Cheng-Fang Lin

National Taiwan University, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (65)161.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Entrapped mixed microbial cell (EMMC) process offers good capability to remove organics and nitrogen compounds from wastewater in a single aerobic chamber. This research modeled quantitatively the hydraulic characteristics and biochemical process of immobilized activated sludge process (ASP) for the removal of COD and [Inline formula], providing insights to mass and oxygen transfer limitation in EMMC spherical carriers. Based on the conceptual kinetic model and previous experimental results, hydraulic and reaction rate constants were determined for both COD degradation and [Inline formula] nitrification with the EMMC carrier. The dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution profile along the radius of EMMC carriers was also simulated. The depletion of DO in the EMMC carrier was very rapid resulting from COD removal and ammonia nitrification given the mass transport condition of DO. The anoxic/anaerobic zone developed in the EMMC carrier within 1 cm from its external surface in contact with the bulk water phase. Beyond this anoxic/anaerobic boundary, denitrification of nitrate occurred utilizing the residual COD. The efficiency of organics biodegradation and nitrification was not influenced by the thickness or diameter of the EMMC carriers. EMMC carriers of 1 cm in thickness supported removal of organics by biodegradation and nitrogen compounds via nitrification and denitrification processes. The EMMC carrier enabled combined nitrification and denitrification in the aerobic chamber, which signified the enhancement of a traditional ASP to an anoxic/oxic (AO) or anaerobic/anoxic/oxic reactor system via the EMMC carrier in an aeration tank.
    Desalination and water treatment 07/2014; 52. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of present study was to treat municipal wastewater in two-stage anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) (anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) followed by AFMBR) using granular activated carbon (GAC) as carrier medium in both stages. Approximately 95% COD removal efficiency could be obtained when the two-stage AFMBR was operated at total HRT of 5h (2h for AFBR and 3h for AFMBR) and influent COD concentration of 250mg/L. About 67% COD and 99% TSS removal efficiency could be achieved by the system treating the effluent from primary clarifier of municipal wastewater treatment plant, at HRT of 1.28h and OLR of 5.65kg COD/m(3)d. The system could also effectively remove twenty detected pharmaceuticals in raw wastewaters with removal efficiency in the range of 86-100% except for diclofenac (78%). No other membrane fouling control was required except scouring effect of GAC for flux of 16LMH.
    Bioresource Technology 03/2014; · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study employed entrapped biomass technology to augment the conventional activated sludge process with anoxic-oxic (AO)/anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A20) functions for the removal of total nitrogen (TN) from wastewater of a science and industrial park in Taiwan. The entrapped biomass unit was fabricated in the format of carrier plates on which microbial cells were entrapped. Due to mass transport limitations, anoxic and anaerobic conditions were created within the bioplates that enabled denitrification to occur. The treatment basin incorporated an equivalent amount of 1300-2400mg MLSS/L of activated sludge on the bioplates at packing ratios of 10-30% (volume ratio ofbioplates to basin) operating with the addition of sodium carbonate for alkalinity and methanol for the electron donor. The results showed nearly 90% of ammonia nitrogen being converted to nitrate and 63% of TN removal, in comparison with typically 10% of TN removal in traditional activated sludge process of domestic wastewater plants.
    Environmental Technology 01/2014; 35(9-12):1401-8. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study presented a method to upgrade existing aeration tanks to remove total nitrogen (TN). Bioplates carrying entrapped biomass were installed in an aeration basin to create anoxic/anaerobic zones where denitrification can proceed. In a reactor that coupled bioplates containing entrapped biomass (equivalent to as high as 7,500 mg/L of biomass) and an activated sludge suspension (at mixed liquor suspended solids of 1,300-2,400 mg/L), nitrification efficiency exceeded 95% for an influent wastewater containing 21-54 mg/L of NH3-N. In all cases amended with alkalinity and with or without added methanol as an electron source, TN removal was between 60 and 70%. The results demonstrated anoxic/oxic or anaerobic/anoxic/oxic processes could be incorporated in a conventional aeration basin, requiring no substantial modifications of the vessel and operation, and thus providing improved treatment in terms of nitrogen removal in the conventional suspended-growth process.
