[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development and natural course of lung cysts in patients with Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome (BHD) is still unclear, and the relationship between lung cysts and pneumothorax is not fully clarified. Based on the follow-up results of thoracic imaging in six patients with BHD, we hypothesize that decreased potential for stretching of the cysts' wall and extensive contact with the visceral pleura are probably responsible for rupture of the cyst wall resulting in increased risk for pneumothorax.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the occurrence of benign, mostly facial, skin tumours called fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and an increased renal cancer risk. Current treatments for fibrofolliculomas have high rates of recurrence and carry a risk of complications. It would be desirable to have a treatment that could prevent fibrofolliculomas from growing. Animal models of BHD have previously shown deregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Topical use of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin is an effective treatment for the skin tumours (angiofibromas) in tuberous sclerosis complex, which is also characterised by mTOR deregulation. In this study we aimed to determine if topical rapamycin is also an effective treatment for fibrofolliculomas in BHD.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99071. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099071 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an autosomal dominant condition due to germline FLCN (folliculin) mutations, characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts, pneumothorax and renal cancer. We identified a de novo FLCN mutation, c.499C>T (p.Gln167X), in a patient who presented with spontaneous pneumothorax. Subsequently, typical skin features and asymptomatic renal cancer were diagnosed. Probably, de novo FLCN mutations are rare. However, they may be under-diagnosed if BHD is not considered in sporadic patients who present with one or more of the syndromic features. Genetic and immunohistochemical analysis of the renal tumour indicated features compatible with a tumour suppressor role of FLCN. The finding that mutant FLCN was expressed in the tumour might indicate residual functionality of mutant FLCN, a notion which will be explored in future studies.
Familial Cancer 12/2012; 12(3). DOI:10.1007/s10689-012-9593-8 · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition caused by germline FLCN mutations, and characterised by fibrofolliculomas, pneumothorax and renal cancer. The renal cancer risk, cancer phenotype and pneumothorax risk of BHD have not yet been fully clarified. The main focus of this study was to assess the risk of renal cancer, the histological subtypes of renal tumours and the pneumothorax risk in BHD.
In this study we present the clinical data of 115 FLCN mutation carriers from 35 BHD families.
Among 14 FLCN mutation carriers who developed renal cancer 7 were <50 years at onset and/or had multifocal/bilateral tumours. Five symptomatic patients developed metastatic disease. Two early-stage cases were diagnosed by surveillance. The majority of tumours showed characteristics of both eosinophilic variants of clear cell and chromophobe carcinoma. The estimated penetrance for renal cancer and pneumothorax was 16% (95% minimal confidence interval: 6-26%) and 29% (95% minimal confidence interval: 9-49%) at 70 years of age, respectively. The most frequent diagnosis in families without identified FLCN mutations was familial multiple discoid fibromas.
We confirmed a high yield of FLCN mutations in clinically defined BHD families, we found a substantially increased lifetime risk of renal cancer of 16% for FLCN mutation carriers. The tumours were metastatic in 5 out of 14 patients and tumour histology was not specific for BHD. We found a pneumothorax risk of 29%. We discuss the implications of our findings for diagnosis and management of BHD.
British Journal of Cancer 12/2011; 105(12):1912-9. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2011.463 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we proposed that familial multiple trichodiscomas (OMIM 190340) is distinct from Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) (OMIM #135150). BHD is characterized by multiple fibrofolliculomas/trichodiscomas, lung cysts, pneumothorax, and renal cell cancer. Germline FLCN mutations can be detected in most but not all BHD families.
We sought to evaluate familial multiple trichodiscomas at a clinical and genetic level. We now renamed this condition "familial multiple discoid fibromas" (FMDF) to emphasize the distinction from BHD.
In 8 additional families with an autosomal dominant pattern of multiple discoid fibromas we assessed the clinical findings and the histopathological features of skin lesions. FLCN germline mutation analysis was completed in 7 families. In two of these families segregation analysis was performed using polymorphic DNA markers in and around the FLCN locus.
