[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virtually all transcription factors partner with coactivators that recruit chromatin remodeling factors and interact with the basal transcription machinery. Coactivators have been implicated in cancer cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, including the p160 steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family comprised of SRC-1 (NCOA1), SRC-2 (TIF2/GRIP1/NCOA2), and SRC-3 (AIB1/ACTR/NCOA3). Given their broad involvement in many cancers, they represent candidate molecular targets for new chemotherapeutics. Here we report on the results of a high throughput screening effort which identified the cardiac glycoside bufalin as a potent small molecule inhibitor for SRC-3 and SRC-1. Bufalin strongly promoted SRC-3 protein degradation and was able to block cancer cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. When incorporated into a nanoparticle delivery system, bufalin was able to reduce tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer. Our work identifies bufalin as apotentially broad-spectrum small molecule inhibitor for cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapidly growing family of transcriptional coregulators includes coactivators that promote transcription and corepressors that harbor the opposing function. In recent years, coregulators have emerged as important regulators of metabolic homeostasis, including the p160 steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family. Members of the SRC family have been ascribed important roles in control of gluconeogenesis, fat absorption and storage in the liver, and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. To provide a deeper and more granular understanding of the metabolic impact of the SRC family members, we performed targeted metabolomic analyses of key metabolic byproducts of glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in mice with global knockouts (KOs) of SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3. We measured amino acids, acyl carnitines, and organic acids in five tissues with key metabolic functions (liver, heart, skeletal muscle, brain, plasma) isolated from SRC-1, -2, or -3 KO mice and their wild-type littermates under fed and fasted conditions, thereby unveiling unique metabolic functions of each SRC. Specifically, SRC-1 ablation revealed the most significant impact on hepatic metabolism, whereas SRC-2 appeared to impact cardiac metabolism. Conversely, ablation of SRC-3 primarily affected brain and skeletal muscle metabolism. Surprisingly, we identified very few metabolites that changed universally across the three SRC KO models. The findings of this Research Resource demonstrate that coactivator function has very limited metabolic redundancy even within the homologous SRC family. Furthermore, this work also demonstrates the use of metabolomics as a means for identifying novel metabolic regulatory functions of transcriptional coregulators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidation of lipid substrates is essential for survival in fasting and other catabolic conditions, sparing glucose for the brain and other glucose-dependent tissues. Here we show Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3) plays a central role in long chain fatty acid metabolism by directly regulating carnitine/acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) gene expression. Genetic deficiency of CACT in humans is accompanied by a constellation of metabolic and toxicity phenotypes including hypoketonemia, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and impaired neurologic, cardiac and skeletal muscle performance, each of which is apparent in mice lacking SRC-3 expression. Consistent with human cases of CACT deficiency, dietary rescue with short chain fatty acids drastically attenuates the clinical hallmarks of the disease in mice devoid of SRC-3. Collectively, our results position SRC-3 as a key regulator of β-oxidation. Moreover, these findings allow us to consider platform coactivators such as the SRCs as potential contributors to syndromes such as CACT deficiency, previously considered as monogenic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gluconeogenesis makes a major contribution to hepatic glucose production, a process critical for survival in mammals. In this study, we identify the p160 family member, SRC-1, as a key coordinator of the hepatic gluconeogenic program in vivo. SRC-1-null mice displayed hypoglycemia secondary to a deficit in hepatic glucose production. Selective re-expression of SRC-1 in the liver restored blood glucose levels to a normal range. SRC-1 was found induced upon fasting to coordinate in a cell-autonomous manner, the gene expression of rate-limiting enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway. At the molecular level, the main role of SRC-1 was to modulate the expression and the activity of C/EBPα through a feed-forward loop in which SRC-1 used C/EBPα to transactivate pyruvate carboxylase, a crucial gene for initiation of the gluconeogenic program. We propose that SRC-1 acts as a critical mediator of glucose homeostasis in the liver by adjusting the transcriptional activity of key genes involved in the hepatic glucose production machinery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spermatogenesis, a fundamental process in male reproductive system, requires a series of tightly controlled epigenetic and