    Water Science & Technology 01/2014; 69(7):1558-64. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine, ketamine, and morphine, found in the influent and effluent of domestic treatment plants as well as in rivers, were selected as parent compounds in this study. This investigation examined the photocatalytic removal of methamphetamine, ketamine, and morphine, from municipal wastewater effluents using illuminated TiO2 and ZnO. HPLC–MS/MS was used to measure the concentration of these drugs during reactions. UV light of 254 nm alone is capable of destroying the drugs to some extent without the TiO2 or ZnO photocatalyst, while UV light of 365 nm must be coupled with the photocatalysts to be effective. UV light of 254 nm in the presence of 0.04 g/L of TiO2 was most effective, eliminating all three drugs within 5 min; ten times as much of ZnO were required to demonstrate comparable removal. Among the three tested drugs, morphine is most readily removed by the photocatalytic treatment.
    Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis 12/2013; 110(2). · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The abundance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the aquatic environment makes it important to understand the influence of important parameters affecting the partition of PFOA onto sediment. With a focus on the influence by dissolved organic matter (DOM), we investigated the sorption of PFOA to river sediment downstream of a semiconductor and optoelectronic industrial complex that discharged wastewater with a considerable amount of PFOA in it. The dominant components of the sediment were silica oxide (∼14%) and iron oxide (∼2%). The sorption density of PFOA was not significantly affected by solution pH and ionic strength. The combinations of low pH-high ionic strength and high pH-low ionic strength favored partitioning of PFOA to the sediment. The sorption density of PFOA to sediment ranged from 0.41 to 1.43 µg/m2, with the presence of DOM in the aqueous phase reducing the affinity of PFOA toward the sediment. The sorption of PFOA seemed to be facilitated not by electrostatic but by hydrophobic interactions. The PFOA-sediment sorption equilibration required a duration exceeding 12 d. This study revealed DOM as an important solution-specific parameter in sorption studies. The influence of DOM on PFOA sorption provides a useful reference to understand PFOA partition in the aqueous environment. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Separation Science & Technology to view the free supplemental file.
    Separation Science and Technology 01/2013; 48(10). · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information) and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC) global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS). A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V) processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the carbon footprint of a building.
    Sensors 01/2013; 13(5):6811-6831. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reservoirs in Taiwan are inundated with nutrients that result in algal growth, and thus also reservoir eutrophication. Controlling the phosphorus load has always been the most crucial issue for maintaining reservoir water quality. Numerous agricultural activities, especially the production of tea in riparian areas, are conducted in watersheds in Taiwan. Nutrients from such activities, including phosphorus, are typically flushed into rivers during flooding, when over 90 % of the yearly total amount of phosphorous enters reservoirs. Excessive or enhanced soil erosion from rainstorms can dramatically increase the river sediment load and the amount of particulate phosphorus flushed into rivers. When flow rates are high, particulate phosphorus is the dominant form of phosphorus, but sediment and discharge measurements are difficult during flooding, which makes estimating phosphorus flux in rivers difficult. This study determines total amounts of phosphorus transport by measuring flood discharge and phosphorous levels during flooding. Changes in particulate phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, and their adsorption behavior during a 24-h period are analyzed owing to the fact that the time for particulate phosphorus adsorption and desorption approaching equilibrium is about 16 h. Erosion of the reservoir watershed was caused by adsorption and desorption of suspended solids in the river, a process which can be summarily described using the Lagmuir isotherm. A method for estimating the phosphorus flux in the Daiyujay Creek during Typhoon Bilis in 2006 is presented in this study. Both sediment and phosphorus are affected by the drastic discharge during flooding. Water quality data were collected during two flood events, flood in June 9, 2006 and Typhoon Bilis, to show the concentrations of suspended solids and total phosphorus during floods are much higher than normal stages. Therefore, the drastic changes of total phosphorus, particulate phosphorus, and dissolved phosphorus in rivers during flooding should be monitored to evaluate the loading of phosphorus more precisely. The results show that monitoring and controlling phosphorus transport during flooding can help prevent the eutrophication of a reservoir.