oxidative stress.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:804924. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fruits of Cudrania tricuspidata are a medicinal herb in Korea, known for its antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effects. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by the influx of lymphocytes into the dermis. Using an animal model of AD, we assessed whether C. tricuspidata suppresses the development of AD-like skin lesions. Cudrania tricuspidata was administered orally to NC/Nga mice with Dermatophagoides-farinae-induced AD-like lesions for 49 days. The effects of C. tricuspidata were assessed by measuring clinical symptoms, swelling of the skin on the back and ears, and plasma concentrations of mTARC (mouse thymus and activation regulated chemokine), histamine and immunoglobulin E (IgE). We found that C. tricuspidata (60 mg/kg/day) inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions, reduced skin dermatitis scores and inhibited the histological changes induced by repeated application of D. farinae. In addition, C. tricuspidata inhibited the increases in plasma concentrations of mTARC, histamine and IgE induced by D. farinae. These findings indicate that C. tricuspidata inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions induced by repeated applications of D. farinae in sensitized NC/Nga by suppressing plasma concentrations of mTARC, histamine and IgE.
Phytotherapy Research 10/2011; 26(4):594-9. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the antioxidant effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer on healthy volunteers. In a double-blind randomized controlled design, 82 participants (21 men and 61 women) who were considered healthy by both objective and subjective health standard were divided into three groups, the control group and the groups received P. ginseng extract (1 or 2g/day) for 4 weeks. Serum level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd), and peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total glutathione content were determined before and after the trial. Administration of P. ginseng led to significant decreases in the levels of serum ROS and MDA. Notably, the total glutathione content and GSH-Rd activity considerably improved in the groups that received 2g of P. ginseng. No significant alterations were observed in TAC, catalase, SOD, and GSH-Px activities. In conclusion, our findings indicate that P. ginseng was shown to have antioxidant property. It enhanced the antioxidant defense mechanism in healthy populations and the results may reinforce the use of P. ginseng as a potential antioxidant supplement.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 06/2011; 49(9):2229-35. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This systematic review aims to evaluate the available evidence from randomized clinical trials of the clinical efficacy and safety of ginseng. Systematic literature searches were performed in 13 databases up to March 2009 without language restriction. All randomized clinical trials evaluating the clinical effects or safety of the use of ginseng monopreparations (Panax ginseng or P. quinquefolium) were considered for inclusion. A total of 411 potentially relevant studies were identified and 57 randomized clinical trials were included. The main indications included glucose metabolism, physical performance, psychomotor function, sexual function, cardiac function, pulmonary disease, and cerebrovascular disease. We found strong evidence of a positive effect of ginseng on glucose metabolism, psychomotor function, and pulmonary disease, whereas evidence suggests that ginseng is not effective at enhancing physical performance. However, ginseng generally has a good safety profile and the incidence of adverse effects seems to be low. In conclusion, our review compiles the evidence on the use of ginseng, finding a strong positive potential for glucose metabolism, psychomotor function, and pulmonary disease, but not for physical performance enhancement.
Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies. 06/2011; 4(2):85-97.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic immune inflammatory disease characterized by variable airflow obstruction. The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of an Angelica dahurica Bentham et Hooker ethanolic extract (AD) on airway inflammation in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation model. Mice that received AD displayed significantly lower airway eosinophilia, cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels, mucus production and immunoglobulin (Ig)E, compared with OVA-induced mice. In our experiments, AD treatment reduced airway inflammation and suppressed oxidative stress in the OVA-induced asthma model, partly via induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. The effects of AD on OVA-induced HO-1 induction were partially reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Our results clearly indicate that AD is a suppressor of airway allergic inflammation, and may thus be effectively used as an anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of asthma.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 12/2010; 49(4):829-37. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mentha haplocalyx Briq., a commonly used herb in traditional Oriental medicine, has a variety of known pharmacological properties. However, neither the protective effects of Mentha haplocalyx ethanol extract (MH) against inflammation of the airway in an asthmatic model nor the mechanisms involved, have previously been reported. In the present study, an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of allergic asthma was used to investigate whether MH was effective against the disease through regulation of airway inflammation. The MH treatment significantly inhibited increases in immunoglobulin (Ig) E and T-helper 2 (Th2)-type cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue. Inflammatory cell infiltration of the airway in mice treated with MH was effectively alleviated when compared with infiltration seen in the OVA-induced group. These data indicated that decreased cytokine levels are the result of the decreased number of invaded leukocytes. Also, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in BALF was diminished by MH treatment. Taken together, these findings indicate that the administration of MH may have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of inflammatory disease.