genetic events in germ cells ranging from spermatogonia to spermatozoa. Jmjd1a is a key epigenetic regulator expressed in
the testis. It specifically demethylates mono- and di-methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2) but not tri-methylated
H3K9 (H3K9me3). In this study, we generated a Jmjd1a antibody for immunohistochemistry and found Jmjd1a was specifically produced
in pachytene and secondary spermatocytes. Disruption of the Jmjd1a gene in mice significantly increased H3K9me1 and H3K9me2
levels in pachytene spermatocytes and early elongating spermatids without affecting H3K9me3 levels. Concurrently, the levels
of histone acetylation were decreased in Jmjd1a null germ cells. This suggests Jmjd1a promotes transcriptional activation
by lowering histone methylation and increasing histone acetylation. Interestingly, the altered histone modifications in Jmjd1a-deficient
germ cells caused diminished Crem recruitment to chromatin, decreased expression of Crem coactivator Act and their target
genes Tnp1 (transition protein 1), Tnp2, Prm1 (protamine 1) and Prm2, all of which are essential for chromatin condensation
in spermatids. In agreement with these findings, Jmjd1a deficiency caused extensive germ cell apoptosis and blocked spermatid
elongation, resulting in severe oligozoospermia, small testes and infertility in male mice. These results indicate that the
Jmjd1a-controlled epigenetic histone modifications are crucial for Crem-regulated gene expression and spermatogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2009; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spermatogenesis, a fundamental process in the male reproductive system, requires a series of tightly controlled epigenetic and genetic events in germ cells ranging from spermatogonia to spermatozoa. Jmjd1a is a key epigenetic regulator expressed in the testis. It specifically demethylates mono- and di-methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2) but not tri-methylated H3K9 (H3K9me3). In this study, we generated a Jmjd1a antibody for immunohistochemistry and found Jmjd1a was specifically produced in pachytene and secondary spermatocytes. Disruption of the Jmjd1a gene in mice significantly increased H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 levels in pachytene spermatocytes and early elongating spermatids without affecting H3K9me3 levels. Concurrently, the levels of histone acetylation were decreased in Jmjd1a knock-out germ cells. This suggests Jmjd1a promotes transcriptional activation by lowering histone methylation and increasing histone acetylation. Interestingly, the altered histone modifications in Jmjd1a-deficient germ cells caused diminished cAMP-response element modulator (Crem) recruitment to chromatin and decreased expression of the Crem coactivator Act and their target genes Tnp1 (transition protein 1), Tnp2, Prm1 (protamine 1), and Prm2, all of which are essential for chromatin condensation in spermatids. In agreement with these findings, Jmjd1a deficiency caused extensive germ cell apoptosis and blocked spermatid elongation, resulting in severe oligozoospermia, small testes, and infertility in male mice. These results indicate that the Jmjd1a-controlled epigenetic histone modifications are crucial for Crem-regulated gene expression and spermatogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2009; 285(4):2758-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The androgen and androgen receptor (AR)-regulated gene expression plays important roles in normal prostate and prostate cancer development, and AR transcriptional control of genes is mediated by transcriptional coactivators, including the three members of the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family, SRC-1 (NCOA1), SRC-2 (TIF2/GRIP1/NCOA2) and SRC-3 (AIB1, ACTR/RAC3/NCOA3). SRC-1 and SRC-3 are overexpressed in multiple human endocrine cancers and knockdown of either one of them in prostate cancer cell lines impedes cellular proliferation. Knockout of SRC-3 in mice suppresses the progression of spontaneous prostate carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated SRC-1 contribution to prostate cancer in vivo by deleting the SRC-1 gene in TRAMP mice, which contain the probasin promoter-driven SV40 T/t antigen transgene. In assessing tumor mass of mice at various ages, we found that initiation and progression of prostate cancer induced by SV40 T/t antigens were unaltered in SRC-1(-/-) mice versus WT mice. Primary tumor histology and metastasis to distant lymph nodes were also similar in these mice at all time points assessed. These results demonstrate that the role of SRC-1 in mouse prostate carcinogenesis is nonessential and different from the essential contribution of SRC-3 that is required for prostate cancer progression and metastasis in mice. Interestingly, we observed that during prostate tumorigenesis SRC-1 expression was relatively constant, while SRC-3 expression was significantly elevated. Therefore, the loss of SRC-1 function may be compensated by SRC-3 overexpression during prostate tumorigenesis in SRC-1(-/-) mice.