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 11/2012; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sorption and biodegradation of three sulfonamide antibiotics, namely sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), in an activated sludge system were investigated. Experiments were carried out by contacting 100 μg/L of each sulfonamide compound individually with 2.56 g/L of MLSS at 25±0.5 °C, pH 7.0, and dissolved oxygen of 3.0±0.1 mg/L in a batch reactor over different periods of 2 d and 14 d. All sulfonamides were removed completely over 11-13 d. Sorptive equilibrium was established well within the first few hours, followed by a lag period of 1-3 days before biodegradation was to deplete the antibiotic compounds linearly in the ensuing 10 days. Apparent zeroth-order rate constants were obtained by regression analysis of measured aqueous concentration vs. time profiles to a kinetic model accounting for sorption and biodegradation; they were 8.1, 7.9, and 7.7 μg/L/d for SDM, SMX, and SMM, respectively, at activated sludge concentration of 2.56 g/L. The measured kinetics implied that with typical hydraulic retention time (e.g. 6 h) provided by WWTP the removal of sulfonamide compounds from the wastewater during the activated sludge process would approximate 2 μg/L.
    Water Research 03/2012; 46(4):1301-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Chia-Jung Cheng, P K Andy Hong, Cheng-Fang Lin
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    ABSTRACT: The generation of a large volume of activated sludge (AS) from wastewater treatment has increasingly become a great burden on the environment. Anaerobic digestion is routinely practiced for excess waste sludge; however, the process retention time is long because of kinetic limitation in the hydrolysis step. We tested the feasibility of applying ozone in pressure cycles to enhance the disintegration and solubilization of AS with the goal to prepare them for digestion using reduced ozone dose and contact time. The AS was subjected to repetitive pressure cycles in a closed vessel in which an ozone gas mixture was compressed into the slurry to reach 1040 kPa in the headspace to be followed by rapid venting. For a returned AS with total COD (tCOD) of 8200 mg L(-1), a dose of 0.01 gO(3)g(-1) total suspended solids (TSS) delivered via 20 pressure cycles within 16 min resulted in a 37-fold increase of the sCOD/tCOD ratio (due to increased soluble COD, i.e. sCOD) and a 25% reduction of TSS, in comparison to a dose of 0.08 gO(3)g(-1) TSS via bubbling contact over 15 min that resulted in a 15-fold increase of the sCOD/tCOD ratio and a 12% reduction of TSS. Sludge solubilization was evidenced by increased dissolved contents of total phosphorous (from 10 to 64 mg L(-1)), total nitrogen (from 14 to 120 mg L(-1)), and protein (from <15 to 39 mg L(-1)) in the sludge suspension after treatment, indicating significant solubilization of AS.
    Chemosphere 02/2012; 87(6):637-43. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immobilized bioprocess (IBP) was investigated for the removal of organic carbon and ammonia nitrogen from wastewater. Two wastewaters (a food industry wastewater and a composite industrial wastewater) were investigated, one containing high concentration (820–1300 mg/l) and the other medium concentration (250–450 mg/l) of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Three mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) (3000, 5000, and 9000 mg/l) and two hydraulic retention times (HRT) (12 h and 24 h) were employed representing different surface loading and volume loading factors. IBP provides high sludge retention time (SRT), enabling improved removal of COD and ammonia nitrogen. The results showed 78–93% and 83–96% removals of soluble COD (SCOD) and ammonia (NH4 –N), respectively, from the food industry wastewater, when the surficial removal rate and volumetric removal rate in the IBP were 0.011–0.056 kg COD/m-d and 2.3–12 kg COD/m-d, respectively. For the composite industrial wastewater, removal of SCOD and NH4 –N were 53–80% and 38–69%, respectively, when the surficial removal rate and volumetric removal rate were 0.0048–0.016 kg COD/m-d and 1.0–3.4 kg COD/m-d, respectively. The results further show stable removals of COD and NH4 –N, albeit decreasing with decreasing HRTs and MLSS. IBP facilitates simple operation and good effluent quality without requiring sludge recycling.
