[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is as an abundant and accessible source of stem cells with multipotent properties suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications. Here, we describe methods from our own laboratory and the literature for the isolation and expansion of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We present a large-scale procedure suitable for processing >100-ml volumes of lipoaspirate tissue specimens by collagenase digestion and a related procedure suitable for processing adipose tissue aspirates without digestion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine models of obesity or reduced adiposity are a valuable resource for understanding the role of adipocyte dysfunction in metabolic disorders. Primary adipocytes grown in culture and derived from murine adipose tissue are essential for studying the mechanisms underlying adipocyte development and function. Herein, we describe methods for the isolation, expansion, and long-term storage of murine adipose-derived stem cells along with a protocol for inducing adipogenesis in this cell population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary physiological function of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is to differentiate into adipose tissue. It is now possible to isolate, expand, and cryopreserve ASC from adipose depots of many animal species. These ASC can be induced to undergo adipogenic differentiation in vitro by exposure to a cocktail of chemical agents or inductive growth factors. The current chapter describes methods to induce adipogenesis and to quantify this differentiation process in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that EGF and bFGF maintain the stem cell properties of proliferating human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. While the expansion and cryogenic preservation of isolated hASCs are routine, these manipulations can impact their proliferative and differentiation potential. This study examined cryogenically preserved hASCs (n = 4 donors), with respect to these functions, after culture with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) at varying concentrations (0-10 ng/ml). Relative to the control, cells supplemented with EGF and bFGF significantly increased proliferation by up to three-fold over 7-8 days. Furthermore, cryopreserved hASCs expanded in the presence of EGF and bFGF displayed increased oil red O staining following adipogenic induction. This was accompanied by significantly increased levels of several adipogenesis-related mRNAs: aP2, C/EBPalpha, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), PPARgamma and PPARgamma co-activator-1 (PGC1). Adipocytes derived from EGF- and bFGF-cultured hASCs exhibited more robust functionality based on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-stimulated lipolysis. These findings indicate that bFGF and EGF can be used as culture supplements to optimize the proliferative capacity of cryopreserved human ASCs and their adipogenic differentiation potential.
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 09/2009; 3(7):553-61. · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue serves as a source of adipokines and cytokines with both local and systemic actions in health and disease. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that multipotent human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), capable of differentiating along the adipocyte, chondrocyte, and osteoblast pathways, contribute to adipose tissue-derived cytokine secretion. Following exposure to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF), the ASCs significantly increase their secretion of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a cytokine implicated in hematopoiesis, vasculogenesis, and mammary epithelial duct formation. Ascorbic acid synergizes with these inductive factors, further increasing HGF levels. Following exposure to lipopolysaccharide, ASCs increase their secretion of both hematopoietic (granulocyte/monocyte, granulocyte, and macrophage colony stimulating factors, interleukin 7) and proinflammatory (interleukins 6, 8, and 11, tumor necrosis factor alpha) cytokines based on ELISA and RT-PCR. In co-cultures established with umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells, the ASCs support long-term hematopoiesis in vitro. Furthermore, in short-term 12-day co-cultures, the ASC maintain and expand the numbers of both myeloid and lymphoid progenitors. These observations are consistent with the functionality of the secreted cytokines and confirm recent reports by other laboratories concerning the hematopoietic supportive capability of ASCs. We conclude that the ASCs display cytokine secretory properties similar to those reported for bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
Journal of Cellular Physiology 10/2007; 212(3):702-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human FIZZ3 (hFIZZ3) was identified as an ortholog of mouse resistin (mResistin), an adipocyte-specific secreted factor linked to insulin resistance in rodents. Unlike mResistin, hFIZZ3 is expressed in macrophages and monocytes, but is undetectable in adipose tissue. The profound macrophage infiltration of adipose that occurs during obesity suggests that hFIZZ3 may play an important role in adipocyte biology. Using a recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli, we report here that chronic treatment of cultured human adipocytes with hFIZZ3 results in hypotropic cells with smaller lipid droplets. Recombinant hFIZZ3 facilitates preadipocyte proliferation and stimulates adipocyte triglyceride lipolysis, whereas recombinant mResistin inhibits adipocyte differentiation, with no detectable effect on proliferation or lipolysis. In addition, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation are not altered in hFIZZ3-treated adipocytes, indicating an intact insulin response. In mouse adipose explants, hFIZZ3 accelerates simultaneously triglyceride lipolysis and fatty acid reesterification, as assessed by measurement of glycerol and fatty acid release. Consistent with the in vitro findings, acute administration of recombinant hFIZZ3 into normal mice caused a significant increase in serum glycerol concentration with no elevation in free fatty acid at 45 min post injection. Taken together, the data suggest that recombinant hFIZZ3 can influence adipose metabolism by regulating preadipocyte cell number, adipocyte lipid content, and energy expenditure via accelerating the fatty acid/triglyceride futile cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of soluble mediators and medium supplements commonly used to induce chondrogenic differentiation in different cell culture systems were investigated to define their dose-response profiles and potentially synergistic effects on the chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived adult stromal (ADAS) cells. Human ADAS cells were suspended within alginate beads and cultured in basal medium with insulin, transferrin, and selenious acid (ITS+) or fetal bovine serum (FBS) and treated with different doses and combinations of TGF-beta1 (0, 1, and 10 ng/mL) and dexamethasone (0, 10, and 100 nM). Cell growth and chondrogenic differentiation were assessed by measuring DNA content, protein and proteoglycan synthesis rates, and proteoglycan accumulation. The combination of ITS+ and TGF-beta1 significantly increased cell proliferation. Protein synthesis rates were increased by TGF-beta1 and dexamethasone in the presence of ITS+ or FBS. While TGF-beta1 significantly increased proteoglycan synthesis and accumulation by 1.5- to 2-fold in the presence of FBS, such effects were suppressed by dexamethasone. In summary, the combination of TGF-beta1 and ITS+ stimulated cell growth and synthesis of proteins and proteoglycans by human ADAS cells. The addition of dexamethasone appeared to amplify protein synthesis but had suppressive effects on proteoglycan synthesis and accumulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult subcutaneous fat tissue is an abundant source of multipotent cells. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that, in vitro, adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS) cells express bone marker proteins including alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin and produce a mineralized matrix as shown by alizarin red staining. In the current study, the ADAS cell ability to form osteoid in vivo was determined. ADAS cells were isolated from liposuction waste of three individual donors and expanded in vitro before implantation. Equal numbers of cells (3 x 10(6)) were loaded onto either hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA-TCP) cubes or the collagen/HA-TCP composite matrix, Collagraft, and then implanted subcutaneously into SCID mice. After 6 weeks, implants were removed, fixed, and demineralized and sectioned for hematoxylin and eosin staining. Osteoid formation was observed in 80% of HA-TCP implants loaded with ADAS cells. Only 20% of Collagraft implants were positive for the presence of osteoid matrix. Whereas 100% of HA-TCP implants loaded with hFOB 1.19 cells formed osteoid, Collagraft loaded with hFOB 1.19 cells displayed a high degree of adipose tissue within the matrix. Immunostaining of serial sections for human nuclear antigen demonstrated that the osteoid contained human cells. Osteoid formation was not observed in control HA-TCP or Collagraft matrices implanted without cells. In summary, the data demonstrate the ability of ADAS cells to form osteoid matrix in vivo. Because of their abundance and accessibility, ADAS cells may prove to be a novel cell therapeutic for bone repair and regeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of cells capable of neuronal differentiation has great potential for cellular therapies. We examined whether murine and human adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS) cells can be induced to undergo neuronal differentiation. We isolated ADAS cells from the adipose tissue of adult BalbC mice or from human liposuction tissue and induced neuronal differentiation with valproic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, insulin, and hydrocortisone. As early as 1-3 h after neuronal induction, the phenotype of ADAS cells changed towards neuronal morphology. Following neuronal induction, muADAS cells displayed immunocytochemical staining for GFAP, nestin and NeuN and huADAS cells displayed staining for intermediate filament M, nestin, and NeuN. Following neuronal induction of murine and human ADAS cells, Western blot analysis confirmed GFAP, nestin, and NeuN protein expression. Pretreatment with EGF and basic FGF augmented the neuronal differentiation of huADAS cells. The neuronal differentiation of stromal cells from adipose tissue has broad biological and clinical implications.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2002; 294(2):371-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many organs contain connective tissue or stromal cells and these cells play important roles in growth, development and tissue repair. Subcutaneous adipose tissue represents an accessible reservoir for the isolation of human stromal cells. Ex vivo, the adipose tissue-derived human stromal cells can be expanded more than 100-fold. These primary cultures respond to adipogenic agonists by accumulating lipid and expressing adipocyte specific proteins, including leptin and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). In contrast, when the adipose tissue-derived stromal cells are exposed to osteogenic factors, they display osteoblastic gene markers and mineralize their extracellular matrix. This work demonstrates that subcutaneous adipose tissue is a readily available source of multipotential stromal cells. It is possible that these cells will be used clinically to treat a broad range of orthopedic, rheumatologic and periodontal disorders.
International Journal of Obesity 12/2000; 24 Suppl 4:S41-4. · 5.22 Impact Factor