D Giugliano

Second University of Naples, Caserta, Campania, Italy

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Publications (488)2958.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and inflammation, which disrupt nitric oxide (NO) production directly or by causing resistance to insulin, are central determinants of vascular diseases including ED. Decreased vascular NO has been linked to abdominal obesity, smoking and high intakes of fat and sugar, which all cause oxidative stress. Men with ED have decreased vascular NO and circulating and cellular antioxidants. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers are increased in men with ED, and all increase with age. Exercise increases vascular NO, and more frequent erections are correlated with decreased ED, both in part due to stimulation of endothelial NO production by shear stress. Exercise and weight loss increase insulin sensitivity and endothelial NO production. Potent antioxidants or high doses of weaker antioxidants increase vascular NO and improve vascular and erectile function. Antioxidants may be particularly important in men with ED who smoke, are obese or have diabetes. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammatory markers, decrease cardiac death and increase endothelial NO production, and are therefore critical for men with ED who are under age 60 years, and/or have diabetes, hypertension or coronary artery disease, who are at increased risk of serious or even fatal cardiac events. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors have recently been shown to improve antioxidant status and NO production and allow more frequent and sustained penile exercise. Some angiotensin II receptor blockers decrease oxidative stress and improve vascular and erectile function and are therefore preferred choices for lowering blood pressure in men with ED. Lifestyle modifications, including physical and penile-specific exercise, weight loss, omega-3 and folic acid supplements, reduced intakes of fat and sugar, and improved antioxidant status through diet and/or supplements should be integrated into any comprehensive approach to maximizing erectile function, resulting in greater overall success and patient satisfaction, as well as improved vascular health and longevity.
    International journal of impotence research 11/2011; 24(2):61-8. DOI:10.1038/ijir.2011.51 · 1.37 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes research and clinical practice 10/2011; 96(3):414-5. DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2011.09.007 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the efficacy of eight classes of diabetes medications used in current clinical practice [metformin, sulphonylureas, α-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, glinides, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues and insulin analogues] to reach the HbA1c target <7% in type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane CENTRAL were searched from inception through April 2011 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving antidiabetic drugs. RCTs had to report the effect of any diabetes medication on the HbA1c levels, to include at least 30 subjects in every arm of the study, and to report the effect of therapy after a minimum of 12 weeks. Data were summarized across studies using random-effects meta-regression. A total of 218 RCTs (339 arms and 77 950 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of patients who achieved the HbA1c goal ranged from 25.9% (95% CI 18.5-34.9) with α-glucosidase inhibitors to 63.2% (54.1-71.5) with the long-acting GLP-1 analogue. There was a progressive decrease of the proportion of patients at target for each 0.5% increase in baseline HbA1c, ranging from 57.8% for HbA1c ≤7.5% to 20.8% for HbA1c ≥10% (p for trend <0.0001), with some difference between insulin and non-insulin drugs: for insulin, the proportion of patients at goal reached a plateau for basal HbA1c value >9.0% with no further decrease, whereas for non-insulin drugs the relationship was continuous without any evidence of plateau. CONCLUSIONs: There is a considerable variability with regard to attainment of HbA1c goal of <7% among the different classes of diabetes medications; baseline HbA1c is an important determinant of observed efficacy.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 09/2011; 14(3):228-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01512.x · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and safety of insulin lispro protamine suspension (ILPS) versus insulin glargine once daily in a basal-bolus regimen in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Three hundred eighty-three insulin-treated patients were randomized to either ILPS plus lispro or glargine plus lispro in this open-label 24-week European study. Insulin doses were titrated to predefined blood glucose (BG) targets. Non-inferiority of ILPS versus glargine was assessed by comparing the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the change of HbA1c from baseline to week 24 (adjusted for country and baseline HbA1c) with the non-inferiority margin of 0.4%. Secondary endpoints included HbA1c categories, BG profiles, insulin doses, hypoglycaemic episodes, adverse events and vital signs. Non-inferiority of ILPS versus glargine in the change of HbA1c from baseline was shown: least-square mean between-treatment difference (95% CI) was 0.1% (-0.11; 0.31). Mean changes at week 24 were -1.05% (ILPS) and -1.20% (glargine). HbA1c <7.0% was achieved by 21.7 versus 29.4% of patients. Mean basal/mealtime insulin doses at week 24 were 29.6/36.2 IU/day (ILPS) versus 32.8/42.2 IU/day (glargine); the difference was not statistically significant for total dose (p = 0.7). In both groups, 56.1/25.7% versus 63.6/19.3% of patients experienced any/nocturnal hypoglycaemia (p = 0.2 for both). No relevant differences were noted in any other variables. A basal-bolus regimen with ILPS once daily resulted in non-inferior glycaemic control compared to a similar regimen with glargine, without statistically significant or clinically relevant differences in hypoglycaemia. ILPS-based regimens can be considered an alternative to basal-bolus regimens with glargine for T2DM patients.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 08/2011; 13(12):1149-57. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01484.x · 5.46 Impact Factor
  • Katherine Esposito, Dario Giugliano
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    ABSTRACT: Sexual problems are diffuse in both genders. Although epidemiologic evidence seems to support a role for lifestyle factors in erectile dysfunction, limited data are available suggesting the treatment of underlying risk factors may improve erectile dysfunction. The results are sparse regarding associations between lifestyle factors and female sexual dysfunction, and conclusions regarding influence of healthy behaviors on female sexual dysfunction cannot be made before more studies have been performed. Beyond the specific effects on sexual dysfunctions in men and women, adoption of these measures promotes a healthier life and increased well-being, which may help reduce the burden of sexual dysfunction.
    Urologic Clinics of North America 08/2011; 38(3):293-301. DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2011.04.006 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • Dario Giugliano, Katherine Esposito
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2011; 306(4):383. DOI:10.1001/jama.2011.1045 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    K Esposito, D Giugliano
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    ABSTRACT: Our understanding of the relationships between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and erectile dysfunction (ED) has advanced significantly over the past decades. Increase in visceral adiposity and related risk factors are associated with a proinflammatory state that results in decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability and activity that is responsible, at least in part, for endothelial injury and dysfunction as well as for ED. The reduced testosterone levels associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome may contribute to ED.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2011) 90 1, 169-173. doi:10.1038/clpt.2011.91
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 07/2011; 90(1):169-73. DOI:10.1038/clpt.2011.91 · 7.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We assessed the efficacy of exenatide and liraglutide to reach the HbA(1c) target of <7% in people with type 2 diabetes. We conducted an electronic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving GLP-1 agonists through September 2010. RCTs were included if they lasted at least 12 weeks, included 30 patients or more, and reported the proportion of patients reaching the HbA(1c) target of <7%. A total of 25 RCTs reporting 28 comparisons met the selection criteria, which included 9771 study participants evaluated for the primary endpoint, 5083 treated with a GLP-1 agonist and 4688 treated with placebo or a comparator drug. GLP-1 agonists showed a statistically significant reduction in HbA(1c) compared to placebo and the proportion of participants achieving the HbA(1c) goal <7% was 46% for exenatide, 47% for liraglutide, and 63% for exenatide LAR (long-acting release). Moreover, the reduction of the HbA(1c) level and the rate of HbA(1c) goal attainment were higher for both exenatide LAR and liraglutide, as compared to comparator drugs. Higher rates of hypoglycemia with exenatide b.i.d. and liraglutide compared to placebo were associated with the concomitant use of a sulfonylurea. Exenatide b.i.d. and liraglutide were associated with weight loss compared to placebo or other antidiabetic drugs. Baseline HbA(1c) was the best predictor for achievement of A1c target (overall weighted R(2) value = 0.513, p < 0.001). A greater proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes can achieve the HbA(1c) goal <7% with GLP-1 agonists compared to placebo or other antidiabetic drugs; in absolute terms, exenatide LAR was best for the attainment of the HbA(1c) goal.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 06/2011; 27(8):1519-28. DOI:10.1185/03007995.2011.590127 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin analogues are increasingly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the role of insulin analogues to reach different hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) targets (from 6.5% to 8%) in type 2 diabetic patients. RCTs involving insulin regimens (basal, prandial, biphasic, and basal-bolus) with insulin analogues in type 2 diabetes were identified through electronic searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library) through August 2010. We included any study arm of RCTs if they were at least 12 weeks in duration, and reported HbA1c as an outcome and the proportion of diabetic patients reaching the HbA1c target of <7%. The proportion of patients with HbA1c <6.5%, <7.0%, <7.5%, and <8.0% was estimated using mean and standard deviation of HbA1c at the end of treatment. We identified 53 RCTs, with 92 arms, and 32,689 patients. The proportion of patients at target was highest with the basal-bolus regimen, and ranged from 27.8% (95% CI, 22.2-34%) for the HbA1c target <6.5% to 88% (CI 83-92%) for the HbA1c target <8%. Biphasic insulin regimen ranked second at any HbA1c target, while prandial and basal regimens alternated across different HbA1c targets. At any HbA1c target, basal-bolus insulin regimens with insulin analogues obtained the best results, which may be useful for detailing the best treatment effect in individual patients.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 05/2011; 25(4):275-81. DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2011.03.005 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are markers of endothelial injury and repair. We compared the effects of pioglitazone versus metformin on the circulating numbers of EMPs and EPCs in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. This was a randomized, double-blind, comparator-controlled, 24-week single-centre trial conducted in a Teaching Hospital in Naples, Italy. One hundred and ten people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes who were never treated with antihyperglycaemic drugs and had haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels between 7 and 10% were given pioglitazone hydrochloride (15-45 mg/day) (n = 55) or metformin (1000-2000 mg/day) (n = 55) as an active comparator. Absolute change from baseline to final visit in circulating EMPs and EPCs and their ratio were the main outcomes. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the study groups. The decrease in circulating EMPs CD31+ [intergroup difference, -32 counts/µl (95% CI -51 to -9)] and the increase in EPCs CD34+/KDR+ [intergroup difference, 33 cells/10(6) events (95% CI 13 to 55)] were greater with pioglitazone versus metformin. EMPs/EPCs ratio was reduced with pioglitazone and unchanged with metformin [difference, -1.5 (95% CI -2.6 to -0.5), p < 0.001]. Participants assigned to pioglitazone gained more weight and experienced greater improvements in some coronary risk measures [high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP)] than did those assigned to metformin. Compared with metformin, pioglitazone treatment improved the imbalance between endothelial damage and repair capacity and led to more favourable changes in coronary risk factors in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 05/2011; 13(5):439-45. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01367.x · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with insulin analogues in type 2 diabetes utilising a least-squared regression model in order to assess the relationship between baseline HbA1c, the magnitude of HbA1c decrease and attainment of HbA1c target of < 7%. Randomised controlled trials involving insulin regimens (basal, prandial, biphasic and basal-bolus) were identified through electronic searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library) through September 2010. We included any study arm of RCTs if they were at least 12 weeks in duration; the number of patients in any arm was more than 30 and reported the baseline HbA1c and change from baseline HbA1c. We found 87 studies, with a total of 135 arms, and 38,803 patients. The weighted R(2) values for the overall analysis assessing the association between baseline HbA1c and absolute change in HbA1c or the proportion of patients at target were 0.485 (p < 0.001) and 0.146 (p < 0.001), respectively. Subanalyses of insulin regimens for the association between basal HbA1c and absolute decrease of HbA1c produced weighted R(2), which were significant for all insulin regimens with the highest association for basal-bolus (R(2) = 0.719, p < 0.001). The strong positive relationship between baseline HbA1c and the magnitude of HbA1c change we found in RCTs using insulin analogues in type 2 diabetes should be considered when assessing the clinical efficacy of insulin therapies.
    International Journal of Clinical Practice 05/2011; 65(5):602-12. DOI:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2010.02619.x · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Dario Giugliano, Katherine Esposito
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 04/2011; 305(15):1591-2. DOI:10.1001/jama.2011.490 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness of insulin regimens (basal, biphasic, prandial, and basal-bolus) with insulin analogues to reach the haemoglobin A1c target of <7% in patients with type 2 diabetes. We identified 48 trials, with 85 arms and 30,588 patients. There were 38 arms using basal insulin, with 17,588 patients, and a primary outcome of 41.4% (95% CI=35.6-47.4%); 26 arms using biphasic insulin, with 9237 patients, and a primary outcome of 46.5% (40.8-52.3%); 9 arms using prandial insulin, with 1605 patients, and a primary outcome of 39.6% (95% CI, 28.6-51.3%); and 12 arms using basal-bolus insulin, with 2114 patients, and a primary outcome of 53.9% (43.5-64). The high heterogeneity was related, in part, to first time insulin use, final insulin dose, and use of oral drug. The overall incidence of hypoglycaemia ranged from 0 to 4.71 events/patient/30 days; weight gain ranged from 1.75 kg for basal to 3 kg for biphasic insulin. The HbA1c target of <7% can be achieved in a percentage of type 2 diabetic patients ranging from 40% to 54% depending on the particular insulin regimen.
    Diabetes research and clinical practice 04/2011; 92(1):1-10. DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2010.08.006 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to meta-analyze epidemiological studies and clinical trials that have assessed the effect of a Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as its components. The Mediterranean diet has long been associated with low cardiovascular disease risk in adult population. The authors conducted a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials, including English-language publications in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until April 30, 2010; 50 original research studies (35 clinical trials, 2 prospective and 13 cross-sectional), with 534,906 participants, were included in the analysis. The combined effect of prospective studies and clinical trials showed that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of MS (log hazard ratio: -0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.24 to -1.16). Additionally, results from clinical studies (mean difference, 95% CI) revealed the protective role of the Mediterranean diet on components of MS, like waist circumference (-0.42 cm, 95% CI: -0.82 to -0.02), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.17 mg/dl, 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.96), triglycerides (-6.14 mg/dl, 95% CI: -10.35 to -1.93), systolic (-2.35 mm Hg, 95% CI: -3.51 to -1.18) and diastolic blood pressure (-1.58 mm Hg, 95% CI: -2.02 to -1.13), and glucose (-3.89 mg/dl, 95% CI:-5.84 to -1.95), whereas results from epidemiological studies also confirmed those of clinical trials. These results are of considerable public health importance, because this dietary pattern can be easily adopted by all population groups and various cultures and cost-effectively serve for primary and secondary prevention of the MS and its individual components.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2011; 57(11):1299-313. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.073 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of insulin regimens with insulin analogs to reach the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) target of <7% in patients with type 2 diabetes. RCTs involving insulin regimens (basal, prandial, biphasic, and basal-bolus) with insulin analogs in type 2 diabetes were identified through electronic searches [MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and The Cochrane Library] through September, 2010. We included any study arm of RCTs if they were at least 12 weeks in duration and reported HbA1c as an outcome. We identified 55 RCTs, with 96 arms and 33,244 patients, that reported the HbA1c target, and 32 RCTs, with 32 arms and 5,559 patients, that did not report the target. The missing targets were calculated with an algorithm that explained 88% of variability between studies. Overall, the proportion of patients at target (HbA1c <7%) was 37.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 31.5-43.1%] with basal insulin, 35.3% (28.9-42.1%) with biphasic insulin, 37.5% (27.7-47.9%) with prandial insulin, and 51.2% (41.4-61.1%) for basal-bolus insulin, with high heterogeneity (I(2) >80% for all). The HbA1c target <7% can be achieved in a proportion of patients ranging from 35% to 51%, depending on the particular insulin regimen. At least one half of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin analogs do not reach the HbA1c target.
    Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 03/2011; 9(3):167-76. DOI:10.1089/met.2010.0134 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion. However, GLP-1 also improves endothelial function in diabetes. Sixteen type 2 diabetic patients and 12 control subjects received a meal, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and two hyperglycemic clamps, with or without GLP-1. The clamps were repeated in diabetic patients after 2 months of strict glycemic control. During the meal, glycemia, nitrotyrosine, and plasma 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2a) remained unchanged in the control subjects, whereas they increased in diabetic patients. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) decreased in diabetes, whereas GLP-1 increased in both groups. During the OGTT, an increase in glycemia, nitrotyrosine, and 8-iso-PGF2a and a decrease in FMD were observed at 1 h in the control subjects and at 1 and 2 h in the diabetic patients. In the same way, GLP-1 increased in both groups at the same levels of the meal. During the clamps, in both the control subjects and the diabetic patients, a significant increase in nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a and a decrease in FMD were observed, effects that were significantly reduced by GLP-1. After improved glycemic control, hyperglycemia during the clamps was less effective in producing oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction and the GLP-1 administration was most effective in reducing these effects. Our data suggest that during the meal GLP-1 can simultaneously exert an incretin effect on insulin secretion and a protective effect on endothelial function, reasonably controlling oxidative stress generation. The ability of GLP-1 in protecting endothelial function seems to depend on the level of glycemia, a phenomenon already described for insulin secretion.
    Diabetes care 02/2011; 34(3):697-702. DOI:10.2337/dc10-1949 · 8.57 Impact Factor
  • D Giugliano, K Esposito
    Diabetic Medicine 02/2011; 28(2):247. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03155.x · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the efficacy of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors vildagliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin and alogliptin to reach the haemoglobin HbA1c target of <7% in people with type 2 diabetes. We conducted an electronic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving DPP-4 inhibitors through September 2010. RCTs were included if they lasted at least 12 weeks, included 30 patients or more and reported the proportion of patients reaching the HbA1c target of <7%. A total of 43 RCTs reporting 52 comparisons met the selection criteria, which included 19 101 study participants evaluated for the primary endpoint, 10 467 treated with a DPP-4 inhibitor and 8634 treated with placebo or a comparator drug. DPP-4 inhibitors showed a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c compared to placebo and approximately 40% of participants achieved the HbA1c goal of <7%: this was associated with weight neutrality and no greater hypoglycaemia. The reduction of the HbA1c level and the rate of HbA1c goal attainment was not different from comparator drugs, with similar hypoglycaemia, and different effect on weight owing to the nature of comparator (metformin, sulfonylurea or glitazones). Baseline HbA1c was the best predictor for achievement of A1C target (overall weighted r(2) value = 0.410, p < 0.001). A greater proportion of type 2 diabetic patients can achieve the HbA1c goal <7% with DPP-4 inhibitors compared to placebo, with no weight gain, and no hypoglycaemic risk when used alone; DPP-4 inhibitors were not different from comparator drugs.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 02/2011; 13(7):594-603. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01380.x · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin analogs are increasingly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. We compared the effect of basal, biphasic, prandial, and basal-bolus insulin regimens with insulin analogs to reach the hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) target of <7% in people with type 2 diabetes. We conducted an electronic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving insulin analogs. RCTs were included if they lasted at least 12 weeks, reported the proportion of diabetic patients reaching the HbA(1c) target of <7% (primary outcome), and the number of patients in any arm was >30. We found 16 RCTs, with 20 comparisons and 7,759 patients. A greater proportion of patients achieved the HbA(1c) goal of <7% with both biphasic (odds ratio 1.88 [95% CI 1.38-2.55]) and prandial (2.07 [1.16-3.69]) insulin compared with basal insulin; this was associated for biphasic insulin with greater hypoglycemia (event/patient/30 days, mean difference, 0.34 [range 0-0.69]) and weight gain in kg (1.0 kg [0.28-1.73]). Compared with biphasic insulin, the basal-bolus regimen was associated with a greater chance to reach the HbA(1c) goal (odds ratio 1.75 [95% CI 1.11-2.77]), with no greater hypoglycemia or weight gain. The effect of insulin analogs on long-term diabetes complications is still lacking. A greater proportion of type 2 diabetic patients can achieve the HbA(1c) goal <7% with biphasic or prandial insulin compared with basal insulin; in absolute terms, the basal-bolus regimen was best for the attainment of the HbA(1c) goal.
    Diabetes care 02/2011; 34(2):510-7. DOI:10.2337/dc10-1710 · 8.57 Impact Factor
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    Archives of internal medicine 02/2011; 171(4):365-6. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.4 · 13.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
2,958.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1978–2015
    • Second University of Naples
      • • Faculty of Medicine and Surgery
      • • Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biofisica e Patologia Generale
      Caserta, Campania, Italy
  • 1991–2014
    • Naples Eastern University
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 2007
    • The University of Warwick
      • Warwick Medical School (WMS)
      Coventry, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1997–2006
    • University of Udine
      • Department of Medical and Biological Sciences
      Udine, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 2005
    • Università degli Studi di Messina
      Messina, Sicily, Italy
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1976–2005
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1980–1996
    • University of Liège
      • Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders Unit
      Luik, Walloon, Belgium
  • 1995
    • Interactive Institute
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1990
    • Bologna Center
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1986
    • Università degli Studi di Napoli L'Orientale
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1980–1981
    • Istituto Medicina Sport Torino
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy