[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This 1-year study aimed to assess low-dose budesonide therapy for maintenance of clinical remission in patients with collagenous colitis.
A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study beginning with an 8-week open-label induction phase in which patients with histologically confirmed active collagenous colitis received budesonide (Budenofalk, 9 mg/day initially, tapered to 4.5 mg/day), after which 92 patients in clinical remission were randomised to budesonide (mean dose 4.5 mg/day; Budenofalk 3 mg capsules, two or one capsule on alternate days) or placebo in a 12-month double-blind phase with 6 months treatment-free follow-up. Primary endpoint was clinical remission throughout the double-blind phase.
Clinical remission during open-label treatment was achieved by 84.5% (93/110 patients). The median time to remission was 10.5 days (95% CI (9.0 to 14.0 days)). The maintenance of clinical remission at 1 year was achieved by 61.4% (27/44 patients) in the budesonide group versus 16.7% (8/48 patients) receiving placebo (treatment difference 44.5% in favour of budesonide; 95% CI (26.9% to 62.7%), p<0.001). Health-related quality of life was maintained during the 12-month double-blind phase in budesonide-treated patients. During treatment-free follow-up, 82.1% (23/28 patients) formerly receiving budesonide relapsed after study drug discontinuation. Low-dose budesonide over 1 year resulted in few suspected adverse drug reactions (7/44 patients), all non-serious.
Budesonide at a mean dose of 4.5 mg/day maintained clinical remission for at least 1 year in the majority of patients with collagenous colitis and preserved health-related quality of life without safety concerns. Treatment extension with low-dose budesonide beyond 1 year may be beneficial given the high relapse rate after budesonide discontinuation.
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01278082) and http://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu (EudraCT: 2007-001315-31).
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Gut 11/2014; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308363 · 14.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Almost 10% of all patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis receive a diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Clinical characteristics and the risk of colon cancer or dysplasia in Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis are less well examined than in ulcerative colitis.
This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and risk of colorectal dysplasia and cancer in Crohn's disease in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.
This is a cohort study of all patients diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis and colorectal Crohn's disease at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, 1978 to 2006. Each patient was matched for age and the onset of Crohn's disease to 2 controls with colorectal Crohn's disease without liver disease.
This study was conducted at a tertiary referral center.
Twenty-eight patients (61% male) with primary sclerosing cholangitis and Crohn's disease and 46 patients (50% male) with Crohn's disease alone were studied. Clinical and endoscopic data were retrieved from medical records. Colonic biopsies from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis were re-reviewed.
The primary outcome measured was the proportion of patients developing colorectal cancer.
Colorectal cancer or dysplasia developed in 9 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and in 3 controls. Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis were more likely to develop colorectal dysplasia or cancer than controls (OR 6.78; 95% CI (1.65-27.9); P = .016). In patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis compared with controls, perianal fistulas occurred in 3% vs 33% (P = .003), bowel strictures occurred in 7% vs 30% (P = .03), and bowel surgery was performed in 18% vs 46% (P = .01). Histological granulomas were seen in 29% of the patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis compared with 43% in controls (P = not significant).
This study was limited by its retrospective nature and the limited cohort.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer and dysplasia in Crohn's disease. Obstructing disease and perianal fistulas are rare in primary sclerosing cholangitis and less common than in colonic Crohn's disease without liver disease.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 11/2011; 54(11):1392-7. DOI:10.1097/DCR.0b013e31822bbcc1 · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with collagenous colitis have an impaired mucosal barrier. Moreover, collagenous colitis is associated with bile acid malabsorption. Bile acids can increase bacterial mucosal uptake in humans. Mucosal barrier function was investigated by exposing colonic biopsies to chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or deoxycholic acid (DCA) in Ussing chamber experiments.
To find if low levels of bile acids increase bacterial uptake in colonic biopsies from collagenous colitis patients.
The study comprised 33 individuals; 25 with collagenous colitis (14 in clinical remission without treatment, 11 with active disease and 10 examined in clinical remission resulting from treatment with 6 mg budesonide); eight healthy individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy served as controls. Endoscopic biopsies from the sigmoid colon were mounted in modified Ussing chambers and assessed for short-circuit current (Isc), potential difference, trans-epithelial resistance and transmucosal passage of Escherichia coli K12 after adding 100 μmol/L CDCA or DCA.
When adding 100 μmol/L CDCA or DCA, bacterial uptake increased fourfold in biopsies of patients in remission; CDCA 6.5 units [2.5-9.8] and DCA 6.2 units [2.1-22] (median [IQR]), compared with uptake in biopsies without added bile acids 1.6 units [1.1-3] (P=0.004 and P=0.01 respectively). In active disease and in patients in remission due to budesonide treatment, bile acids did not affect bacterial uptake. Confocal microscopy revealed trans-epithelial passage of E. coli K12 within 30 min.
Low concentrations of dihydroxy-bile acids exacerbate mucosal barrier dysfunction in colonic biopsies of patients with collagenous colitis in remission. This allows a substantially increased bacterial uptake, which may contribute to recurrence of inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunosurveillance theory argues that the immune system recognizes tumour-specific antigens expressed by transformed cells, which results in the destruction of cancer precursors before they become clinically manifest. As a model for the development of cancer, we set out to study premalignant lesions and immune responses in sentinel lymph nodes from patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis and progression of mucosal dysplasia. Mesenteric lymph nodes draining dysplastic and normal intestinal segments were identified by sentinel node technique during surgery in 13 patients with ulcerative colitis who were subjected to colectomy because of intestinal dysplasia. T cells were extracted from the lymph nodes and analysed by flow cytometry, and lymphocyte proliferation assays were set up in the presence of extracts from dysplastic and normal intestinal mucosa. Increase in CD4/CD8 ratio was observed in sentinel lymph nodes draining dysplastic epithelium compared to normal mucosa. The increase in CD4(+) T cells in relation to CD8(+) T cells correlated with the degree of dysplasia reflected by a significant increase in the ratio against low-grade dysplasia compared to indefinite dysplastic lesions. The T-cell response was specific to antigens from dysplastic epithelial lining as seen in proliferation assays. The observation suggests an important surveillance role for the immune system against premalignant intestinal lesions in patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collagenous colitis (CC) is characterized by chronic watery diarrhea, a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa but typical microscopic inflammation. Chronic mucosal inflammation of the colon and rectum has earlier been associated with altered visceral sensitivity, but anorectal function has never been reported in cases of CC.
Fifteen patients with CC in active phase recorded their symptoms. The severity of inflammation was determined in mucosal biopsies. Anorectal function was assessed and compared with that of 15 healthy volunteers of corresponding age and matched for gender. After 6 weeks of budesonide treatment when the patients were in clinical remission anorectal function was re-assessed.
All patients had inflammation also in rectum. Patients in active phase had, during rectal balloon distension a higher rectal sensory threshold for the feeling of first sensation, compared with controls (P = 0.02). There were no differences in rectal sensory threshold for the feeling of urgency or maximum distension, between patients with CC in active phase and healthy controls. Rectal volume at first sensation was significantly greater in patients than in controls (P = 0.02), but there were no differences at urgency or maximum distension. Twelve of 15 patients completed 6 weeks of budesonide treatment and all went into clinical remission. No differences in anorectal function were measured when patients had active disease, compared with clinical remission.
Collagenous colitis was not associated with rectal hypersensitivity or disturbed anal function despite rectal inflammation. On the contrary, the sensation threshold for light rectal pressure was elevated in patients with active CC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellsorba™ is a medical device for leukocytapheresis (LCAP) treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Cellsorba™ EX Global type has been developed from Cellsorba E for intended use with ACD-A as anticoagulant. We evaluated safety and efficacy of the modified Cellsorba using ACD-A in a pilot trial comprising patients with active UC, despite receiving 5-ASA. A total of 10 LCAP treatments/patients were administered. Safety assessment focused on clinical signs and symptoms, hematological variables, as well as levels of bradykinin and IL-6. Efficacy was determined using the Mayo clinical/endoscopic scoring index as well histological assessment of biopsies. Additional aim was to evaluate the impact of apheresis system lines and filter on selected regulatory molecules. All six subjects completed the trial without any serious adverse events. WBC, platelet counts, and levels of bradykinin and IL-6 were not significantly affected. The median Mayo score decreased from 8.0 to 3.5 at week 8 (and to 2 at week 16 for the responders). Four patients were responders, of whom two patients went into remission. Median histological scores decreased from 3.5 to 2.0 in these four patients. Concentration of LL-37 increased within the apheresis system lines. LCAP with Cellsorba EX using ACD-A as anticoagulant was found to be a safe and well-tolerated procedure in patients with active UC. The positive impact on efficacy parameters merits further evaluation in a controlled fashion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 10-15% of patients with colorectal inflammatory bowel disease it is not possible to determine whether they have Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis and they are therefore classified as having inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU) (formerly referred to as "indeterminate colitis"). The aim of this study was to determine whether upper endoscopy with biopsies could be a useful tool for diagnosing patients with colorectal inflammatory disease.
Fifty-two patients (14 colorectal Crohn's disease, 19 ulcerative colitis, 6 IBDU, 8 microscopic colitis and 5 without IBD) were examined by upper endoscopy. Biopsies from gastric and duodenal mucosa were examined histologically and the frequency of focal cryptitides was estimated. Helicobacter pylori-positive patients were excluded.
Focal cryptitides (sometimes called focally enhanced gastritis) were found in 8/14 of patients with Crohn's disease, 4/19 patients with ulcerative colitis, 2/6 patients with IBDU, 2/8 of patients with microscopic colitis and in 2/5 patients without IBD.
Focal cryptitides are more commonly found in gastric and/or duodenal mucosa in patients with colorectal Crohn's disease than in other patients. Upper endoscopy with mucosal biopsies contributes towards a diagnosis in patients with colitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collagenous colitis is increasingly recognized as a common diarrheal disorder of inflammatory origin. Intestinal inflammation is generally associated with increased mucosal permeability, but little is known about barrier function in microscopic colitis. Our aim was to investigate the mucosal barrier to nonpathogenic bacteria in collagenous colitis.
The study included 33 individuals, 25 with collagenous colitis (14 in clinical remission, 11 with active disease, and 8 of these again after 6 weeks budesonide treatment) and 8 control patients. Bowel movements were registered for 1 week. Endoscopic biopsies from the sigmoid colon were mounted in modified Ussing chambers and assessed for short-circuit current (I(sc)), transepithelial resistance (TER), and transmucosal passage of chemically killed Escherichia coli K12.
Bacterial uptake was increased in patients in remission, 1.6 U (1.1-3.0) and in those with active disease, 4.6 U (2.5-5.8; median (IQR)), compared to controls, 0.7 U (0.1-1.1; P=0.004 and P-0.001, respectively). Active disease also had significant decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER) after 120 min, -9.7 Omega cm(2) ((-13)-(-4.3)), compared to controls, -5.2 Omega cm(2) ((-7.2)-(-3.1)), P-0.03; or patients in remission, -4.8 Omega cm(2) ((-8.0)-(-1.2)), P=0.04. Budesonide decreased median stool frequency to 1.9 (1.3-2.2) compared to 3.8 (3.7-4.2) before treatment (P=0.01), but bacterial uptake was still increased after budesonide 2.9 U (1.5-3.8), (P=0.006 compared to controls), and there were no significant changes in histology.
Collagenous colitis presents with significantly increased uptake and altered mucosal reactivity to nonpathogenic bacteria. Budesonide induces clinical remission and restores mucosal reactivity but does not abolish the increased bacterial uptake. An underlying barrier dysfunction may explain the frequent and rapid relapses in CC.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2009; 104(3):679-85. DOI:10.1038/ajg.2008.95 · 10.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are heterogeneous disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and can profoundly affect the quality of life. Because many of the symptoms of IBD are similar to those of IBS, the former may be misdiagnosed. In addition, the 2 major forms of IBD, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), have overlapping nonspecific, pathologic features leading to difficulties in assessing colonic inflammation and hence the term IBD unclassified has been proposed. The aim of this study was to identify and assess the utility of a certain set of marker genes that could help to distinguish IBS from IBD, and further to discriminate between UC and CD.
Subtractive suppression hybridization was used to identify IBD-specific genes in colonic mucosal biopsy specimens. In quantitative polymerase chain reaction experiments, the differential expressions of identified genes then were analyzed using a classification algorithm and the possible clinical value of these marker genes was evaluated in a total of 301 patients in 3 stepwise studies.
Seven marker genes were identified as differentially expressed in IBD, making it possible to discriminate between patients suffering from UC, CD, or IBS with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves ranging from 0.915 to 0.999 (P < .0001) using the clinical diagnosis as gold standard.
Expression profiling of relevant marker genes in colonic biopsy specimens from patients with IBD/IBS-like symptoms may enable swift and reliable determination of diagnosis, ultimately improving disease management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pilot studies have indicated a therapeutic role for an apheresis device (Adacolumn) that selectively adsorbs leukocytes in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. It may also exert immunoregulatory effects contributing to its clinical efficacy. This study aimed to correlate the clinical response to leukocyte apheresis with the expression of key cytokines in mucosal tissue, in peripheral leukocytes, and in plasma.
Ten patients (seven with Crohn's disease and three with ulcerative colitis, median age: 31 years) with mild to moderately chronic activity were recruited to an open study. Patients were refractory to or had a relapse despite conventional treatment including azathioprine. Leukocyte apheresis was performed once a week for five consecutive weeks. Clinical efficacy was assessed on week 7 and after 12 months. Colonoscopy with multiple biopsies was performed at the start of the study and after 7 weeks for semiquantitative immunohistochemical analyses of cytokines. Cytokine levels in blood and the proportion of cytokine producing CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were determined.
The apheresis procedures were well tolerated and no major adverse events were encountered. The median clinical activity score decreased from 12 to 7 on week 7 (P=0.031, n=9) and to 4 after 12 months (P=0.004, n=9). Five patients were in clinical remission at the 12th month. Tissue interferon (IFN)-gamma-positive T-cells decreased in clinical responders (P=0.027) after apheresis. In parallel, significantly lower levels of IFN-gamma-producing lymphocytes were detected in peripheral blood. IFN-gamma-positive cells in pretreatment biopsies completely disappeared or decreased in posttreatment biopsies sampled on week 7 in responders (P=0.027) and appeared to predict the maintenance of long-term remission or response after 12 months.
Leukocyte apheresis is a novel and safe nonpharmacological adjunct therapy that may prove useful in steroid refractory or dependent patients when conventional drugs have failed. Down-regulation of IFN-gamma in mucosal biopsies and in peripheral leukocytes may be a predictive marker for sustained, long-term response.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 10/2006; 21(6):493-504. DOI:10.1007/s00384-005-0069-2 · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in colonic Crohn's disease (CCD) seems to be of the same magnitude as in extensive, longstanding ulcerative colitis (UC) and colonoscopic surveillance has been advocated. Mucosal dysplasia and DNA-aneuploidy are early warning markers of malignant transformation in UC. Data concerning the occurrence of such premalignant lesions in CCD are scarce.
The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA ploidy pattern in CCD-patients with manifest CRC, both in the tumour, as well as in the adjacent and distant colorectal mucosa. The results from DNA-flow cytometry analyses (FCM) prior to the development of a CRC in CCD were also investigated.
Biopsies obtained at colonoscopy and surgical specimens from 43 patients with colonic or ileocolonic CD developing CRC between 1988 and 1998 were reviewed. The CRC histological phenotype, and the occurrence of dysplasia were registered. CRC-tissue and tissue from areas with dysplasia adjacent to and/or distant from the tumour were obtained from paraffin-embedded blocks and were analysed by FCM after preparation.
Twenty-four CRCs in 21 patients (14 men) were suitable for FCM-analyses. The median age at CRC-diagnosis was 53 years (21-73) and the median CCD-duration was 14.5 years (1-50). A predominance of CRC was found either in the cecum (9124) or in the rectum (7/24). DNA-aneuploidy was found in 62.5% (15/24) of the tumours, in 25% (2/8) in adjacent and/or distant mucosa, and in 50% (2/4) of the patients that had been subjected to colonoscopic surveillance prior to the CRC-diagnosis. In 7patients (29%), definite dysplasia was detected adjacent to andlor distant from the tumour. Of the 6 patients undergoing colonoscopic surveillance, 3 (50%) displayed definite dysplasia prior to the colectomy.
Since DNA- aneuploidy is a' common feature in CRCs in CCD and precede the development of invasive carcinoma, inclusion of FCM-analyses of colorectal biopsies may enhance the sensitivity of identifying high-risk CCD-patients prone to develop CRC within the frame of colonoscopic surveillance programs.
Anticancer research 11/2005; 25(6C):4393-7. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collagenous colitis has become a more frequent diagnosis but the aetiology of this disease is still unknown. We describe a female patient with intractable collagenous colitis who was treated with a temporary loop ileostomy. She was followed clinically, histopathologically, and functionally by measuring mucosal permeability before surgery, after ileostomy, and after bowel reconstruction. In our case report, active collagenous colitis was combined with increased transcellular and paracellular mucosal permeability. Diversion of the faecal stream decreased inflammation of the mucosa and normalised epithelial degeneration and mucosal permeability. After restoration of bowel continuity, mucosal permeability was altered prior to the appearance of a collagenous layer.
Gut 09/2005; 54(8):1126-8. DOI:10.1136/gut.2004.058750 · 14.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an increased risk of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in patients with longstanding, extensive colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Primary sclerosing cholangitis, family history of CRC, mucosal dysplasia and DNA-aneuploidy are other risk factors. Recently, results from animal studies have shown that the bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has a favourable impact on experimentally-induced CRC/neoplasia in rats. The aim of this proof of the concept study was to explore the possible preventive/reverting effects of UDCA in patients with colorectal IBD with existing findings of low grade dysplasia and/or DNA-aneuploidy.
Nineteen patients (13 UC, 6 CD, median age 43 years) with long-standing, extensive IBD (median duration 21 years), with previous findings of low-grade dysplasia and/or DNA-aneuploidy, were randomized to receive either UDCA (500 mg b.i.d) (n=10) or placebo (n=9) in a controlled, double-blind, two-year study. Colonoscopy with multiple biopsies for histopathology and for DNA-flow cytometry was performed at the start and at six-month intervals during the study period. The primary outcome was the need for colectomy due to progression of dysplasia. Changes in dysplasia and DNA-aneuploidy scores were also assessed.
There were no significant differences in the overall composed score between the two groups, either at study start or during the study period. In the placebo group one patient had a progression of dysplasia into high-grade and one patient developed DALM with low-grade dysplasia; both had a colectomy. In contrast, no UDCA-treated patient had progression of dysplasia.
UDCA may prevent further progression of manifest low-grade dysplasia in colorectal IBD. Prolonged treatment or an increased dose may be needed to fully exploit the chemopreventive properties of this compound.
Anticancer research 09/2004; 24(5B):3121-7. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No surveillance is recommended after radical excision of low-risk adenomas (pedunculated adenoma irrespective of size, sessile adenoma < or = 10 mm, number < or = 2. An endoscopic check-up is recommended 3-6 months after radical excision of high-risk adenomas (sessile adenoma > 10 mm, number > or = 3), as well as after excision of a pedunculated or a sessile adenoma with an unclear resection margin. All above is irrespective of histopathological adenoma classification. An endoscopic check-up is recommended 3 months after radical excision of a highly or moderately differentiated malignant polyp with no sign of invasion into blood or lymph vessels and with a maximum invasion depth stage T1-sm1. Surgical resection is necessary if the malignant polyp is poorly differentiated, and/or invades into blood or lymph vessels, and/or is stage T1-sm3, or is excised with unclear resection margins. Treatment for stage T1-sm2 polyps may be individualized. Individuals with low-risk adenomas and a first degree relative with colorectal cancer, individuals having high-risk adenomas or malignant polyps removed, as well as individuals operated on for colorectal cancer should be subjected to colonoscopy after three years and then every fifth year when < or = 75 years of age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a reference to studies of DNA-ploidy and S- and G2/M-phase fractions in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, we describe the mucosa of normal individuals with respect to age and localization in the colon.
One hundred and sixty-five biopsies from the right, transverse and left colon from 44 subjects (20 men, 24 females, median age 55 years (range 21-80)) who were referred for colonoscopy due to rectal bleeding, diarrhoea or suspicion of neoplasia, but with normal macroscopic and microscopic findings, were analysed by DNA-flow cytometry for ploidy and cell cycle composition. The biopsies were immediately fixed in buffered formalin and then analysed by a method for high quality preparations of cell nuclei without any centrifugation steps, resulting in minimal cell damage and low frequencies of aggregates, making the background levels low in the DNA-histograms.
The median S-phase fraction of the biopsies, all diploid, was 2.35% (0.1-8.3). The S-phase fraction increased linearly with age (p = 0.001) and decreased from the right colon (median 2.75% (0.5-8.3)) over the transverse colon (median 2.3% (0.1-6.2)) to the left colon (median 1.9% (0.8-6.5), p < 0.02). The fraction of G2-cells (median 1.1%, range 0.2-5.1) increased significantly with increased S-phase fraction (p < 0.0001).
DNA-FCM analyses of normal colonic tissue demonstrate an age- and site-dependent variation with regard to cell proliferation. This variation has to be taken into consideration when biopsy specimens from chronic colitis mucosa are evaluated.
Anticancer research 11/2002; 22(6B):3437-41. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hydrolysis of sphingomyelin (SM) generates key molecules regulating cell growth. Animal cancer studies support an inhibitory role for this pathway in the malignant transformation of the colonic mucosa. The activity of a specific intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase (SMase), which hydrolyzes SM, is reduced in colorectal tumors. In this study we measured alkaline SMase activity in patients with longstanding colitis and assessed if a reduction can be used as a marker in surveillance of high risk patients.
Alkaline SMase activity was measured in 139 colonic biopsies from 34 patients with longstanding, extensive colitis and from 11 controls. Fifteen patients had earlier diagnosis of dysplasia or DNA aneuploidy. Alkaline SMase activity was related to histologic dysplasia and DNA aneuploidy assessed by flow cytometry, patient age, and duration of disease.
Alkaline SMase activity was significantly lower in the patient group with and without dysplasia compared with controls (p = 0.006). In biopsies, an association was not found between alkaline SMase activity, dysplasia, or DNA ploidy. However, alkaline SMase activity decreased with age both in patients and controls (p = 0.008).
Reduction of alkaline SMase activity seen in colorectal cancer and adenomas is also present in patients with chronic colitis. It is not complementary to dysplasia or DNA-aneuploidy in the identification of high risk patients. The age-associated decrease of alkaline SMase activity seems to be a general phenomenon indicating premature senescence of the mucosa in longstanding colitis.