D Giugliano

Second University of Naples, Caserta, Campania, Italy

Are you D Giugliano?

Claim your profile

Publications (476)2660.95 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of insulin regimens with insulin analogs to reach the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) target of <7% in patients with type 2 diabetes. RCTs involving insulin regimens (basal, prandial, biphasic, and basal-bolus) with insulin analogs in type 2 diabetes were identified through electronic searches [MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and The Cochrane Library] through September, 2010. We included any study arm of RCTs if they were at least 12 weeks in duration and reported HbA1c as an outcome. We identified 55 RCTs, with 96 arms and 33,244 patients, that reported the HbA1c target, and 32 RCTs, with 32 arms and 5,559 patients, that did not report the target. The missing targets were calculated with an algorithm that explained 88% of variability between studies. Overall, the proportion of patients at target (HbA1c <7%) was 37.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 31.5-43.1%] with basal insulin, 35.3% (28.9-42.1%) with biphasic insulin, 37.5% (27.7-47.9%) with prandial insulin, and 51.2% (41.4-61.1%) for basal-bolus insulin, with high heterogeneity (I(2) >80% for all). The HbA1c target <7% can be achieved in a proportion of patients ranging from 35% to 51%, depending on the particular insulin regimen. At least one half of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin analogs do not reach the HbA1c target.
    Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 03/2011; 9(3):167-76.
  • D Giugliano, K Esposito
    Diabetic Medicine 02/2011; 28(2):247. · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Katherine Esposito, Dario Giugliano
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Commentary on: CarterPGrayLJTroughtonJ. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ2010;341:c4229.
    Evidence-based medicine 02/2011; 16(1):27-8.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Insulin analogs are increasingly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. We compared the effect of basal, biphasic, prandial, and basal-bolus insulin regimens with insulin analogs to reach the hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) target of <7% in people with type 2 diabetes. We conducted an electronic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving insulin analogs. RCTs were included if they lasted at least 12 weeks, reported the proportion of diabetic patients reaching the HbA(1c) target of <7% (primary outcome), and the number of patients in any arm was >30. We found 16 RCTs, with 20 comparisons and 7,759 patients. A greater proportion of patients achieved the HbA(1c) goal of <7% with both biphasic (odds ratio 1.88 [95% CI 1.38-2.55]) and prandial (2.07 [1.16-3.69]) insulin compared with basal insulin; this was associated for biphasic insulin with greater hypoglycemia (event/patient/30 days, mean difference, 0.34 [range 0-0.69]) and weight gain in kg (1.0 kg [0.28-1.73]). Compared with biphasic insulin, the basal-bolus regimen was associated with a greater chance to reach the HbA(1c) goal (odds ratio 1.75 [95% CI 1.11-2.77]), with no greater hypoglycemia or weight gain. The effect of insulin analogs on long-term diabetes complications is still lacking. A greater proportion of type 2 diabetic patients can achieve the HbA(1c) goal <7% with biphasic or prandial insulin compared with basal insulin; in absolute terms, the basal-bolus regimen was best for the attainment of the HbA(1c) goal.
    Diabetes care 02/2011; 34(2):510-7. · 7.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We assessed the efficacy of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors vildagliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin and alogliptin to reach the haemoglobin HbA1c target of <7% in people with type 2 diabetes. We conducted an electronic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving DPP-4 inhibitors through September 2010. RCTs were included if they lasted at least 12 weeks, included 30 patients or more and reported the proportion of patients reaching the HbA1c target of <7%. A total of 43 RCTs reporting 52 comparisons met the selection criteria, which included 19 101 study participants evaluated for the primary endpoint, 10 467 treated with a DPP-4 inhibitor and 8634 treated with placebo or a comparator drug. DPP-4 inhibitors showed a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c compared to placebo and approximately 40% of participants achieved the HbA1c goal of <7%: this was associated with weight neutrality and no greater hypoglycaemia. The reduction of the HbA1c level and the rate of HbA1c goal attainment was not different from comparator drugs, with similar hypoglycaemia, and different effect on weight owing to the nature of comparator (metformin, sulfonylurea or glitazones). Baseline HbA1c was the best predictor for achievement of A1C target (overall weighted r(2) value = 0.410, p < 0.001). A greater proportion of type 2 diabetic patients can achieve the HbA1c goal <7% with DPP-4 inhibitors compared to placebo, with no weight gain, and no hypoglycaemic risk when used alone; DPP-4 inhibitors were not different from comparator drugs.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 02/2011; 13(7):594-603. · 5.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Archives of internal medicine 02/2011; 171(4):365-6. · 11.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Cardiology research and practice. 01/2011; 2011:386892.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are markers of endothelial injury and repair. We compared the effects of pioglitazone versus metformin on the circulating numbers of EMPs and EPCs in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. This was a randomized, double-blind, comparator-controlled, 24-week single-centre trial conducted in a Teaching Hospital in Naples, Italy. One hundred and ten people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes who were never treated with antihyperglycaemic drugs and had haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels between 7 and 10% were given pioglitazone hydrochloride (15-45 mg/day) (n = 55) or metformin (1000-2000 mg/day) (n = 55) as an active comparator. Absolute change from baseline to final visit in circulating EMPs and EPCs and their ratio were the main outcomes. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the study groups. The decrease in circulating EMPs CD31+ [intergroup difference, -32 counts/µl (95% CI -51 to -9)] and the increase in EPCs CD34+/KDR+ [intergroup difference, 33 cells/10(6) events (95% CI 13 to 55)] were greater with pioglitazone versus metformin. EMPs/EPCs ratio was reduced with pioglitazone and unchanged with metformin [difference, -1.5 (95% CI -2.6 to -0.5), p < 0.001]. Participants assigned to pioglitazone gained more weight and experienced greater improvements in some coronary risk measures [high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP)] than did those assigned to metformin. Compared with metformin, pioglitazone treatment improved the imbalance between endothelial damage and repair capacity and led to more favourable changes in coronary risk factors in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 01/2011; 13(5):439-45. · 5.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the effects of a Mediterranean-style diet, with or without calorie restriction, on biomarkers of aging and oxidative stress in overweight men. 192 men were randomly assigned to either a Mediterranean-style diet or a conventional diet. The intervention program was based on implementation of a Mediterranean dietary pattern in the overweight group (MED diet group), associated with calorie restriction and increased physical activity in the obese group (lifestyle group). Both groups were compared with participants in two matched control groups (advice groups). After 2 years, there was a significant difference in weight loss between groups, which was -14 kg (95% CI -20 to -8) in lifestyle groups and -2.0 kg (-4.4 to 0) in the advice groups, with a difference of -11.9 kg (CI -19 to -4.7 kg, P < .001); moreover, there was a significant difference between groups at 2 years for insulin (P = .04), 8-iso-PGF2α (P = .037), glucose (P = .04), and adiponectin (P = .01). Prolonged adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet, with or without caloric restriction, in overweight or obese men is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better cardiovascular risk profile, reduced oxidative stress, and improved insulin sensitivity.
    Cardiology research and practice. 01/2011; 2011:293916.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion. However, GLP-1 also improves endothelial function in diabetes. Sixteen type 2 diabetic patients and 12 control subjects received a meal, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and two hyperglycemic clamps, with or without GLP-1. The clamps were repeated in diabetic patients after 2 months of strict glycemic control. During the meal, glycemia, nitrotyrosine, and plasma 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2a) remained unchanged in the control subjects, whereas they increased in diabetic patients. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) decreased in diabetes, whereas GLP-1 increased in both groups. During the OGTT, an increase in glycemia, nitrotyrosine, and 8-iso-PGF2a and a decrease in FMD were observed at 1 h in the control subjects and at 1 and 2 h in the diabetic patients. In the same way, GLP-1 increased in both groups at the same levels of the meal. During the clamps, in both the control subjects and the diabetic patients, a significant increase in nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a and a decrease in FMD were observed, effects that were significantly reduced by GLP-1. After improved glycemic control, hyperglycemia during the clamps was less effective in producing oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction and the GLP-1 administration was most effective in reducing these effects. Our data suggest that during the meal GLP-1 can simultaneously exert an incretin effect on insulin secretion and a protective effect on endothelial function, reasonably controlling oxidative stress generation. The ability of GLP-1 in protecting endothelial function seems to depend on the level of glycemia, a phenomenon already described for insulin secretion.
    Diabetes care 01/2011; 34(3):697-702. · 7.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lifestyle intervention may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dietary patterns in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We did an electronic search through November 30, 2009, for prospective studies that evaluated the role of dietary patterns in type 2 diabetes prevention. Ten large prospective studies were identified, comprising more than 190,000 subjects free of diabetes at baseline, followed for a time ranging from 2 to 23 years, and 8,932 cases of incident diabetes. All ten studies showed consistent results: Relative risk reduction of type 2 diabetes ranged from 83% to 15%. Overall, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern was associated with reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes: Combined mean difference  = -0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.54 to -0.24. The reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes was still present after sensitivity analysis (-0.34, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.24). Dietary patterns characterized by high consumption of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, fish, and poultry, and by decreased consumption of red meat, processed foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, and starchy foods may retard the progression of type 2 diabetes. Healthy diets can help people to live more years without type 2 diabetes.
    Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 10/2010; 8(6):471-6.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The epidemiological evidence supporting a causal link between Mediterranean diets and body weight is contrasting. We evaluated the effect of Mediterranean diets on body weight in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using a meta-analysis. We searched English and non-English publications in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to January, 2010. Two evaluators independently selected and reviewed eligible studies. Sixteen randomized controlled trials, with 19 arms and 3,436 participants (1,848 assigned to a Mediterranean diet and 1,588 assigned to a control diet) were included. In a random-effects meta-analysis of all 19 arms, the Mediterranean diet group had a significant effect on weight [mean difference between Mediterranean diet and control diet, -1.75 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.86 to -0.64 kg] and body mass index (mean difference, -0.57 kg/m², -0.93 to -0.21 kg/m²). The effect of Mediterranean diet on body weight was greater in association with energy restriction (mean difference, -3.88 kg, -6.54 to -1.21 kg), increased physical activity (-4.01 kg, -5.79 to -2.23 kg), and follow up longer than 6 months (-2.69 kg, -3.99 to -1.38 kg). No study reported significant weight gain with a Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean diet may be a useful tool to reduce body weight, especially when the Mediterranean diet is energy-restricted, associated with physical activity, and more than 6 months in length. Mediterranean diet does not cause weight gain, which removes the objection to its relatively high fat content. These results may be useful for helping people to lose weight.
    Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 10/2010; 9(1):1-12.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic review of the available studies that assessed the effect of a Mediterranean diet in type 2 diabetes. We searched publications up to 30 November 2009. Seventeen studies were included. Two large prospective studies report a substantially lower risk (83% and 35%, respectively) of type 2 diabetes in healthy people or in post-infarct patients with the highest adherence to a Mediterranean diet. Five randomized controlled trials have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean diet, as compared with other commonly used diets, on indices of glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Improvement of fasting glucose and HbA1c levels was greater with a Mediterranean diet and ranged from 7 to 40mg/dl for fasting glucose, and from 0.1 to 0.6% for HbA1c. No trial reported worsening of glycaemic control with a Mediterranean diet. Two controlled trials in a secondary prevention setting demonstrated that post-infarct patients, including diabetic patients, had cardiovascular benefits from a Mediterranean diet. The evidence so far accumulated suggests that adopting a Mediterranean diet may help prevent type 2 diabetes, and also improve glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk in persons with established diabetes.
    Diabetes research and clinical practice 08/2010; 89(2):97-102. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the possibility of reversing endothelial dysfunction and inflammation by glucose normalization, antioxidants and insulin per se, in different subgroups of Type 1 diabetic patients. Three subgroups of Type 1 diabetic patients were studied: patients within 1 month of diagnosis (subgroup 1); patients with approximately 5 years' disease duration and with glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) <or= 7.0% (subgroup 2) or > 7.0% since diagnosis (subgroup 3). Participants underwent four procedures: 2-h hyperglycaemic clamp followed by: (A) 12 h near-normalization of blood glucose, with the addition of vitamin C during the last 6 h; (B) 12-h vitamin C and near-normalization of blood glucose for the last 6 h; (C) both vitamin C and near-normalization of blood glucose for 12 h; (D) hyperglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp for 12 h, with the addition of vitamin C during the last 6 h. After 2 h of hyperglycaemia, markers of endothelial dysfunction, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-18 were increased in all the subgroups. Levels were normalized, at all time points, by treatments A, B and C in the subgroups 1 and 2. In the third subgroup, levels were normalized only by the simultaneous normalization of blood glucose and vitamin C treatment. During treatment D, the levels were improved at 6 h in all the subgroups, but normalized at 12 h only after vitamin C in subgroups 1 and 2, but not in subgroup 3. This study suggests that different subgroups of Type 1 diabetic patients react identically to acute hyperglycaemia and insulin, but differently to glucose normalization.
    Diabetic Medicine 08/2010; 27(8):911-7. · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Dario Giugliano, Katherine Esposito
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2010; 304(4):405; author reply 406-7. · 29.98 Impact Factor
  • Katherine Esposito, Dario Giugliano
    Archives of internal medicine 07/2010; 170(14):1270-1. · 11.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although epidemiological evidence seems to support a role for lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED), limited data are available suggesting that dietary changes may improve ED. To provide an update on clinical evidence regarding the role of dietary factors in ED. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE and other database (EMBASE, SCOPUS) with MeSH terms and keywords for "erectile dysfunction", "diet", "dietary patterns", "Mediterranean diet", and "lifestyle". To examine the data relating to erectile dysfunction with dietary factors, its relationship and the impact of dietary treatment. Only few studies assessed the role or the effect of diet on ED. A dietary pattern which is high in fruit, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and fish but low in red and processed meat and refined grains is more represented in subjects without ED. Mediterranean diet has been proposed as a healthy dietary pattern based on evidence that greater adherence to this diet is associated with lower all-cause and disease-specific survival. In type 2 diabetic men, those with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean diet had the lowest prevalence of ED and were more likely to be sexually active. In clinical trials, Mediterranean diet was more effective than a control diet in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome. The adoption of a Mediterranean diet may be associated with an improvement of erectile dysfunction.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 07/2010; 7(7):2338-45. · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies assessing sexual dysfunction in type 2 diabetic women are scanty. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of female sexual function in a quite large population of diabetic women. A total of 595 women with type 2 diabetes completed a questionnaire of self-report measures of sexual dysfunction and were analyzed in this study. Their age was 57.9+/-6.9 (mean and s.d.), duration of diabetes was 5.2+/-1.5 years and mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level was 8.3+/-1.3%. Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index instrument with a cut-off score of 23. The overall prevalence of FSD among the diabetic women was 53.4%, significantly higher in menopausal women (63.9%), as compared with nonmenopausal women (41.0%, P<0.001). There was no association between HbA1c, duration of diabetes, hypertension, or cigarette smoking status and FSD; on the contrary, age, metabolic syndrome and atherogenic dyslipidemia were significantly associated with FSD. Both depression and marital status were independent predictors of FSD, while physical activity was protective. Further studies are needed to elucidate in full the mechanisms underlying the evident differences between male and female sexual function. In the meantime, evaluation of female sexuality should become a routine evaluation in women with type 2 diabetes, such as other diabetic complications.
    International journal of impotence research 04/2010; 22(3):179-84. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Olive oil (OO) is the most representative food of the traditional Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet). Increasing evidence suggests that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as a nutrient, OO as a food, and the MedDiet as a food pattern are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. A MedDiet rich in OO and OO per se has been shown to improve cardiovascular risk factors, such as lipid profiles, blood pressure, postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and antithrombotic profiles. Some of these beneficial effects can be attributed to the OO minor components. Therefore, the definition of the MedDiet should include OO. Phenolic compounds in OO have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, prevent lipoperoxidation, induce favorable changes of lipid profile, improve endothelial function, and disclose antithrombotic properties. Observational studies from Mediterranean cohorts have suggested that dietary MUFA may be protective against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies consistently support the concept that the OO-rich MedDiet is compatible with healthier aging and increased longevity. In countries where the population adheres to the MedDiet, such as Spain, Greece and Italy, and OO is the principal source of fat, rates of cancer incidence are lower than in northern European countries. Experimental and human cellular studies have provided new evidence on the potential protective effect of OO on cancer. Furthermore, results of case-control and cohort studies suggest that MUFA intake including OO is associated with a reduction in cancer risk (mainly breast, colorectal and prostate cancers).
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 03/2010; 20(4):284-94. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of ED in a population of diabetic men. Consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited among outpatients regularly attending Diabetes Clinics. Inclusion criteria for the initial selection of patients were a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes for at least 6 months but less than 10 years, age 35-70 years, body mass index (BMI) of 24 or higher, HbA1c of 6.5% or higher: a total of 555 (90.8%) of the 611 men were analyzed in this study. ED was assessed by the IIEF-5 instrument. Approximately, 6 in 10 men in our sample of diabetic men had varying degrees of erectile dysfunction: mild 9%, mild to moderate 11.2%, moderate 16.9% and severe 22.9%. The prevalence of severe ED increased with age. Higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were associated with ED; similarly, the presence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia (low levels of HDL-cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides) and depression was associated with ED. Physical activity was protective of ED; men with higher levels of physical activity were 10% less likely to have ED as compared with those with the lowest level. In conclusion, among subjects with type 2 diabetes glycemic control and other metabolic covariates were associated with ED risk, whereas higher level of physical activity was protective. These results encourage the implementation of current medical guidelines that place intensive lifestyle changes as the first step of the management of type 2 diabetes.
    International journal of impotence research 02/2010; 22(3):204-9. · 2.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

13k Citations
2,660.95 Total Impact Points


  • 1978–2014
    • Second University of Naples
      • • Faculty of Medicine and Surgery
      • • Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biofisica e Patologia Generale
      • • Centro di Eccellenza di Ricerca sulle Malattie Cardiovascolari
      Caserta, Campania, Italy
  • 2012
    • Ospedale San Giovanni Battista, ACISMOM
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2011
    • Lilly Deutschland GmbH
      Homburg vor der Höhe, Hesse, Germany
    • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Athens, Attiki, Greece
  • 2010–2011
    • IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2007–2009
    • The University of Warwick
      • Warwick Medical School (WMS)
      Coventry, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1992–2005
    • University of Udine
      • Department of Medical and Biological Sciences
      Udine, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 2004
    • Università degli Studi del Sannio
      Benevento, Campania, Italy
  • 1976–2004
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology
      Napoli, Campania, Italy