    Desalination and Water Treatment - DESALIN WATER TREAT. 01/2012; 37:296-301.
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of ultrasound (US) on membrane filtration and cleaning were studied and compared at various operating parameters of nominal pore sizes of 10 and 100 kDa membrane, trans-membrane pressure (TMP) of 100 and 140 kPa, and US frequencies of 20 kHz and 40 kHz. An average of 15%–20% increase of permeability was observed when US (20 kHz) was applied to assist membrane filtration on 10 kDa membrane and 100 kPa trans-membrane pressure (TMP). However, an insignificant improvement was observed in the case of larger pore size membrane at higher TMP (140 kPa). US also augmented the membrane cleaning process effectively. Lower frequency 20 kHz US exhibited a higher flux recovery (>90%) than the high frequency 40 kHz (59%) using the 10 kDa pore size membrane with US-assisted membrane cleaning. Important factors influencing optimization of US effectiveness lie heavily on its configuration and operation. The experimental results as supported with SEM images demonstrate that US-assisted filtration and cleaning are most effective when membrane pore size, US frequency, and TMP are lower.
    Separation Science and Technology 01/2012; 48(2). · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Valence copper was recovered from wastewater by chemical reduction and use of a high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system. Ammonia (NH3) and sodium dithionate (Na2S2O4) at a molar ratio of [Cu]:[NH3]:[Na2S2O4] = 1:4:3 at pH = 9.5 were used first to chemically reduce copper ion to metallic copper; the resultant metal solids were captured in an upflowing reactor space equipped with a permalloy matrix net under a high gradient magnetic field. The captured solids were predominantly 6-20 microm in diameter, with Cu2O and CuO present among the solids. Four treatment configurations with and without the use of magnetic field and metal alloy as the matrix net were tested and their effects evaluated: (1) no magnetic field or matrix, (2) no magnetic field but with matrix, (3) with magnetic field but no matrix, (4) with both magnetic field and matrix. At flow rates of 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm3/min, capture efficiencies for metallic copper in the absence of magnetic field were 87%, 86%, 63%, and 39%, respectively, and in the presence of magnetic field were 99%, 98%, 95%, and 93%, respectively. The HGMS was critical for a high capture efficiency, whereas a matrix net only marginally enhanced it. Additional tests with a larger reactor confirmed similarly high efficiencies of > 85%. The use of an alloy matrix appeared to be important when high flow rates are most likely to be employed in practical applications.
    Environmental Technology 10/2011; 32(13-14):1427-33. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have raised considerable concern around the world due to their potential toxicity for ecological system and human health. PPCPs are ineffectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment processes and thus occur widely in aqueous environments. This study investigated the occurrence and removal of 28 often-used PPCPs (including selected antibiotics, estrogens, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, beta-blockers, and lipid regulators) in the primary, secondary and tertiary (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis (UF/RO)) treatment processes of the Water Resource Recycling Center (WRRC) and surface waters in Taiwan. We have demonstrated 20 target PPCPs in WRRC influents; sulfamethoxazole (1353 ng/L), caffeine (6823 ng/L) and acetaminophen (2716 ng/L) were found at high concentrations. Secondary and chlorination processes showed inefficient removal for PPCPs (12 PPCPs had 99%. More than 10 compounds were detected in the surveyed surface waters (from reservoirs, river waters and dams). Caffeine had the highest observed concentration (1,813 ng/L) while others were present at 70%). Some of the PPCPs found originated from discharges from conventional wastewater treatment plants. In conclusion, RO demonstrated good overall performance and could be used to process wastewater to better ensure the health of humans and wildlife.