Phytotherapy Research 11/2010; 25(6):863-9. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma comprises a triad of reversible airway obstruction, bronchial smooth muscle cell hyperreactivity to bronchoconstrictors, and chronic bronchial inflammation. Clinical and experimental findings have established eosinophilia as a sign of allergic disorders. In the present investigation, we evaluated the anti-asthmatic effects of schizandrin and its underlying mechanisms in an in vivo murine asthmatic model. To accomplish this, female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and examined for the following typical asthmatic reactions: increased numbers of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); production of Th1 cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in BALF); production of Th2 cytokines (such as interleukin IL-4 and IL-5) in BALF; presence of total and OVA-specific immunoglobulins (Ig)E in serum; presence of oxidative stress; hyperplasia of goblet cells in the lung; and marked influx of inflammatory cells into the lung. Our results collectively show that schizandrin exerts profound inhibitory effects on accumulation of eosinophils into the airways and reduces the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in BALF. Additionally, schizandrin suppresses the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibits goblet cell hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue. Thus, schizandrin has anti-asthmatic effects, which seem to be partially mediated by reduction of oxidative stress and airway inflammation, in a murine allergic asthma model. These results indicate that schizandrin may be an effective novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma.
International immunopharmacology 11/2010; 10(11):1374-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sanguisorba officinalis L. is known to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the potential effects of S. officinalis against asthma have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of S. officinalis in a murine ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Mice were sensitized and challenged by OVA inhalation to induce airway inflammation and remodeling. S. officinalis ethanolic extract (SOEE) markedly decreased the number of infiltrated inflammatory cells, together with a reduction in the levels of T-helper type 2 cytokines and immunoglobulin E levels. Histopathological studies showed that inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion were inhibited by SOEE. In addition, OVA-induced increases in reactive oxygen species were attenuated by SOEE. All these effects were correlated with heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction by SOEE. These results indicate that SOEE has therapeutic potential against bronchial asthma associated with allergic diseases that is due, at least in part, to HO-1 upregulation.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 08/2010; 26(2):201-8. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally, the stem and root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (Ulmaceae) are Korean herbal medicines used for anti-inflammatory and anticancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica ethanolic extract (UD) in a murine asthma model. Furthermore, we determined whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is required for the protective activity of UD.
Airways of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice exposed to OVA challenge developed eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and increased cytokine levels. UD was applied 1h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered UD orally at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg once daily on days 18-23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Lung tissue sections 4 microm in thickness were stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with PAS (periodic acid shift reagent) staining, in conjunction with ELISA, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses for HO-1 protein expression.
Orally administered UD significantly inhibited the number of OVA-induced inflammatory cells and IgE production, along with reduced T-helper (Th)2 cytokine levels, such as IL-4 and IL-5, in BALF and lung tissue. In addition, UD induced a marked decrease in OVA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus production in lung tissue. These effects were correlated with HO-1 mRNA and protein induction. Our results indicate that UD protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part, via HO-1 upregulation.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2010; 130(1):61-9. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma is characterized by difficulty in breathing because of the constriction of the smooth muscles of the bronchi, as a result of inflammation. In the present study, we focus on the protective effects of allantoin against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced lung inflammation in a murine allergic model, and assess cytokine release, eosinophilia, and mucus hypersecretion. Allantoin treatment led to significant reduction in the levels of Ig(immunoglobulin)E and T-helper-2-type cytokines, such as IL(interleukin)-4 and IL-5, in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Airway inflammatory-cell infiltration was remarkably alleviated in allantoin-treated asthma groups, compared with the control group. Moreover, allantoin-treated asthma groups exhibited a marked decrease in cytokine mRNA expression in lung tissues, compared with the control group. The effectiveness of allantoin was similar to that of montelukast, used as a positive control. These results support the utility of allantoin as a protective agent against asthma.
International immunopharmacology 04/2010; 10(4):474-80. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by biphasic airway obstruction. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of asthmatic conditions. Thus, identification of oxidative stress markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue from ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice could provide new insights into both the pathogenesis of the disease and the possible use of anti-oxidants to alleviate disease severity. In this study, we investigated the effect of an ethanolic extract of Alpinia katsumadai seeds (AK) on a murine model of OVA-induced asthma model. The anti-oxidant and anti-asthmatic effects of AK on OVA-induced murine airway reaction were determined through observation of Th2-type cytokine levels, eosinophil recruitment, and lung histopathology. AK was found to significantly inhibit increases in Th2-type cytokines and mRNA expression such as IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF and lung tissue, and effectively suppressed IgE, IgG2a, eosinophilia, and mucus hypersecretion in the asthmatic mouse model. Also, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in BALF was diminished by AK treatment. These findings indicate that oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of OVA-induced asthma model and that AK may have applications in the treatment of asthma.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 04/2010; 48(6):1746-52. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite ongoing intensive asthma research, the incidence of asthma is increasing worldwide. We investigated in this study the effects of Amomum compactum on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in a mouse model, and studied the possible mechanism for its anti-asthmatic action. Our data show that an A. compactum treatment markedly decreased the number of infiltrating eosinophils and the hypersecretion of mucus when compared with the effects on mice treated with OVA alone. The A. compactum treatment dose-dependently decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and T helper (Th)2 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and a high dose of A. compactum effectively reduced the level of total immunoglobulin (Ig)E in the serum. Taken together, these data indicate that the administration of A. compactum may have potential therapeutic value when used as an adjuvant for the immunomodulatory treatment of allergic asthma.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 01/2010; 74(9):1814-8. · 1.27 Impact Factor