[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to examine the effect of a 6-month daily treatment with 160 mg valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, on the left ventricular systolic function and aortic elasticity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and healthy subjects. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Thirteen healthy control subjects and 11 patients with T2DM were enrolled in the study. Eight control subjects and 4 T2DM patients completed the study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was used to evaluate the effect of valsartan on the left ventricular function and aortic elasticity. At baseline, T2DM patients had increased left ventricular mass (P = .006) when compared with the healthy controls. In the T2DM patients, treatment with valsartan, in comparison with receiving placebo, resulted in a reduction of aortic radius (P = .026) and wall thickness (P = .032) of the ascending aorta. In the abdominal aorta, valsartan treatment, when compared with placebo treatment, reduced the arterial compliance (P = .014) in the T2DM patients. Valsartan treatment for 6 months decreased the diameter and wall thickness of the ascending aorta in patients with T2DM, but may decrease AC of the abdominal aorta.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sustainable lifestyle modifications in diet and physical activity are the initial, and often the primary, component in the management of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. An energy-prudent diet, coupled with moderate levels of physical activity, favorably affects several parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delays the onset of diabetic complications. Weight loss, albeit not an absolute prerequisite for improvement, is a major determinant and maximizes effectiveness. Adopting a healthy lifestyle pattern requires a series of long-term behavioral changes, but evidence to date indicates low long-term adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations. This calls for greater research and public health efforts focusing on strategies to facilitate behavior modification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: •
Obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome have become world-wide health problems of epidemic proportions with important
These closely related conditions have become the “plague” of the modern era, and measures on a global public health scale
will be needed to stem the tide.
This chapter focuses first on diagnostic criteria and then on lifestyle modification and medical management of the individual
patient with these disorders.
Key WordsObesity–Diabetes–Metabolic syndrome
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin is an adipocyte secreted hormone and an important regulator of neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune function. Both r-metHuLeptin and IGF1 administration result in reduced central adipose tissue in subjects with highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced metabolic syndrome (HAART-MS) but whether the effects of leptin are mediated through increasing IGF levels remains unknown.
To assess whether r-metHuLeptin improves the HAART-MS by regulating circulating IGF and IGFBPs, we first conducted a cross-sectional study of 118 men and women with HIV infection and >6 months of exposure to antiretroviral medications to examine any association between circulating IGF1 and leptin levels. We also performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of recombinant human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) administration to seven HIV positive men with lipoatrophy and leptin deficiency (leptin <3 ng/ml) related to antiretroviral medication use.
In the observational study, leptin levels were inversely associated with circulating IGF1 levels after adjusting for age and gender (r=0.27 P=0.002), but this inverse association became non-significant after adjustment for % body fat and exercise. In the interventional leptin study, leptin levels increased significantly during r-metHuLeptin treatment (from 1.34+/-0.20 ng/ml at baseline to 17+/-5.05 ng/ml after 8 weeks P=0.046) and metabolic parameters improved including reduced fasting insulin levels and reduced homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Despite the increase in circulating leptin levels, there was no change in IGF1, IGF2, free IGF1, or IGF-binding proteins during the 2-month treatment period.
The effects of r-metHuLeptin in patients with HAART-MS are not mediated through increasing IGF or IGFBP levels.
European Journal of Endocrinology 12/2008; 160(2):173-6. DOI:10.1530/EJE-08-0597 · 4.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: States of acute and chronic energy deficit are characterized by increased GH secretion and decreased IGF-I levels. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether changes in levels of leptin, a key mediator of the adaptation to starvation, regulate the GH-IGF system during energy deficit.
We studied 14 healthy normal-weight men and women during three conditions: baseline fed and 72-h fasting (to induce hypoleptinemia) with administration of placebo or recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) (to reverse the fasting associated hypoleptinemia). We also studied eight normal-weight women with exercise-induced chronic energy deficit and hypothalamic amenorrhea at baseline and during 2-3 months of r-metHuLeptin treatment.
GH pulsatility, IGF levels, IGF and GH binding protein (GHBP) levels were measured.
During short-term energy deficit, measures of GH pulsatility and disorderliness and levels of IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 increased, whereas leptin, insulin, IGF-I (total and free), IGFBP-4, IGFBP-6, and GHBP decreased; r-metHuLeptin administration blunted the starvation-associated decrease of IGF-I. In chronic energy deficit, total and free IGF-I, IGFBP-6, and GHBP levels were lower, compared with euleptinemic controls; r-metHuLeptin administration had no major effect on GH pulsatility after 2 wk but increased total IGF-I levels and tended to increase free IGF-I and IGFBP-3 after 1 month.
The GH/IGF system changes associated with energy deficit are largely independent of leptin deficiency. During acute energy deficit, r-metHuLeptin administration in replacement doses blunts the starvation-induced decrease of IGF-I, but during chronic energy deficit, r-metHuLeptin administration increases IGF-I and tends to increase free IGF-I and IGFBP-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin and the pancreatic hormones amylin and pancreatic polypeptide are being evaluated alone or in combination for the treatment of obesity, but their physiological regulation has not yet been fully elucidated. Thus, we examined whether amylin and pancreatic polypeptide are regulated by caloric intake and/or short- and long-term energy deprivation and whether any potential regulation is mediated by changes in leptin levels.
We measured circulating levels of amylin and pancreatic polypeptide after 1) a 75-g glucose load in 28 healthy, normal-weight women, 2) 72-h complete energy deficiency (severe hypoleptinemia) with administration of either placebo or replacement-dose recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) in normal-weight men (n = 6) and women (n = 7), and 3) chronic mild energy deficiency (mild hypoleptinemia) in 7 women with hypothalamic amenorrhea before and after r-metHuLeptin administration for 3 months.
Amylin and pancreatic polypeptide levels increased 15 min after a 75-g glucose load and remained elevated at 60 and 120 min (P < 0.0001). Fasting for 72 h decreased leptin (to 21%) and amylin (to 67%) of baseline but not pancreatic polypeptide levels. Normalizing leptin levels with r-metHuLeptin did not alter the fasting-induced decrease in amylin and had no effect on pancreatic polypeptide levels. Neither amylin nor pancreatic polypeptide levels were different in leptin-deficient women with hypothalamic amenorrhea compared with weight-matched control subjects, and normalization of leptin levels with r-metHuLeptin treatment did not alter amylin or pancreatic polypeptide levels.
Circulating amylin levels increase after a glucose load and decrease in response to short-term complete fasting, but these changes are not mediated by leptin.
Diabetes care 05/2008; 31(5):945-51. DOI:10.2337/dc07-2433 · 8.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) has demonstrated efficacy in improving hormonal and metabolic parameters in leptin-deficient states, and it has been suggested that leptin replacement may reverse metabolic adaptations during weight loss interventions. The pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously administered r-metHuLeptin have been recently published, but whether pharmacokinetic parameters are altered by short-term fasting, adiposity and/or gender has not yet been evaluated.
The objective of this study was to characterize pharmacokinetic parameters following subcutaneous r-metHuLeptin administration at doses in the physiological to supra-physiological to pharmacological range in the fed state and during 3-day complete fasting in lean and obese subjects, including both men and women.
We analysed pharmacokinetic profiles in five lean men, five obese men and five lean women following subcutaneous administration of physiological (0.01 mg/kg), supra-physiological (0.1 mg/kg) and pharmacological (0.3 mg/kg) doses of r-metHuLeptin given once in the fed state and once daily during 3-day complete caloric deprivation (fasting).
With r-metHuLeptin administration at 0.01 mg/kg, leptin concentrations ranged up to approximately 7 ng/mL in lean men, approximately 20 ng/mL in obese men and approximately 30 ng/mL in lean women in the fed state. There was a significant effect of 3-day fasting: it decreased baseline leptin concentrations, peak serum concentration (C(max)) and area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(infinity)) [all p < 0.0001] and increased clearance (p < 0.001), most prominently in lean men (p < 0.0001 across the groups). Administration of r-metHuLeptin at 0.1 mg/kg resulted in leptin concentrations up to approximately 70 ng/mL in lean men, approximately 100 ng/mL in obese men and approximately 150 ng/mL in lean women in the fed state. At this dose, there was a similar effect of fasting on the pharmacokinetic parameters as well as a decrease in the terminal-phase elimination half-life (p = 0.02), consistent with increased clearance, but the effect of fasting was less pronounced overall than with the 0.01 mg/kg dose. With r-metHuLeptin administration at 0.3 mg/kg, leptin concentrations ranged up to approximately 150 ng/mL in lean men, approximately 300 ng/mL in obese men and approximately 400 ng/mL in lean women in the fed state. At this dose, fasting increased clearance to a lesser degree (p = 0.046), mainly in lean men, suggesting that the fasting-induced increase in leptin clearance by the kidneys can plateau. Within each group, the subjects lost approximately 3-4 kg of bodyweight after 3 days of fasting (all p < 0.0001), but the amount and time course of weight loss did not differ according to the dose of r-metHuLeptin administered or the circulating leptin concentrations achieved.
Short-term fasting in healthy individuals results in increased clearance of leptin; this contributes to hypoleptinaemia, which may serve as a signal to increase energy intake in the setting of caloric restriction. Obese individuals with greater energy stores at baseline have a blunted response to the fasting-induced increase in leptin clearance. Also, women have a differential response to fasting, with primarily decreased leptin production rather than increased clearance. These findings and the resulting formulas for calculating doses for r-metHuLeptin administration have important implications for future therapeutic use of r-metHuLeptin in conjunction with hypocaloric diets for the treatment of obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) has demonstrated efficacy in improving hormonal and metabolic parameters in leptin-deficient states, but pharmacokinetic parameters after sc administration have not yet been published. In addition, the effect of potential variability across different leptin assays on concentration-dependent pharmacokinetic parameters remains unknown.
The objective of the study was to characterize pharmacokinetic parameters after sc r-metHuLeptin administration using three commercially available leptin assays (Linco, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, and Alpco).
We analyzed pharmacokinetic profiles in five lean and five obese men after sc administration of physiological (0.01 mg/kg) and pharmacological (0.3 mg/kg) doses of r-metHuLeptin.
Leptin pharmacokinetic parameters were measured.
Measurement of leptin produced typical pharmacokinetic profiles in all assays with time to maximal concentration and half-life of approximately 3 h. Diagnostic Systems Laboratories consistently measured leptin higher than Linco, with Alpco measuring intermediate between or similar to Linco. There was high correlation among assays (R(2) ranging from 0.89 to 0.98, all P < 0.01). Concentration-dependent parameters such as maximal concentration, area under the curve, and clearance were significantly different among assays, whereas concentration-independent parameters such as time to maximal concentration and half-life were generally not different.
We report novel data on leptin pharmacokinetic parameters after sc administration, which will be relevant for the future therapeutic use of r-metHuLeptin. Although commercially available assays demonstrated high correlation, they can provide substantially different measures of leptin levels. This demonstrates the importance of standardizing leptin assays for diagnosing patients with relative leptin deficiency, determining appropriate doses of r-metHuLeptin for administration, and monitoring response to therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In animal models, the adipocyte-secreted hormone leptin increases energy expenditure by increasing sympathetic outflow but its role in humans remains to be elucidated. We evaluated whether inducing hypoleptinaemia (with and without administration of leptin at replacement doses) for 3 days would influence catecholamine levels and sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in healthy humans.
We studied six normal-weight subjects in the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) under three conditions: baseline fed state (control study) and two 72-h fasting studies (to decrease leptin levels), with administration of either placebo or replacement-dose recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) in a randomized, double-blind fashion. In each condition, 24-h urinary catecholamine levels, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV), a standard tool for assessing cardiac autonomic modulation, were measured.
Study parameters remained stable during the control condition and the baseline assessment of all three studies. In response to 72-h fasting, which decreased serum leptin levels by 80%, 24-h urinary norepinephrine and dopamine levels and heart rate increased while cardiac vagal modulation decreased (all P < 0.05). Replacement-dose r-metHuLeptin to keep leptin levels within the physiological range during fasting did not alter fasting-associated changes in heart rate, catecholamine levels or cardiac vagal tone.
The findings of this controlled, interventional study indicate that changes in heart rate, catecholamine levels and cardiac vagal modulation associated with 72-h fasting are independent of regulation by leptin. Thus, changes in leptin levels within the physiological range do not seem to play a role in regulating autonomic function during short-term starvation in healthy humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-1 infection has been associated with a metabolic syndrome characterized by insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and redistribution of body fat (lipodystrophy). A subset of patients with predominant lipoatrophy has low levels of the adipocyte-secreted hormone leptin.
The objective of the study was to assess whether administration of recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) improves insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities in HIV+ leptin-deficient subjects with HAART-induced lipoatrophy.
We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover study from 2002 to 2004 in seven HIV+ men with HAART-induced lipoatrophy, serum leptin level less than 3 ng/ml, and fasting triglyceride level greater than 300 mg/dl, who were administered placebo for 2 months before or after administration of r-metHuLeptin at physiological doses for an additional 2 months.
Insulin resistance, lipid levels, inflammatory markers, body composition, and HIV control were measured.
Compared with placebo, r-metHuLeptin therapy improved fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance (as expressed by the homeostasis model assessment index and an insulin suppression test), and high-density lipoprotein. Body weight and fat mass decreased on r-metHuLeptin, mainly due to a decrease in truncal fat but not peripheral fat or lean body mass. r-metHuLeptin was well tolerated, and HIV control was not adversely affected.
r-metHuLeptin replacement at physiological doses in HIV+ leptin-deficient patients with HAART-induced lipoatrophy improves insulin resistance, high-density lipoprotein, and truncal fat mass. Future larger and more long-term studies in HAART-induced lipoatrophy, including patients with more severe metabolic abnormalities, are warranted to evaluate the physiological and potentially therapeutic role of r-metHuLeptin for this condition and to fully clarify the underlying mechanisms of action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate whether the role of leptin in regulating neuroendocrine and immune function during short-term starvation in healthy humans is permissive, i.e., occurs only when circulating leptin levels are below a critical threshold level, we studied seven normal-weight women during a normoleptinemic-fed state and two states of relative hypoleptinemia induced by 72-h fasting during which we administered either placebo or recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) in replacement doses. Fasting for 72 h decreased leptin levels by approximately = 80% from a midphysiologic (14.7 +/- 2.6 ng/ml) to a low-physiologic (2.8 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) level. Administration of r-metHuLeptin during fasting fully restored leptin to physiologic levels (28.8 +/- 2.0 ng/ml) and reversed the fasting-associated decrease in overnight luteinizing hormone pulse frequency but had no effect on fasting-induced changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone pulsatility, thyroid and IGF-1 hormone levels, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and renin-aldosterone activity. FSH and sex steroid levels were not altered. Short-term reduction of leptin levels decreased the number of circulating cells of the adaptive immune response, but r-metHuLeptin did not have major effects on their number or in vitro function. Thus, changes of leptin levels within the physiologic range have no major physiologic effects in leptin-replete humans. Studies involving more severe and/or chronic leptin deficiency are needed to precisely define the lower limit of normal leptin levels for each of leptin's physiologic targets.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2006; 103(22):8481-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0505429103 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms that promote effective and sustained weight loss in persons who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are incompletely understood but may be mediated, in part, by changes in appetite. Peptide YY (PYY) is a gut-derived hormone with anorectic properties. We sought to determine whether gastric bypass surgery alters PYY levels or response to glucose.
PYY and ghrelin levels after a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 6 morbidly obese patients 1.5 +/- 0.7 (SE) years after gastric bypass compared with 5 lean and 12 obese controls.
After substantial body weight loss (36.8 +/- 3.6%) induced by gastric bypass, the PYY response to an oral glucose tolerance test was significantly higher than in controls (p = 0.01). PYY increased approximately 10-fold after a 75-gram glucose load to a peak of 303.0 +/- 37.0 pg/mL at 30 minutes (p = 0.03) and remained significantly higher than fasting levels for all subsequent time-points. In contrast, PYY levels in obese and lean controls increased to a peak of approximately 2-fold, which was only borderline significant. Ghrelin levels decreased in a symmetric but opposite fashion to that of PYY.
Gastric bypass results in a more robust PYY response to caloric intake, which, in conjunction with decreased ghrelin levels, may contribute to the sustained efficacy of this procedure. The findings provide further evidence for a role of gut-derived hormones in mediating appetite changes after gastric bypass and support further efforts to determine whether PYY(3-36) replacement could represent an effective therapy for obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease often associated with obesity that is increasing at an alarming rate, with a
projected prevalence of 366 million cases worldwide by 2030 (1). In the United States, the lifetime risk of developing diabetes for individuals born in 2000 is a staggering 32.8% for males
and 38.5% for females (2). The rapid increase in the prevalence of this condition is likely related to several factors, including the concomitant
escalation in the prevalence of obesity (3), a sedentary lifestyle and high-fat diets, and an aging population. Type 2 diabetes is also increasing at epidemic proportions
in children and adolescents in association with the increasing prevalence of obesity in this population as well (4). These statistics are especially disturbing in light of the fact that diabetes is one of the leading causes of blindness,
endstage renal disease, and lower-extremity amputation and contributes significantly to cardiovascular death (5, 6). In this chapter, we focus on the medical treatment of type 2 diabetes, with a specific emphasis on the approach to the
obese patient with this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the development of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced metabolic syndrome remain to be fully elucidated.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether the adipocyte-secreted hormone, resistin, is associated with anthropometric and metabolic abnormalities of the HAART-induced metabolic syndrome.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of 227 HIV-positive patients (37 women and 190 men) recruited from the infectious diseases clinics. On the basis of history, physical examination, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and single-slice computed tomography, patients were classified into four groups: non-fat redistribution (n = 85), fat accumulation (n = 42), fat wasting (n = 35), and mixed fat redistribution (n = 56).
The main outcome measures were serum resistin levels and anthropometric and metabolic variables.
Mean serum resistin levels were not significantly different among subjects with fat accumulation, fat wasting, or mixed fat redistribution or between these groups and the non-fat redistribution group. We found a weak, but significant, positive correlation between resistin and percent total body fat (r = 0.20; P < 0.01), total extremity fat (r = 0.18; P < 0.01), and abdominal sc fat (r = 0.19; P < 0.01), but not abdominal visceral fat (r = -0.10; P = 0.16) or waist to hip ratio (r = -0.05; P = 0.43). When adjustments were made for gender (women, 3.92 +/- 2.71 ng/ml; men, 2.96 +/- 2.61 ng/ml; P = 0.05), correlations between resistin and the above parameters were no longer significant. Importantly, resistin levels were not correlated with fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, triglycerides, or cholesterol levels in the whole group.
Resistin is related to gender, but is unlikely to play a major role in the insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities of the HAART-induced metabolic syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that plays a key part in energy homoeostasis. Advances in leptin physiology have established that the main role of this hormone is to signal energy availability in energy-deficient states. Studies in animals and human beings have shown that low concentrations of leptin are fully or partly responsible for starvation-induced changes in neuroendocrine axes, including low reproductive, thyroid, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) hormones. Disease states such as exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhoea and anorexia nervosa are also associated with low concentrations of leptin and a similar spectrum of neuroendocrine abnormalities. We have recently shown in an interventional, proof-of-concept study that leptin can restore ovulatory menstrual cycles and improve reproductive, thyroid, and IGF hormones and bone markers in hypothalamic amenorrhoea. Further studies are warranted to establish the safety and effectiveness of leptin for the infertility and osteoporosis associated with hypothalamic amenorrhoea, and to clarify its role in anorexia nervosa.
The Lancet 07/2005; 366(9479):74-85. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66830-4 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A role for high leptin levels in the proinflammatory state associated with obesity has been proposed on the basis of observational studies, but a recent interventional study employing administration of long-acting pegylated leptin resulting in very high pharmacologic levels in obese subjects did not support this idea. These interventional studies have not yet been independently confirmed, however, and varying levels and duration of hyperleptinemia as well as the presence of comorbidities such as diabetes have not yet been investigated as potential effect modifiers. We performed three interventional studies involving administration of recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) to lean, otherwise healthy obese, and obese diabetic subjects to investigate whether increasing circulating leptin levels over a wide spectrum of values (from low physiologic to high pharmacologic) would alter serum levels of inflammatory markers and other cytokines important in the T helper cell response. Increasing leptin levels from low physiologic to high physiologic in lean men and from higher physiologic to low pharmacologic in obese men over 3 d did not alter serum interferon-gamma, IL-10, TNF-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, or soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the administration of r-metHuLeptin for 4 or 16 wk, resulting in high pharmacologic leptin levels, did not activate the TNF-alpha system or increase cytokines or inflammatory markers, including IL-10, IL-6, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. These findings do not support an etiopathogenic role for leptin in proinflammatory states associated with leptin excess such as obesity and have direct relevance for the potential future therapeutic use of r-metHuLeptin in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of congenital complete leptin deficiency in animals and humans support a role for leptin in regulating immune function. Whether acquired relative leptin deficiency affects immunological parameters in healthy humans remains unknown. We thus used experimental models of relative leptin deficiency and recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) administration in humans to investigate whether r-metHuLeptin would activate signaling pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and whether acquired relative leptin deficiency and/or increasing circulating leptin levels into the physiologic range would change PBMC subpopulations and cytokines important in the T-helper cell and systemic immune responses. We found that r-metHuLeptin administration to healthy humans activates signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 signaling in PBMCs in vivo. Neither short-term leptin deficiency, induced by 3-d complete fasting, nor physiologic r-metHuLeptin replacement for the same period of time had a major effect on PBMC subpopulations or serum cytokines in healthy men. In contrast, normalizing serum leptin levels over 8 wk in lean women with relative leptin deficiency for 5.1 +/- 1.4 yr (mean +/- se) due to chronic energy deficit increased soluble TNFalpha receptor levels, indicating activation of the TNFalpha system. These findings suggest that relative leptin deficiency due to more long-term energy deprivation is associated with defects in immunological parameters that may be corrected with exogenous r-metHuLeptin administration. Further studies are warranted to assess the implications of acquired relative hypoleptinemia and/or r-metHuLeptin administration on the immunosuppression associated with energy- and leptin-deficient states in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether circulating levels of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), agouti-related protein (AGRP), and alpha-MSH could serve as useful markers of energy homeostasis in humans. We first assessed correlations of serum MCH, AGRP, and alpha-MSH with anthropometric, dietary, and hormonal variables in a cross-sectional study of 108 healthy humans. We then performed interventional studies to evaluate the effects of fasting and/or leptin administration. In eight healthy, normal weight men, we measured serum MCH, AGRP, and alpha-MSH levels at baseline, after 2 d of fasting alone (a low leptin state), and after 2 d of fasting with replacement dose recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) administration to normalize circulating leptin levels. In a separate group of five lean and five obese men, we measured MCH levels in response to increasing circulating leptin levels to the pharmacological range by administration of one r-metHuLeptin dose in the fed state. In the cross-sectional study, serum MCH levels were independently and positively associated with body mass index and fat mass and were higher in women than in men. Furthermore, in our interventional studies, fasting for 2 d significantly decreased leptin levels and increased serum MCH levels. Administration of replacement dose r-metHuLeptin during fasting prevented the fasting-induced increase in MCH levels, but administration of a pharmacological r-metHuLeptin dose in the fed state did not further alter MCH levels. Serum AGRP levels tended to change in directions similar to MCH, but this change was less pronounced and needs to be investigated in larger studies. In contrast, serum alpha-MSH levels did not correlate with body composition parameters, were not associated with caloric or macronutrient intake, and were not significantly affected by fasting or r-metHuLeptin administration. These findings suggest that serum MCH and possibly AGRP levels could serve as useful peripheral markers of changes in energy homeostasis and thus merit additional investigation.