    Desalination and water treatment 08/2011; 32:57-64. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the removal mechanisms of four antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and trimethoprim) and four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen) in immobilized cell process were investigated using batch reactors. This work principally explores the individual or collective roles of biodegradation and bio-sorption as removal routes of the target pharmaceuticals and the results were validated by various experimental and analytical tools. Biodegradation and bio-sorption were found as dominant mechanisms for the drug removal, while volatilization and hydrolysis were negligible for all target pharmaceuticals. The target pharmaceuticals responded to the two observed removal mechanisms in different ways, typically: (1) strong biodegradability and bio-sorption by acetaminophen, (2) strong biodegradability and weak bio-sorption by sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine, ibuprofen and naproxen, (3) low biodegradability and weak bio-sorption by sulfamethazine and ketoprofen, and (4) low biodegradability and medium bio-sorption by trimethoprim. In the sorption/desorption experiment, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadimethoxine were characterized by strong sorption and weak desorption. A phenomenon of moderate sorption and well desorption was observed for sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and naproxen. Both ibuprofen and ketoprofen were weakly sorbed and strongly desorbed.
    Chemosphere 06/2011; 84(9):1216-22. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel Bio-Entrapped Membrane Reactor (BEMR) packed with bio-ball carriers was constructed and investigated for organics removal and membrane fouling by soluble microbial products (SMP). An objective was to evaluate the stability of the filtration process in membrane bioreactors through backwashing and chemical cleaning. The novel BEMR was compared to a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) on performance, with both treating identical wastewater from a food and beverage processing plant. The new reactor has a longer sludge retention time (SRT) and lower mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) content than does the conventional. Three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6, 9, and 12 h were studied. The results show faster rise of the transmembrane pressure (TMP) with decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) in both reactors, where most significant membrane fouling was associated with high SMP (consisting of carbohydrate and protein) contents that were prevalent at the shortest HRT of 6 h. Membrane fouling was improved in the new reactor, which led to a longer membrane service period with the new reactor. Rapid membrane fouling was attributed to increased production of biomass and SMP, as in the conventional reactor. SMP of 10-100 kDa from both MBRs were predominant with more than 70% of the SMP <100 kDa. Protein was the major component of SMP rather than carbohydrate in both reactors. The new reactor sustained operation at constant permeate flux that required seven times less frequent chemical cleaning than did the conventional reactor. The new BEMR offers effective organics removal while reducing membrane fouling.
    Water Research 06/2011; 45(14):4269-78. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the adsorption, desorption, and biodegradation characteristics of sulfonamide antibiotics in the presence of activated sludge with and without being subjected to NaN(3) biocide. Batch experiments were conducted and the relative contributions of adsorption and biodegradation to the observed removal of sulfonamide antibiotics were determined. Three sulfonamide antibiotics including sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), which had been detected in the influent and the activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Taiwan, were selected for this study. Experimental results showed that the antibiotic compounds were removed via sorption and biodegradation by the activated sludge, though biodegradation was inhibited in the first 12 h possibly due to competitive inhibition of xenobiotic oxidation by readily biodegradable substances. The affinity of sulfonamides to sterilized sludge was in the order of SDM > SMM > SMX. The sulfonamides existed predominantly as anions at the study pH of 6.8, which resulted in a low level of adsorption to the activated sludge. The adsorption/desorption isotherms were of a linear form, as well described by the Freundlich isotherm with the n value approximating unity. The linear distribution coefficients (K(d)) were determined from batch equilibrium experiments with values of 28.6 ± 1.9, 55.7 ± 2.2, and 110.0 ± 4.6 mL/g for SMX, SMM, and SDM, respectively. SMX, SMM, and SDM desorb reversibly from the activated sludge leaving behind on the solids 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5.2% of the original sorption dose of 100 μg/L. The sorbed antibiotics can be introduced into the environment if no further treatments were employed to remove them from the biomass.
    Water Research 05/2011; 45(11):3389-97. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to their potential toxicity and odourous nature, the residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerators are recently gaining attention as an important issue of resources recovery apart from their complex mixture of organic counterpart. Studies of the organic fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator residues have been limited. In this study, extended solid-phase extraction of the water-washed bottom ash and liquid-phase extraction of the washing water were carried out with regard to bottom ash samples from three mass-burning incinerators in Taipei County (Taiwan) during four consecutive seasons of year 2008-2009. Supercritical fluid extraction and Soxtec extraction techniques along with GC-MS were successfully used to characterize the residual organics in weathered and washed bottom ashes. Supercritical fluid extraction provided the quantification of aliphatics and aromatic compounds such as hexanoic acid and benzaldehyde, respectively. Soxtec extraction was useful for qualitative analysis of aromatic and aliphatic groups in the ashes and many of which were odourous and toxic compounds. By mixing one unit weight (g) bottom ash with two unit volume (mL) water for 15 min, total organic carbon in the bottom ash was greatly reduced (e.g., from 4.1 to 1.8 wt.%). Among the removed were foul odour-causing compounds such as pyridine and quinoline derivatives, while some aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and low-molecular-weight aliphatics such as hexanoic acid remained. The results here suggest that washing with water can be an effective pre-treatment step for removing odour-causing and environmental concerned organics.
    Chemosphere 01/2011; 82(4):502-6. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recovery of metals from waste effluents is necessary for pollution prevention and sustainable practice. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is seen as a viable method. We investigated the capture of valence copper from aqueous copper ion by HGMS in combination with a chemical reduction process. When a copper solution (3.9 or 15.6 mM) was exposed to excess of dithionite (mole ratio of 1:3) in the presence of ammonia (mole ratio of 4) and amended with MnCl2 (2.5 g/L) and the mixture passed through a flow reactor under a strong magnetic field (10000 Gauss), valence copper was obtained and captured in the reactor with well over 95% yields. The chemical reduction reactions were unaffected by the presence of MnCl2 while the amount of MnCl2 (0, 20 and 32 mM) has significantly varied the copper recovery efficiency, especially in the case of high initial copper ion concentration (15.6 mM). Formation of MnO2 flocs was found to have a detrimental effect on copper removal efficiency. The HGMS method offers a tool of resource recovery for copper from waste effluents.
    Environmental Technology 01/2011; 32(7-8):817-24. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments has been of increasing concern in developed and developing countries. The major sources of pharmaceuticals in aqueous systems are waste streams from hospital effluents and excretion (in both metabolized and un-metabolized forms) from humans and animals. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of four β-blockers (propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol and acebutolol) and four β-agonists (tulobuterol, salbutamol, clenbuterol and ractopamine) from three hospital effluents and four rivers in southern Taiwan. Analysis was performed via solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. All targets were detected at least once in all collected samples. The most frequently detected compounds were propranolol, atenolol, acebutolol, and ractopamine, which were found in >70% of the collected samples. 83% of water samples contained three or more target compounds. Metoprolol was found in relatively higher concentrations (up to 592 ng/L) in one hospital effluent, although most target compounds were detected in ng/L-range. The concentrations of β-blockers and β-agonists observed here were comparable to those reported in previous studies around the world.
    Desalination and water treatment 01/2011; 32:49-56. · 0.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

670 Citations
161.20 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2014
    • National Taiwan University
      • Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2012
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
    • National Taipei University of Technology
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2008
    • Da-Yeh University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Ming Chuan University
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2001
    • Chinese Culture University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1993–1994
    • Kinki University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan