Canio Buonavoglia

Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Apulia, Italy

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Publications (301)685.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in goats induces genital vesicular-ulcerative lesions that strictly resemble the lesions induced by herpesvirus 2 in the human host. The immunosuppressive drug Mizoribine (MIZ) was found to increase the antiviral activity of Acyclovir (ACV) against herpesvirus infections, raising interesting perspectives on new combined therapeutic strategies. In this study the anti-CpHV-1 activity in vitro of ACV alone or in combination with MIZ was characterized. When applied alone at non-toxic concentrations, ACV had a slight effect on CpHV-1 replication while in combination with MIZ a dose-dependent inhibition of the virus yield was observed with an IC50 of ACV of 28.5 µM. These findings suggest that combined therapy of ACV and MIZ is potentially exploitable in the treatment of genital infection by herpesviruses.
    Research in Veterinary Science 01/2015; · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. The unpredictable and variable course of CDV-related disease may hamper correct diagnosis of infection and makes it crucial the collection of samples suitable for laboratory confirmation. In the present study we were able to follow the disease in two dogs infected naturally, collecting different biological matrices during the entire period of infection. By real time RT-PCR, viral RNA was detected and quantified, suggesting that urine and rectal swabs would be useful for ante-mortem diagnosis of distemper in dogs, regardless of the clinical stage and form of the illness. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Virological Methods 12/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parvoviruses represent the most important infectious agents that are responsible for severe to fatal disease in carnivores. This study reports the results of a 10-year molecular survey conducted on carnivores in Bulgaria (n = 344), including 262 dogs and 19 cats with gastroenteritis, and 57 hunted wild carnivores. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), followed by virus characterization by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays, detected 216 parvovirus positive dogs with a predominance of canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a, 79.17%) over CPV-2b (18.52%) and CPV-2c (2.31%). Rottweilers and German shepherds were the most frequent breeds among CPV-positive pedigree dogs (n = 96). Eighteen cats were found to shed parvoviruses in their faeces, with most strains being characterized as FPLV (n = 17), although a single specimen tested positive for CPV-2a. Only two wild carnivores were parvovirus positive, a wolf (Canis lupus) and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), both being infected by CPV-2a strains.
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 11/2014; · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup IV (GIV) (Alphatron-like) cause infections in humans and in carnivorous animals such as dogs and cats. We screened an age-stratified collection of serum samples from 535 humans in Italy, using virus-like particles of genotypes GIV.1, circulating in humans, and GIV.2, identified in animals, in ELISA, in order to investigate the prevalence of GIV NoV-specific IgG antibodies. Antibodies specific for both genotypes were detected, ranging from a prevalence of 6.6% to 44.8% for GIV.1 and from 6.8% to 15.1% for GIV.2 among different age groups. These data are consistent with a higher prevalence of GIV.1 strains in the human population. Analysis of antibodies against GIV.2 suggests zoonotic transmission of animal NoVs, likely attributable to interaction between humans and domestic pets. This finding, and recent documentation of human transmission of NoVs to dogs, indicate the possibility of an evolutionary relationship between human and animal NoVs.
    Emerging infectious diseases 11/2014; 20(11):1828-32. · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dog circovirus (DogCV) was identified in an outbreak of enteritis in pups in Italy. The disease was observed in 6 young dachshunds pups of a litter from a breeding kennel and caused the death of 2 dogs. Upon full-genome analysis, the virus detected in one of the dead pups (strain Bari/411-13) was closely related to DogCVs that have been recently isolated in the USA. The present study, if corroborated by further reports, could represent a useful contribution to the knowledge of the pathogenic potential of DogCV and its association with enteritis in dogs.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105909. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the first weeks of life puppies remain protected against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) infection thanks to maternally derived antibodies (MDA) absorbed with colostrum after birth. The objective of the present study was to present the variability in CPV2-specific passive immune transfer and its consequences in puppies naturally exposed to the parvovirus. Seventy-nine puppies from one breeding kennel were included in the study at birth and fol-lowed until 56 d of age. Once per week the MDA titre for CPV2 specific antibodies was determined in blood. Viral excretion was also evaluated on a rectal swab by CPV2 PCR assay and puppies were weighed to determine growth rate. At 2 d of age, thirty-four out of seventy-nine puppies (43 %) had MDA ≤1:160 (designed group A) and forty-five puppies (57 %) had greater MDA titres (designed group B). The level of absorbed maternal antibodies was shown to be associated with breed size and growth rate during the first 48 h of life. The MDA level declined with age in all cases; however, the proportion of puppies with the antibody level considered as protective against CPV2 infection was significantly higher in group B compared with A from day 2 until 42. Among all puppies surviving until 56 d of age, sixty-seven out of seventy (95·7 %) underwent CPV2 infection. However, puppies from group A excreted CPV2 significantly earlier than puppies from group B. The present study demonstrates the link between passive immune transfer, in terms of level of specific MDA absorbed, and length of the protection period against parvovirus infection in weaning puppies.
    Journal of Nutritional Science. 07/2014; 3(1).
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    ABSTRACT: A calf persistently infected (PI) by Hobi-like pestivirus displayed severe clinical signs and subsequent death. Gross lesions and histopatological changes were suggestive of haemorrhagic and necrotic inflammation involving several tissues. A Hobi-like pestivirus pair was isolated from the dead calf, with the cytopathogenic (cp) and noncytopathogenic (ncp) strains being strictly related to each other and to Italian prototype isolates at the genetic level. Two biotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays dated back the emergence of the cp virus to one month before the death. This reached the highest RNA titres in the lymphoid and nervous tissues, whereas only traces of cp viral RNA were found in the blood. In contrast, the ncp virus was present at high loads in all tissues and biological fluids. The present report provides new insights into the comprehension of the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of this emerging group of pestiviruses.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 06/2014; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to possess antiviral properties against some human viruses. To determine the ability of F. carica latex (F-latex) to interfere with the infection of caprine herpesvirus-1 (CpHV-1) in vitro, F-latex was resuspended in culture media containing 1% ethanol and was tested for potential antiviral effects against CpHV-1. Titration of CpHV-1 in the presence or in the absence of F-latex was performed on monolayers of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. Simultaneous addition of F-latex and CpHV-1 to monolayers of MDBK cells resulted in a significant reduction of CpHV-1 titres 3 days post-infection and this effect was comparable to that induced by acyclovir. The study suggests that the F-latex is able to interfere with the replication of CpHV-1 in vitro on MDBK cells and future studies will determine the mechanisms responsible for the observed antiviral activity.
    Natural Product Research 05/2014; · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine parvovirus (CPV) modified live virus vaccines are able to infect vaccinated dogs replicating in the bloodstream and enteric mucosa. However, the exact duration and extent of CPV vaccine-induced viremia and fecal shedding are not known. With the aim to fill this gap, 26 dogs were administered two commercial vaccines containing a CPV-2 or CPV-2b strain and monitored for 28 days after vaccination. By using real-time PCR, vaccine-induced viremia and shedding were found to be long lasting for both vaccinal strains. Vaccinal CPV-2b shedding was detected for a shorter period than CPV-2 (12 against 19 mean days) but with greater viral loads, whereas viremia occurred for a longer period (22 against 19 mean days) and with higher titers for CPV-2b. Seroconversion appeared as early as 7 and 14 days post-vaccination for CPV-2b and CPV-2 vaccines, respectively. With no vaccine there was any diagnostic interference using in-clinic or hemagglutination test, since positive results were obtained only by fecal real-time PCR testing. The present study adds new insights into the CPV vaccine persistence in the organism and possible interference with diagnostic tests.
    Vaccine 04/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The full-length genome sequence of a porcine picobirnavirus detected in Italy in 2004 was determined. The S segment was 1730 nucleotide (nt) in length, coding for a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Two distinct sub-populations of L segment (LA and LB) were identified in the sample, with the sizes ranging from 2351 to 2666 nt. The ORF1 coding for a protein of unknown function, contained repetitions of the ExxRxNxxxE motif in variable number. The capsid protein coding ORF2 spanned nt 810-2447 in the LB variants and started at nt 734 in the LA variants. However, a termination codon was present only in one of all LA segment variants. Three dimensional modelling of the porcine PBV capsids suggested structural differences in the protruding domain, tentatively involved as antigens in humoral immune response. Altogether, these findings suggest simultaneous presence of two different picobirnavirus strains sharing the same S segment but displaying genetically diverse L segments. In addition, the sample probably contained a mixture of PBVs with aberrant RNA replication products. Altered structure in the L segments could be tolerated and retained in the presence of functionally integer cognate genes and represent a mechanism of virus diversification.
    Journal of General Virology 02/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An outbreak of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) associated to canine pneumovirus (CnPnV) infection is reported. The outbreak occurred in a shelter of the Apulia region and involved 37 out of 350 dogs that displayed cough and/or nasal discharge with no evidence of fever. The full-genomic characterisation showed that the causative agent (strain Bari/100-12) was closely related to CnPnVs that have been recently isolated in the USA, as well as to murine pneumovirus, which is responsible for respiratory disease in mice. The present study represents a useful contribution to the knowledge of the pathogenic potential of CnPnV and its association with CIRD in dogs. Further studies will elucidate the pathogenicity and epidemiology of this novel pneumovirus, thus addressing the eventual need for specific vaccines.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85220. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first reported incidence of Hobi-like viruses in Europe dates to a 2010 outbreak of respiratory disease in cattle in Italy. In this study, a Hobi-like virus was detected in archival samples, collected in 2007 in Italy from a cattle herd displaying respiratory disease, during the validation of a nested PCR protocol for rapid characterization of bovine pestiviruses. Phylogeny conducted with full-length pestivirus genomes and three informative genomic sequences, placed the strain detected in the samples, Italy-129/07, into the Hobi-like virus branch. Italy-129/07, similar to other Hobi-like viruses isolated in Italy, was more closely related to viruses of South American origin, than Hobi-like viruses of Southeast Asian origin. This suggests a possible introduction of this emerging group of pestiviruses into Italy as a consequence of using contaminated biological products such as fetal bovine serum originating in South America. This report of a Hobi-like virus associated with respiratory disease along with the full-genomic characterization of the virus detected provides new data that contributes to the body of knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathobiology and genetic diversity of this emerging group of pestiviruses. Importantly, it dates the circulation of Hobi-like viruses in Italy to 2007, at least three years before previous reports.