International journal of biological sciences 02/2009; 5(3):256-64. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), also known as AIB1, ACTR, p/CIP and NCOA3, is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors and certain other transcription factors. SRC-3 is widely expressed and plays important physiological functions and pathogenic roles in breast and prostate cancers. SRC-3 knockout (SRC-3(-/-)) mice display genetic background-dependent embryonic lethality and multiple local and systemic abnormalities. Since both the partial lethality and the systemic effects caused by global SRC-3 knockout interfere with downstream investigation of tissue-specific function of SRC-3, we have generated floxed SRC-3 (SRC-3(f/f)) mice with conditional alleles carrying loxP sites in introns 10 and 12 by a gene-targeting strategy. The two SRC-3(f/f) mouse lines (A and B) are indistinguishable from wild type mice. To test if deletion of the floxed exons 11 and 12 for SRC-3 nuclear receptor interaction domains and disruption of its downstream sequence for transcriptional activation domains would inactivate SRC-3 function, SRC-3(f/f) mice were crossbred with EIIa-Cre mice to generate SRC-3(d/d) mice with germ line deletion of the floxed SRC-3 gene. Both lines of SRC-3(d/d) mice exhibited growth retardation and low IGF-I levels, which was similar to that observed in SRC-3(-/-) mice. The line A SRC-3(d/d) mice showed normal viability, while line B SRC-3(d/d) mice showed partial lethality similar to SRC-3-/- mice, probably due to variable distributions of genetic background during breeding. These results demonstrate that the floxed SRC-3 mouse lines have been successfully established. These mice will be useful for investigating the cell type- and developmental stage-specific functions of SRC-3.
International journal of biological sciences 02/2008; 4(4):202-7. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic changes and mechanisms underlying the progression of estrogen-dependent breast cancers to estrogen-independent, antiestrogen-resistant, and metastatic breast cancers are unclear despite being a major problem in endocrine therapy. To identify genes responsible for this progression, we carried out a genetic screening by an enhanced retroviral mutagen (ERM)-mediated random mutagenesis in the estrogen-dependent T47D breast cancer cells. We found that T47D cells contain only one p27kip1 (p27) allele coding for the p27 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. An ERM insertion into the p27 locus of T47D cells disrupted the p27 gene and created estrogen-independent and antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells that still maintained functional estrogen receptors. Disruption of p27 in T47D cells resulted in several changes, and most of these changes could be rescued by p27 restoration. First, CDK2 activity was increased in the absence of estrogen or in the presence of estrogen antagonists tamoxifen or ICI 182780; second, amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1), a cancer overexpressed transcriptional coactivator, was hyperphosphorylated, which made AIB1 a better coactivator for E2F1; and third, growth factor receptor binding protein 2-associated binder 2 (Gab2) and Akt activity were increased following E2F1 overactivation, leading to a significant enhancement of cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the p27-deficient cells, but not T47D control cells, developed lung metastasis in an ovarian hormone-independent manner when they were i.v. injected into nude mice. In sum, loss of p27 activated AIB1, E2F1, Gab2, and Akt; increased cell migration and invasion; caused antiestrogen insensitivity; and promoted metastasis of breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that p27 plays an essential role in restriction of breast cancer progression.
Cancer Research 10/2007; 67(17):8032-42. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the amplified-in-breast cancer 1 (AIB1; SRC-3, ACTR, or NCoA3) was defined as a coactivator for androgen receptor (AR) by in vitro studies, its role in AR-mediated prostate development and prostate cancer remained unexplored. We report here that AIB1 is expressed in the basal and stromal cells but not in the epithelial cells of the normal mouse prostates. AIB1 deficiency only slightly delayed prostate growth and had no effect on androgen-dependent prostate regeneration, suggesting an unessential role of AIB1 in AR function in the prostate. Surprisingly, when prostate tumorigenesis was induced by the SV40 transgene in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice, AIB1 expression was observed in certain epithelial cells of the prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and well-differentiated carcinoma and in almost all cells of the poorly differentiated carcinoma. After AIB1 was genetically inactivated in AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice, the progression of prostate tumorigenesis in most AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice was arrested at the well-differentiated carcinoma stage. Wild-type (WT)/TRAMP mice developed progressive, multifocal, and metastatic prostate tumors and died between 25 and 34 weeks. In contrast, AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice only exhibited PIN and early-stage well-differentiated carcinoma by 39 weeks. AIB1-/-/TRAMP prostates showed much lower cell proliferation than WT/TRAMP prostates. Most AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice could survive more than 35 weeks and died with other types of tumors or unknown reasons. Our results indicate that induction of AIB1 expression in partially transformed epithelial cells is essential for progression of prostate tumorigenesis into poorly differentiated carcinoma. Inhibition of AIB1 expression or function in the prostate epithelium may be a potential strategy to suppress prostate cancer initiation and progression.
Cancer Research 07/2007; 67(12):5965-75. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The precise role of circulating IGF-I in somatic growth under normal and GH-deficient conditions remains unclear. To define the contribution of circulating IGF-I to the endocrine regulation of somatic growth and the GH/IGF-I axis, we constructed a transgene with the transthyretin (TTR) enhancer/promoter and the mouse IGF-I cDNA and generated TTR-IGF-I transgenic mice. The transgene was exclusively expressed in the liver, which resulted in a 50-60% increase in serum IGF-I, a decrease in serum GH, and an improved tolerance to glucose challenge. The body weight and lean mass of TTR-IGF-I mice were heavier compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The increase in lean mass was a result of increase in both number and thickness of skeletal muscle fibers. The femur, tibia, and body lengths of TTR-IGF-I mice also were longer. In WT mice, the GH antagonist pegvisomant (Peg) suppressed the transcription of endogenous IGF-I and acid-labile subunit (ALS) genes with no effect on IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) mRNA. Consequently, Peg-induced GH deficiency in WT mice severely reduced ALS, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 in the circulation and caused a severe growth deficit. In TTR-IGF-I mice, Peg reduced the mRNA of the endogenous IGF-I gene with no effect on the TTR-IGF-I transgene expression, leading to a blunted decrease in serum IGF-I levels. Interestingly, IGFBP-3 mRNA was elevated and circulating IGFBP-3 was less reduced in Peg-treated TTR-IGF-I mice. Peg-treated TTR-IGF-I mice also exhibited heavier body weight and longer body length than Peg-treated WT mice. Therefore, liver-expressed IGF-I can stimulate IGFBP-3 mRNA expression and stabilize IGFBP-3 under GH deficiency, leading to a better maintenance of IGF-I levels in the circulation. Higher circulating levels of IGF-I can stimulate somatic growth and lean mass and improve glucose tolerance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amplified-in-breast cancer 3 (AIB3) is a nuclear receptor coactivator amplified and overexpressed in human breast cancers. AIB3(-/-) mice die during gestation, whereas AIB3(+/-) mice exhibit normal development. Here, we demonstrate that AIB3 protein is mainly located in the nuclei of mammary epithelial cells and tumor cells and its levels are elevated in mammary epithelial cells at middle pregnant stage and in mammary tumor cells. To examine whether AIB3 reduction affects mammary tumorigenesis, we generated wild-type mouse mammary tumor virus/polyoma middle-T (WT/PyMT) and AIB3(+/-)/PyMT mice. Mammary tumor development in AIB3(+/-)/PyMT female and male mice was substantially accelerated compared with that in WT/PyMT mice, because of increased cell proliferation in early tumorigenic lesions, including ductal hyperplasia and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia. Tumor formation in nude mice that received premalignant AIB3(+/-)/PyMT mammary tissue was much faster than in nude mice that received transplants of premalignant WT/PyMT mammary tissue, which indicated that the accelerated tumorigenesis in AIB3(+/-)/PyMT mammary glands is due to a mammary epithelial autonomous defect. Expression of PyMT, estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor alpha-regulated genes was unaffected in AIB3(+/-)/PyMT mammary glands, which suggests that the acceleration of mammary tumor formation in AIB3(+/-)/PyMT mice was not a consequence of changes in PyMT expression or in estrogen receptor function. Importantly, the inhibitory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and retinoid-X receptor (RXR) ligands on AIB3(+/-)/PyMT cell proliferation and the transcriptional function of PPARgamma in AIB3(+/-)/PyMT cells were reduced. Thus, AIB3 haplodeficiency may facilitate PyMT-induced tumorigenesis through a partial impairment of PPARgamma and RXR function. These results suggest that AIB3 may be a tumor suppressor that is required for the inhibition of cell proliferation by PPARgamma and RXR.
Cancer Research 11/2004; 64(19):7169-77. · 8.65 Impact Factor