The clinical findings in FMDF are different from those in BHD with early onset of skin lesions, prominent involvement of the pinnae, and discoid fibromas without the follicular epithelial component characteristic of the fibrofolliculoma/trichodiscoma spectrum of BHD. In addition, there were no evident pulmonary or renal complications. In none of the families were pathogenic FLCN germline mutations identified. Using segregation analysis we could exclude involvement of the FLCN locus in the two kindreds tested.
The prevalence of FMDF is presently unknown. The underlying gene defect has not yet been identified.
FMDF is clinically distinct from BHD and is not linked to the FLCN locus.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 07/2011; 66(2):259.e1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2010.11.039 · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smit DL, Mensenkamp AR, Badeloe S, Breuning MH, Simon MEH, van Spaendonck KY, Aalfs CM, Post JG, Shanley S, Krapels IPC, Hoefsloot LH, van Moorselaar RJA, Starink TM, Bayley J-P, Frank J, van Steensel MAM, Menko FH. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer in families referred for fumarate hydratase germline mutation analysis.
Heterozygous fumarate hydratase (FH) germline mutations cause hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC), an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple cutaneous piloleiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas and papillary type 2 renal cancer. The main objective of our study was to evaluate clinical and genetic data from families suspected of HLRCC on a nationwide level. All families referred for FH mutation analysis in the Netherlands were assessed. We performed FH sequence analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Families with similar FH mutations were examined for haplotype sharing. In 14 out of 33 families, we identified 11 different pathogenic FH germline mutations, including 4 novel mutations and 1 whole-gene deletion. Clinical data were available for 35 FH mutation carriers. Cutaneous leiomyomas were present in all FH mutation carriers older than 40 years of age. Eleven out of 21 female FH mutation carriers underwent surgical treatment for symptomatic uterine leiomyomas at an average of 35 years. Two FH mutation carriers had papillary type 2 renal cancer and Wilms' tumour, respectively. We evaluated the relevance of our findings for clinical practice and have proposed clinical diagnostic criteria, indications for FH mutation analysis and recommendations for management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous pneumothorax can be due to Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD syndrome), an autosomal dominant predisposition for fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung cysts, pneumothorax and renal cancer. The syndrome is the result of germline mutations in the FLCN (folliculin) gene. Its clinical presentation is highly variable. Consequently, this syndrome is probably under-diagnosed. An illustrative kindred is presented in which the index patient, a man aged 26, had recurrent episodes of pneumothorax without apparent skin lesions or renal abnormalities. He had bilateral mostly basally-located lung cysts. There was a family history of fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts, pneumothorax and clear cell renal cancer. Recognition of BHD is important since carriers of the mutation can be offered surveillance for early detection and treatment of renal cancer.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 08/2009; 153(35):A581.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an autosomal-dominant genodermatosis characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas and an increased risk of spontaneous pneumothorax, renal and possibly other tumors. A causative gene (FLCN) on chromosome 17p has recently been identified. We here report clinical and genetic studies of 20 BHD families ascertained by the presence of multiple fibrofolliculomas or trichodiscomas in the proband. Pathogenic FLCN germline mutations were found in 11 (69%) of 16 probands tested and in 14 family members. Six different FLCN germline mutations were detected, four of which have not been reported previously. The clinical features were variable. None and less than 10 skin lesions were observed in two mutation carriers at the age of 67 and 29 years, respectively. Spontaneous pneumothorax was reported in four and renal carcinoma of mixed histological types in two of 36 BHD-affected individuals and/or FLCN mutation carriers. Both the prevalence of spontaneous pneumothorax and renal tumors appeared to be relatively low compared with previously reported data. Various other extracutaneous tumors were observed in 11 of 36 BHD-affected individuals and/or FLCN mutation carriers. This study of the second largest cohort to date contributes to the expanding data on the variable phenotype and underlying gene defects in BHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We earlier demonstrated, in a randomised clinical trial, that the regression time of flat penile lesions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was shorter in men who used condoms compared to those who did not. To further evaluate this finding, we examined whether the effect of condom use on the regression of flat penile lesions depends on the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type concordance in sexual couples, as determined in cervical and penile scrapes by GP5+/6+ PCR testing. A Cox model with time-dependent covariates showed a beneficial effect of condoms on regression of flat penile lesions in concordant couples (hazard ratio 2.63, 95% CI 1.07-6.48) but not in those who were nonconcordant. When both partners harboured different HPV types, no effect of condoms was found (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.27-2.96). Delayed regression of flat penile lesions was associated with either stable lesions or with new penile lesions developing at sites surrounding pre-existing lesions suggesting reinfection of the penile epithelium. We conclude that condom use blocks sexual HPV transmission by preventing reinfection and development of new penile lesions in men who are susceptible to the same type as present in the female partner.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2005; 92(8):1388-92. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602524 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-associated penile lesions are frequently found in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). To determine the significance of these findings, we studied the prevalence of HPV and HPV associated penile lesions in a male hospital population with non-STD complaints. Penoscopy was performed after application of acetic acid to identify flat lesions, papular lesions, condylomata acuminata and pearly penile papules (PPPs). Presence of HPV DNA in penile scrapes was tested by GP5+6+ PCR. In case of HPV 16 positivity, viral loads were quantified using a LightCycler based real-time PCR method. Comparing the non-STD male hospital population (n = 118) with the male sexual partners of women with CIN (n = 238), flat penile lesions were found in 14% vs. 60% and penile HPV in 25% vs. 59% of the men, respectively. We found that the presence of penile HPV and, in case of HPV 16 positivity, higher viral loads were associated with the presence of flat penile lesions. Amongst the HPV-positive men, flat penile lesions were more common and larger in size in male sexual partners of women with CIN than in the non-STD hospital population. HPV infections and HPV-associated flat penile lesions are commonly found in the non-STD male population. However, these lesions are less frequently present and smaller in size than in male sexual partners of women with CIN. Higher viral loads in penile scrapes of male sexual partners of women with CIN are reflected by a higher prevalence of flat penile lesions and a larger size of these lesions.
International Journal of Cancer 01/2005; 113(1):36-41. DOI:10.1002/ijc.20502 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with typical features of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) limited to a specific body segment are usually referred to as having "segmental NF1", which is generally assumed to be the result of somatic mosaicism for a NF1 mutation. Mosaicism has also been demonstrated at the molecular level in some sporadic cases with phenotypically classic NF1. In the present report, we describe a patient with NF1 disease manifestations throughout the whole body, but leaving a few sharply delineated segments of the skin unaffected, suggestive of revertant mosaicism. A large intragenic deletion was found by mutation analysis using long-range RT-PCR. The intra-exonic breakpoints were characterized in exon 13 and exon 28, resulting in a deletion of 99,571 bp at the genomic level. The presence of two genetically distinct cell populations, confirming mosaicism for this NF1 mutation, was shown by analysis of several tissues. Revertant mosaicism was excluded by demonstrating heterozygosity for markers residing in the deletion region. The findings in this patient demonstrate two things: (1) although the entire body is affected, mosaicism can still be suspected at clinical examination and proven by DNA analysis and skin biopsies; (2) long-range RT-PCR is a feasible method for demonstrating large intragenic deletions in NF1.
Human Genetics 03/2004; 114(3):284-90. DOI:10.1007/s00439-003-1047-9 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Penile HPV-associated lesions are frequently seen in male sexual partners of women with CIN. The natural course and clinical significance of these lesions are unclear. Women with CIN and their male sexual partners were randomized for condom use (condom group n = 68, noncondom group n = 68). Males were screened for the presence of penile lesions, i.e., flat lesions, papular lesions and condylomata acuminata, and of HPV in their penile swabs by PCR testing. Median follow-up time was 13.1 months (range 2.9-57.4). The outcome of our study was clinical regression of penile lesions defined as disappearance of lesions at penoscopy. Potentially prognostic factors, i.e., HPV status, lesion type and age, were studied as well. Outcomes were assessed in 57 men of the condom group and in 43 men of the noncondom group. Condom use shortened the median time to regression of flat penile lesions (7.4 months condom group vs. 13.9 months noncondom group; HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7). This effect was not found for papular lesions (HR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.1-2.8). HPV-negative men showed a significantly shorter median time to regression of flat lesions (3.8 months) compared to men with either HPV-positive status (8.5 months; HR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) or inconsistent HPV status (13.1 months; HR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.6). Regression of flat penile lesions is HPV-dependent and accelerated by condom use. This effect is probably the result of blocking viral transmission between sexual partners.
International Journal of Cancer 12/2003; 107(5):804-10. DOI:10.1002/ijc.11473 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orofacial granulomatosis encompasses the previously recognized clinical entities Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome and cheilitis granulomatosa. We report the case of a 39-year-old patient with cheilitis granulomatosa, intestinal Crohn's disease, and optic neuropathy. Cheilitis granulomatosa and optic neuropathy represent 2 rare manifestations of orofacial granulomatosis in Crohn's disease.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 11/2003; 49(5):952-4. DOI:10.1016/S0190-9622(03)01560-3 · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Penile lesions and pearly penile papules (PPP) are frequently found in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The former have been associated with human papillomavirus (HPV).
We estimated the prevalence of PPP in male sexual partners of women with CIN, and investigated the association between PPP and flat and papular penile lesions found in these men. We further evaluated a possible association between PPP and HPV, age, and CIN grade of the female partner.
We evaluated by penoscopy the presence of HPV-associated penile lesions and PPP in 226 male sexual partners of women with CIN. HPV was tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay and in situ hybridization.
The prevalence of PPP was 34% and was not associated with the presence of penile lesions or a positive HPV test. Age and CIN grade of the female partner were not related to the presence of PPP.
The prevalence of PPP in male sexual partners of women with CIN is comparable with the prevalence described in men of more diverse populations. Our data do not support a causative role for HPV in the genesis of PPP.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 08/2003; 49(1):50-4. DOI:10.1067/mjd.2003.420 · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei is an eruption of discrete red-brown, dome-shaped papules, histologically characterized by epithelioid cell granulomas. The pathogenesis of the disorder remains controversial.
The authors discuss the place of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei among granulomatous disorders.
This report reviews the available literature and presents 3 patients with lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei.
The histopathologic characteristics of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei--an epithelioid cell granuloma with central necrosis--may be found in granulomatous rosacea, whilst the clinical features and course of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei are often similar to cutaneous sarcoidosis.
We put forward lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei as a distinctive rosacea-like syndrome and not as a granulomatous form of rosacea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to study the results of the medical workup in patients with amyloidosis of the oral cavity.
Patients diagnosed with amyloidosis of the oral cavity during the period from January 1971 to January 2001 at the Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology and Dermatology of the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, were included in this retrospective case study. In total, this series comprised 11 patients, 9 women and 2 men. The patients' medical workup and final diagnoses were traced by means of the medical records.
All but one patient presented with amyloidosis of the tongue, most of them manifesting as macroglossia. In 7 of the 11 included patients a diagnosis of myeloma could be established shortly after their referral to the above-stated departments. Three of the 4 remaining patients appeared to have a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, and 1 patient was diagnosed with a lymphoplasmacytoid non-Hodgkin lymphoma (immunocytoma).
Amyloidosis of the oral cavity predominantly involves the tongue, mainly manifesting as macroglossia. Amyloidosis of the tongue is associated with an occult underlying plasma cell dyscrasia, in particular myeloma, and, therefore, should be regarded as a paraneoplastic phenomenon of these hematologic diseases.