    Veterinary Microbiology 09/2013; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The results of a study designed to evaluate the performance of an in-clinic test for the detection of canine parvovirus (CPV) are reported. A total of 150 faecal samples collected from dogs with acute diarrhoea were tested using the in-clinic test, a haemagglutination assay (HA) and a real-time PCR assay for CPV detection, quantification and characterisation. CPV was detected in 66, 73, and 101 faecal samples by in-clinic, HA and PCR testing, respectively. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the in-clinic test were 86.3% and 96.1%, respectively, when the test was compared to HA, and 65.3% and 100%, respectively, when compared to real-time PCR. The sample distribution according to the virus type was CPV-2a, n=44; CPV-2b, n=11; CPV-2c, n=44, CPV-2, n=2, as determined by minor groove binder probe assays and/or sequence analysis. The percentage of positive in-clinic tests was 70.5% for CPV-2a, 72.7% for CPV-2b and 75.0% for CPV-2c (P>0.05). Using real-time PCR as the reference standard for CPV detection, the in-clinic test was more specific than HA and had comparable sensitivity to HA, demonstrating detection rates similar to those previously observed for other rapid in-clinic tests. The in-clinic test was also able to detect all CPV types at equivalent rates.
    The Veterinary Journal 09/2013; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During 2012, a novel pandemic GII.4 norovirus variant Sydney 2012 emerged worldwide. A signature of the variant was a GII.Pe ORF1, in association with GII.4 Apeldoorn 2008-like ORF2-ORF3 genes. We report the detection of recombinant GII.4 Sydney 2012 strains, possessing the ORF1 gene of the former pandemic variant New Orleans 2009.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 08/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A clinical outbreak of bovine piroplasmosis is reported in Italy. The etiological agent was characterized as Babesia occultans, a parasite regarded as apathogenic and never detected before in continental Europe. This report paves the way for further studies to assess the occurrence of this tick-transmitted protozoan in other European regions.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 05/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an etiologic agent of diarrhea in dogs and is known to have spread worldwide. Mild disease or asymptomatic carriage are probably in many cases common outcomes of infection. To date, two different genotypes of CCoV are known, CCoV type I (CCoV-I) and CCoV type II (CCoV-II). CCoV type II is divided in two subtypes, CCoV-IIa (classical strains) and CCoV-IIb, with CCoV-IIb emerging as a result of a putative recombination between CCoV-IIa and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of CCoV in Greece and to genetically analyze the circulating strains. Between December 2007 and December 2009, 206 fecal samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea from kennels, pet shops and veterinary clinics of different country regions. RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR assays were used for CCoV detection and characterization. CCoV was identified in 65.1% of the dogs presenting diarrhea, being more frequently detected in animals younger than 3months old and in animals housed in groups. In 47% of the positive samples more than one CCoV genotype/subtype were detected, with triple CCoV-I/CCoV-IIa/CCoV-IIb infections being identified for the first time. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CCoV-I Greek strains share low genetic relatedness to each other and to the prototype CCoV-I strains in the 5' end of the S gene. Moreover, a divergent CCoV-IIa strain was identified. The circulation of highly variable CCoV-I and CCoV-IIb emerging strains, as well as the detection of the divergent strain, raise concerns on the importance of these new strains as primary pathogens of diarrhoeic syndromes diagnosed in dogs.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 02/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
685.82 Total Impact Points


  • 1993–2014
    • Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
      • Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria
      Bari, Apulia, Italy
  • 2012
    • Ankara University
      • Department of Internal Medicine (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine)
      Ankara, Ankara, Turkey
  • 1983–2012
    • Istituto Superiore di Sanità
      • Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2010
    • Agricultural University of Athens
      • Department of Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2008–2009
    • Hungarian Academy of Sciences
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
    • Università degli Studi di Brescia
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2006
    • Government of the People's Republic of China
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2005
    • Università degli Studi di Teramo
      • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
      Teramo, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 2001
    • Cornell University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 1998
    • Università degli Studi del Sannio
      Benevento, Campania, Italy
    • Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1997
    • University of Naples Federico II
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1992
    • Università degli Studi Europea di Roma
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1991
    • Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive "L.Spallanzani"
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1987
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy