[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Quercetin is abundant in plants and human diets. Previous studies indicated that quercetin inhibited the activity of CYP1A2, and the combination of quercetin with the substrates of CYP1A2 might produce herb-drug interactions. This research aims to determine the effects of quercetin and the CYP1A2 gene polymorphisms, namely, CYP1A2*1C (-2964G>A) and *1F (734C>A), on the metabolism of caffeine. Method. The experiment was designed into two treatment phases separated by a 2-week washout period. Six homozygous individuals for the CYP1A2*1C/*1F (GG/AA) genotype and 6 heterozygous individuals for the CYP1A2*1C/*1F (GA/CA) genotype were enrolled in the study. Quercetin capsules (500 mg) were given to each volunteer once daily for 13 consecutive days, and after that, each subject was coadministrated 100 mg caffeine capsules with 500 mg quercetin on the 14th day. Then a series of venous blood samples were collected for HPLC analysis. Correlation was determined between pharmacokinetics of caffeine and paraxanthine with caffeine metabolite ratio. Results. Quercetin significantly affected the pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its main metabolite paraxanthine, while no differences were found in the pharmacokinetics of caffeine and paraxanthine between GG/AA and GA/CA genotype groups. Conclusion. Quercetin significantly inhibits the caffeine metabolism, which is unrelated to CYP1A2*1C (-2964G>A) and *1F (734C>A) gene polymorphisms.
BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:405071. · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the drug interactions between ilaprazole, a new proton pump inhibitor, and clarithromycin following ilaprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin combination therapy.
Twelve healthy Chinese volunteers were recruited in a randomized, open-label, 3-period crossover study. All subjects were administered ilaprazole (5 mg), clarithromycin (500 mg) or a triple therapy, including ilaprazole (5 mg), clarithromycin (500 mg) and amoxicillin (1 g), twice daily for 6 consecutive days. On the 7th day, the drugs were given once, and blood samples were collected and analyzed using a well-validated HPLC/MS/MS method.
Following the triple therapy, the peak concentration (C(max)) and the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to 12 h (AUC(0→12)) of ilaprazole were significantly decreased, as compared with the single medication group (C(max):1025.0±319.6 vs 1452.3±324.6 ng/mL; AUC(0→12): 9777.7±3789.8 vs 11363.1±3442.0 ng·h/mL). Similar changes were found for ilaprazole sulfone (C(max): 5.9±0.5 vs 9.3±1.7 ng/mL; AUC(0→12): 201.4±32.1 vs 277.1±66.2 ng·h/mL). The triple therapy significantly elevated the C(max) of clarithromycin (3161.5±702.2 vs 2541.9±476.2 ng/mL).
The H pylori eradication therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and ilaprazole may cause pharmacokinetic interactions that decrease the amount of ilaprazole and its metabolites and elevate that of clarithromycin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the SLCO1B1 388A>G and 521T>C polymorphisms in hyperlipidemia patients and evaluate the effect of the two polymorphisms on the lipid-lowering efficacy of pitavastatin.
The functional polymorphisms of SLCO1B1 (388A>G and 521T>C) were genotyped in 140 Chinese patients with essential hyperlipidemia using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and one-step tetra-primers ARMS-PCR. Eighty-five patients were enrolled in the clinical trial and given 2 mg of pitavastatin daily for 8 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) serum levels were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks and after 8 weeks of treatment.
The allele frequencies of SLCO1B1 388A>G and 521T>C in essential hyperlipidemia patients were 71.1% and 11.1%, respectively. The 4- and 8-week treatment with pitavastatin significantly reduced TC, TG, and LDL levels, but there was no statistical difference among patients with wild type, SLCO1B1 388A>G or SLCO1B1 521T>C in the lipid-lowering efficacy of pitavastatin.
The present study found that the allele frequencies of SLCO1B1 388A>G and 521T>C in Chinese patients with essential hyperlipidemia are comparable to those in healthy Chinese population. SLCO1B1 388A>G and 521T>C do not affect the lipid-lowering efficacy of pitavastatin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To improve and validate an analytical method based on liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the quantitative measurement of ilaprazole and its two metablites in human plasma.
Separation of analytes and the internal standard (IS), omeprazole, was performed on a Thermo HyPURITY C18 column (150x2.1 mm, 5 microm) with a mobile phase consisting of 10 mmol/L ammonium formate water-acetonitrile solution (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The API4000 triple quadruple mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reactions monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization interface using the transition m/z 367.2 --> m/z184.0 for ilaprazole, m/z 383.3 --> m/z 184.1 for ilaprazole sulfone, m/z 351.2 --> m/z 168.1 for ilaprazole thiol ether and m/z 346.2 --> m/z 198.0 for omeprazole.
The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.23-2400.00 ng/mL for ilaprazole, 0.05-105.00 ng/mL for ilaprazole thiol ether and 0.06-45.00 ng/mL for ilaprazole sulfone. The intra- and inter-day precisions were all less than 15% in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD), and the accuracy was within 15% in terms of relative error (RE) for ilaprazole, ilaprazole sulfone and ilaprazole thiol ether. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was identifiable and reproducible at 0.23, 0.05 and 0.06 ng/mL with acceptable precision and accuracy for ilaprazole, ilaprazole sulfone and ilaprazole thiol ether, respectively.
The validated method offered sensitivity and a wide linear concentration range. This method was successfully applied for the evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of ilaprazole and its two metabolites after single oral doses of 5 mg ilaprazole to 12 healthy Chinese volunteers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginkgo biloba is one of the most popular herbal supplements in the world. The supplement has been shown to induce the enzymatic activity of CYP2C19, the main cytochrome P450 isozyme involved in voriconazole metabolism. Because this enzyme exhibits genetic polymorphism, the inductive effect was expected to be modulated by the CYP2C19 metabolizer status.
To examine the possible effects of Ginkgo biloba as an inducer of CYP2C19 on single-dose pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in Chinese volunteers genotyped as either CYP2C19 extensive or poor metabolizers.
Fourteen healthy, nonsmoking volunteers-7 CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (2C19(*)1/2C19(*)1) and 7 poor metabolizers (2C19(*)2/2C19(*)2)-were selected to participate in this study. Pharmacokinetics of oral voriconazole 200 mg after administration of Ginkgo biloba 120 mg twice daily for 12 days were determined for up to 24 hours by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in a 2-phase randomized crossover study with 4-week washout between phases.
For extensive metabolizers, the median value for voriconazole area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-)(infinity)) was 5.17 microg.h/mL after administration of voriconazole alone and 4.28 microg.h/mL after voriconazole with Ginkgo biloba (p > 0.05). The other pharmacokinetic parameters of voriconazole such as AUC(0-24), time to reach maximum concentration, half-life, and apparent clearance also did not change significantly for extensive metabolizers in the presence of Ginkgo biloba. Pharmacokinetic parameters followed a similar pattern for poor metabolizers.
The results suggest that 12 days of treatment with Ginkgo biloba did not significantly alter the single-dose pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in either CYP2C19 extensive or poor metabolizers. Therefore, the pharmacokinetic interactions between voriconazole and Ginkgo biloba may have limited clinical significance.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy 04/2009; 43(4):726-31. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Quercetin, one of the most abundant natural flavonoids, has been reported to modulate the activity of several drug-metabolising enzymes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of quercetin on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in healthy volunteers using caffeine as a probe drug. 2. Twelve unrelated, healthy volunteers were recruited to the study. There were two phases to the study; in the first phase, each subject was given a single oral dose of caffeine (one 100 mg capsule) with 150 mL water; in the second phase, each subject was give a 500 mg quercetin capsule once daily for 13 continuous days and was coadministered a 100 mg caffeine capsule on the 13th day. Urinary caffeine metabolite ratios were used as indicators of the activity of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, NAT2 and XO. The pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its metabolites were determined by HPLC. 3. In the quercetin-treated group, CYP1A2 activity was decreased by 10.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-29.8%; P = 0.039), whereas increases were observed in CYP2A6 (by 25.3%; 95% CI, 6.2-34.5%; P = 0.002), NAT2 (by 88.7%; 95% CI, 7.1-160.2%; P = 0.010) and XO activity (by 15.0%; 95% CI, 1.6-21.6%; P = 0.007). Plasma C(max) and the AUC((0-24 h)) of 1,7-dimethylxanthine were decreased by 17.2% (95% CI, 6.4-28.0%; P = 0.024) and 16.2% (95% CI, 3.9-28.5%; P = 0.032), respectively. The urinary excretion of 1,7-dimethylxanthine and 1-methylxanthine was significantly decreased by 32.4% (95% CI, 2.5-62.1%; P = 0.036) and 156.1% (95% CI, 53.3-258.9%; P = 0.004), respectively. The urinary excretion of 1,7-dimethylurate and 1-methylurate was increased by 82.9% (95% CI, 56.0-165.4%; P = 0.030) and 97.8% (95% CI, 12.1-183.5%; P = 0.029), respectively. No changes were observed in the urinary excretion of caffeine and 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil between the two study phases. 4. The results of the present study indicate that quercetin inhibits CYP1A2 function, but enhances CYP2A6, NAT2 and XO activity. Simultaneously, some pharmacokinetic parameters relating to 1,7-dimethylxanthine were affected by quercetin. Thus, we conclude that quercetin affects CYP1A2, CYP2A6, NAT2 and XO activity in vivo.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 03/2009; 36(8):828-33. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450s superfamily expressed widely in organisms are known to play an important role in the biotransformation of many endogenous and exogenous substances. Inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 isozymes is one of the major causes for clinical drug-drug interactions. Sinomenine can be metabolized to at least 2 metabolites in human, rat in vivo and in human liver microsomes. The major metabolite was identified to be N-demethylsinomenine. However, which CYP450 isozymes mediated by sinomenine in vivo and in vitro is not known.
In vitro study, 6 probe drugs were incubated with or without sinomenine respectively to study the effect of sinomenine on different cytochrome P450s activities in human microsomes. In vivo study, a 5-drug cocktail approach was used to study the inhibitive and inducing effect of sinomenine at normal clinical dose on cytochrome P450s activities.
Sinomenine (50 micromol/l) had no significant effects on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6, but it decreased the activity of CYP2C19 by 69% (p=0.012) in human microsomes. In vivo, sinomenine showed almost no significant effects on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6, but enhanced the elimination of mephenytoin by 73% (p=0.032).
Sinomenine (50 micromol/l) inhibited the activity of CYP2C19 in human microsomes, but in vivo sinomenine at normal clinical dose enhanced the elimination of mephenytoin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms causing Ser49Gly and Gly389Arg mutants of beta(1)-adrenoceptor may result in significant changes in the function of this receptor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequencies of the Ser49Gly and Gly389Arg mutant alleles in healthy Chinese populations and to investigate the differences between 2 Chinese ethnic groups (Han and Dai populations) with respect to the frequencies of these alleles.
A total of 225 Han Chinese and 175 Dai Chinese unrelated healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes by using a standard manual chloroform-phenol extraction. Fragments spanning the 2 polymorphisms were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction with template genomic DNA and relevant primers. The DNA products including the polymorphic loci were subjected to restriction endonuclease digestion with Eco0109I and BcgI. Digested fragments were detected with an ultraviolet detector after electrophoresis (100 V for approximately 1.5 h).
The frequencies of the Gly49 and Arg389 alleles were, respectively, 16.2% and 76.4% in the Han population and 14.6% and 75.7% in the Dai population.
The polymorphisms causing the Ser49Gly and Gly389Arg mutations of the beta(1)-adrenoceptor existed in both healthy Han and Dai Chinese populations. The frequencies of the Ser49Gly and Gly389Arg mutant alleles were not significantly different in the Han and Dai populations. However, the frequency of the Gly389 variant seems to be significantly lower in these 2 populations than in an African-American population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association of CYP2C9*3 and *6 with hyperlipidaemia in Chinese.
Four hundred and seventy-six Chinese participated in the study, including 211 uncomplicated hyperlipidaemic patients and 265 healthy controls. PCR-RFLP was used to identify CYP2C9*3 and *6.
CYP2C9*6 was not detected in this study. The allelic frequency of CYP2C9*3 was 0.039 (95% CI 0.022, 0.056). A nonsignificant difference existed in CYP2C9*3 frequencies between males and females (P = 0.605, OR = 1.194, 95% CI 0.610, 2.336), patients and controls (P = 0.063, OR = 0.506, 95% CI 0.244, 1.049) in the total population. However, in the female group, CYP2C9*3 frequency in patients with hyperlipidaemia was significantly lower than that in controls (P < 0.0001, OR = 0.062, 95% CI 0.008, 0.476).
The association of CYP2C9*3 with hyperlipidaemia was specific for females in this Chinese population.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12/2005; 60(6):629-31. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to define the effect of low-dose aspirin administration on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in normal human subjects.
Aspirin, 50 mg daily, was given for 14 days to 18 nonsmoking healthy male volunteers. A modified 5-drug cocktail procedure consisting of caffeine, mephenytoin, metoprolol, chlorzoxazone, and midazolam was performed to simultaneously assess in vivo activity of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A, respectively. The activities were assessed on 4 occasions including at baseline, after 7 and 14 daily doses of aspirin, and at 7 days after discontinuation of aspirin. Concentrations of parent drugs and corresponding metabolites in biologic samples were assayed by reversed-phase HPLC.
Both 7-day and 14-day aspirin intake increased the activity of CYP2C19 significantly, as indicated by 4-hydroxymephenytoin urinary recovery (P <.001). Induction of low-dose aspirin on CYP2C19 was time-dependent. CYP3A activity indices increased moderately but significantly by both 7-day and 14-day aspirin treatment (P <.05), but the percentage changes in CYP3A activity indices were not significant. Low-dose aspirin had no effect on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 in vivo activity by either 7-day or 14-day treatment.
The effect of low-dose aspirin on CYPs was enzyme-specific. Both 7-day and 14-day low-dose aspirin induced the in vivo activities of CYP2C19 but did not affect the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1. The effect of low-dose aspirin on CYP3A activity awaits further confirmation. When low-dose aspirin is used in combination with drugs that are substrates of CYP2C19, doses of the latter should be adjusted to ensure their efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the distribution of CYP3A activity in the Chinese population, and to test for gender-related differences in CYP3A activity.
Using midazolam as a probe drug, CYP3A activity in 202 Chinese healthy subjects (104 men) was measured by plasma 1'-hydroxymidazolam:midazolam (1'-OH-MDZ:MDZ) ratio at 1 h after oral administration of 7.5 mg midazolam. The different phases of the menstrual cycle including preovulatory, ovulatory and luteal phases of 66 women phenotyped with midazolam were recorded. The concentrations of 1'-OH-MDZ and MDZ in plasma were measured by HPLC RESULTS: A 13-fold variation of CYP3A activity (log1'-OH-MDZ:MDZ: range -0.949-0.203) was shown. The CYP3A activity was normally distributed as indicated by the frequency distribution histogram, the probit plot and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (P > 0.05). The CYP3A activity of women was higher than that of men (median: -0.36 vs -0.43, P < 0.05; 95% CI for difference: -0.127, -0.012). There was a significant difference in CYP3A activity between the three phases of the menstrual cycle. The activity was highest in the preovulatory phase and decreased sequentially in the ovulatory and luteal phases (P < 0.05).
A normal distribution of CYP3A activity was observed in the Chinese population. The CYP3A activity is higher in female subjects than in males. CYP3A activity differed across the phases of the menstrual cycle.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2003; 55(3):264-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Either G-2964 or A734 in the human CYP1A2 gene was confirmed to be associated with high inducible enzyme activity in smokers, but not in nonsmokers. In this study, for the first time, we observed an association between phenotypes and genotypes of CYP1A2 with respect to the two genetic polymorphisms in 163 healthy Chinese volunteers living in Qidong. The ratio of plasma 17X/137X at 6 h after oral administration of 300 mg caffeine was employed in CYP1A2 phenotyping analysis, while genotyping analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The allele frequencies of A at -2964 and A at 734 in 139 non-smoking subjects were 0.25 and 0.67, respectively. The A/A-2964C/C734, G/A-2964C/C734 or A/A-2964C/A734 genotype that was thought to have lower inducibility/activity of CYP1A2 than the other genotypes did not exist in the tested Chinese subjects. The ratio of 17X/137X was 0.46 ± 0.26 in G/G-2964A/A734 genotypes (n = 22) and 0.36 ± 0.19 in non-G/G-2964A/A734 ( n = 117). In addition, there was significant difference between them (P = 0.036). A similar result was also achieved in 24 smokers. Since Qidong is a special region with particularly high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in China, the association of phenotypes with genotypes of CYP1A2 in the Qidong population might result from some inducible environmental factors such as those of cigarettes in smokers.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 06/2001; 11(5):429-435. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether the gene dosage of CYP2C19 affects the metabolism of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam in healthy Chinese subjects.Subjects and Methods: Eighteen unrelated adult men were recruited for the study from a total of 101 healthy Chinese volunteers who had been screened for CYP2C19 phenotype and genotype. All subjects received a single oral dose (5 mg) of diazepam, and the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam were compared in six m1 homozygotes (m1/m1), six m1 heterozygotes (wt/m1), and six wild-type homozygotes (wt/wt).Results: The plasma elimination half-life values of diazepam (84.0 ± 13.7 hours) and desmethyldiazepam (176.0 ± 28.9 hours) in subjects of m1/m1 were significantly longer than those (62.9 ± 9.8 hours for diazepam; 132.1 ± 24.9 hours for desmethyldiazepam; both P < .01) in subjects of wt/m1 or those (20.0 ± 10.8 hours for diazepam; 99.2 ± 21.7 hours for desmethyldiazepam; both P < .01) in subjects of wt/wt. A significant difference in the corresponding half-life values existed between the wt/m1 and wt/wt subjects (P < .01). As expected, the slowest mean clearance of diazepam was observed in the m1/m1 subjects (2.8 ± 0.9 mL/min) and the fastest in the wt/wt subjects (19.5 ± 9.8 mL/min), with the wt/m1 heterozygotes having an intermediate value (7.2 ± 2.6 mL/min).Conclusion: The presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (G681A) of the CYP2C19 gene cosegregates with the impaired metabolism of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam among Chinese subjects in a gene-dosage effect manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on both the incidence of slow acetylator phenotype of probe drugs isonia/id, sulfadimidine or sulfametha/ine, caffeine and dapsone in mainland or overseas Chinese, and the distribution of NAT2 genotypes and the frequency of NAT2 alleles in the Chinese populations were summarized and reanalysed using a meta-analysis method. Frequency of the slow acetylator phenotype in 3516 healthy Han Chinese gave an overall mean of approximately 19.9 +/- 4.0%, with the range of the combined data being between 1 5.8% and 25.5%. In addition, frequencies of the slow acetylator phenotype differ between the different minorities in Chinese populations and the range was between 3.2% and 50.6%, with a mean value of 20.6 +/- 12.9% in a total of 1842 individuals from 17 Chinese minorities. In addition, there was no significant heterogeneity in overseas Chinese between the probe drugs isoniazid and sulfadimidine or sulfamethazine ([chi]=5.97, df=4; p>0.05), and the mean value of slow acetylator phenotype incidence was 24.5% (119/485; 95%CI: 20.7-28.3%), consistent with that of the native Chinese. As expected, frequency of the slow acetylator genotypes in Chinese populations was 25.4% (1 12/441; 95%CI: 21.3-29.5%), which was in accordance with that of the slow acetylator phenotype in native or overseas Chinese. For all genotypes, *4/*4 (29.9%, 132/441), *4/*6/A (27.4%, 121/441), *4/7A (12%, 53/441) and *6A/*6A (11.3%, 50/441) occupied 80.6%, but *5A/*7/A (0.2%, 1/441), *5A/*5A (1.1%, 5/441) and 97A/*7A (1.8%, 8/441) were not frequently found. From this report, the genotype frequencies of homozygous rapid acetylator, heterozygous rapid acetylator, and homozygous slow acetylator were found to be 0.299 (1 32/441), 0.447 (197/441) and (K254 (112/441), respectively. Furthermore, both *4 (52.3%; 95%CI: 49-56%) and 6A (30.5%; 95%CI: 28-34%) were major NAT2 alleles, while *7A (11.2%; 95%CI: 9-1 3%) and *54 (6%; 95%CI: 4-8%) were uncommonly present. Frequency of the mutant alleles was observed at 0.477 (421 /882 alleles). The *7A constituted 23.5% 1(99/421) of slow acetylator alleles in Chinese populations, showing that this point mutation exists not only in Oriental or Asiatic, but also in Chinese populations. According to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, in the phenotyped Chinese populations, the mean estimate of predicted allelic frequencies of the genotypes RR, Rr, and rr was 0.294, 0.496, and 0.210 for the Chinese, and the expected frequency of the deficient gene r was 0.458. By comparison, the predicted values are in complete agreement with the observed ones. In conclusion, this meta-analysis determined the accurate population frequencies of phenotype and genotype of the NAT2 genetic deficiency in healthy Chinese subjects.
(C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 11/1997; 7(6). · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Batifiban is a new platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist. In this work, an analytical method based on liquid chromatography
and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry has been firstly developed and validated for the quantitative measurement
of batifiban in human plasma to support the investigation of this compound. Separation of analyte and the internal standard
eptifibatide was performed on a Thermo HyPURITY C18 column (150×2.1mm, 5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of formic acid
0.1% (v/v)–acetonitrile (40:60, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25mLmin−1. The Waters QuattroMicro API triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive
electrospray ionization interface using the transition m/z 819.2→m/z (623.9+159.4) for batifiban and m/z 833.4→m/z (645.7+159.3) for IS. The method was linear over the concentration range of 2.45–5,000μg L−1. The intra- and inter- day precisions were less than 15% in terms of relative standard deviation, and the accuracy was within
8.5% in terms of relative error (RE). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was identifiable and reproducible at 2.45μgL−1 with acceptable precision and accuracy. The validated method offered sensitivity and wide linear concentration range. This
method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of batifiban afer single oral doses of 55, 110 and
220μgkg−1 batifiban to 36 Chinese healthy volunteers.