[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a member of the NDRG gene family. Our previous report indicated a possible role for NDRG2 in regulating the cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), which is an important immunosuppressive cytokine. Several pathways, including p38-MAPK, NF-κB, and JAK/STAT, are used for IL-10 production, and the JAK/STAT pathway can be inhibited in a negative feedback loop by the inducible protein, SOCS3. In the present study, we investigated the effect of NDRG2 gene expression on IL-10 signaling pathway that is modulated via SOCS3 and STAT3.
We generated NDRG2-overexpressing U937 cell line (U937-NDRG2) and treated the cells with PMA to investigate the role of NDRG2 in IL-10 production. U937 cells were also transfected with SOCS3- or NDRG2-specific siRNAs to examine whether the knockdown of SOCS3 or NDRG2 influenced IL-10 expression. Lastly, STAT3 and SOCS3 induction was measured to identify the signaling pathway that was associated with IL-10 production.
RT-PCR and ELISA assays showed that IL-10 was increased in U937-mock cells upon stimulation with PMA, but IL-10 was inhibited by overexpression NDRG2. After PMA treatment, STAT3 phosphorylation was decreased in a time-dependent manner in U937-mock cells, whereas it was maintained in U937-NDRG2 cells. SOCS3 was markedly reduced in U937-NDRG2 cells compared with U937-mock cells. IL-10 production after PMA stimulation was reduced in U937 cells when SOCS3 was inhibited, but this effect was less severe when NDRG2 was inhibited.
NDRG2 expression modulates SOCS3 and STAT3 activity, eventually leading to the inhibition of IL-10 production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some active alkaloids isolated from Lycoris, a bulbous perennial herb, was shown to possess various anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro apoptotic effect of ethanol extract from Lycoris radiata (LRE) and further probed the underlying molecular mechanisms of LRE effects. The survival rate of B16F10 melanoma cells exposed to LRE was decreased in a dose-dependent manner, cell growth was retarded by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase and apoptotic appearance such as caspase-3 activation as well as DNA fragmentation was observed by LRE treatment. In addition, LRE induced p38 and c-Jun phosphorylation, followed by activation of transcription factor AP-1. Pretreatment with the p38 inhibitor (SB203580) blocked LRE-induced AP-1 transcriptional activity, and curcumin, AP-1 inhibitor, dramatically inhibited LRE-induced apoptosis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Our results collectively indicate that LRE-mediated apoptosis occurs through the activation of p38 and AP-1 pathway and potentially LRE exhibits anti-cancer activity against B16F10 melanoma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4) is a major actin-sequestering protein that has been implicated in the growth, survival, motility, and metastasis of certain tumors and is considered an indicator for malignant progression. Therefore, identifying compounds that can downregulate Tbeta4 expression is very important for the development of anti-cancer chemotherapies. In this study, we investigated the effects of elevated cAMP on Tbeta4 expression and the metastatic potential of murine B16 melanoma cells. In addition, we also dissected the mechanism underlying cAMP-mediated Tbeta4 suppression. We found that treatment with the cAMP-inducing compounds alpha-MSH (alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone) and IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) significantly suppressed Tbeta4 expression and regulated EMT-associated genes through the suppression of NF-kappaB activation in B16F10 cells. Along with decreased Tbeta4 expression, the in vitro invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth in a semi-solid agar of these cells were also inhibited. In animal experiments, the metastatic potential of the alpha-MSH- or IBMX-treated B16F10 melanoma cells was decreased compared to untreated control cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that elevated intracellular cAMP significantly suppresses Tbeta4 expression and reduces MMP-9 activity, which leads to decreased metastatic potential. Moreover, suppression of NF-kappaB activation by alpha-MSH or IBMX is critical for inhibiting Tbeta4 expression.
Experimental Cell Research 07/2009; 315(19):3325-35. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2009.05.024 · 3.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the current study, we examined the function of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) expression in breast cancer cells, especially focusing on the role of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) induced by NDRG2. NDRG2 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited the mRNA expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9. Interestingly, a specific induction of active BMP-4 was exclusively observed in MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells but not in MDA-MB-231-mock cells. Neutralization of BMP-4 in MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells resulted in the rescue of MMP-9 mRNA expression and migration capacity. In addition, treatment with recombinant BMP-4 dramatically suppressed MMP-9 mRNA expression, gelatinolytic MMP-9 activity, migration, and invasion capacity both in MDA-MB-231 and PMA-treated MCF-7 cells. Collectively, our data show that BMP-4 induced by NDRG2 expression inhibits the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells, especially via suppression of MMP-9 activity.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2009; 385(2):198-203. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.05.038 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Downregulation of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) gene is involved in the progression of aggressive forms of cancer, along with the poor prognosis of cancer patients. In the current study, we examined the effect of NDRG2 expression on the metastatic potential of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma and B16F10 murine melanoma cells in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In gelatin zymography, NDRG2 expression remarkably suppressed the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity and slightly inhibited MMP-2 activity of both cell lines. Tumor migration and invasion in vitro were significantly reduced by NDRG2 expression, and NDRG2 inhibited tumor cell proliferation in an anchorage-independent semisolid agar assay. Specifically, we found that NDRG2 affects invasion through suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity. In animal experiments, subcutaneously injected B16F10-NDRG2 cells showed delayed tumor growth compared with B16F10-mock cells. Furthermore, severe metastasis from primary tumor mass into the draining lymph nodes was observed after injection of B16F10-mock cells, but not with B16F10-NDRG2 cells. Pulmonary metastasis after intravenous injection of B16F10 cells was also reduced by NDRG2 expression. Intra- and peritumoral angiogenesis that is critical for the tumor growth and metastasis was clearly found in tumors after injection with B16F10-mock cells, whereas it was impaired in tumors after injection with B16F10-NDRG2 cells. Collectively, our data show that NDRG2 expression significantly suppresses tumor invasion by inhibiting MMP activities, which are regulated through the NF-kappaB signaling. Moreover, results from animal experiments provide evidence for the regulatory role of the NDRG2 gene in metastatic tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NDRG2 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2) is a candidate tumor suppressor implicated in control of glioblastoma proliferation and dendritic cell differentiation. The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) plays a crucial role in the melanocyte lineage and in melanoma by controlling survival, differentiation, cell cycle entry and exit, and melanoma metastasis. Identifying upstream regulators of Mitf expression, therefore, remains a key issue. In this study, we aimed to assess whether the candidate tumor suppressor NDRG2 can modulate Mitf expression. Here, we show that NDRG2 acts to prevent cAMP and beta-catenin-mediated activation of the Mitf promoter, thereby blocking melanogenesis via the downstream Mitf target genes Tyrosinase, Tyrp1 and Dct. The data suggest that NDRG2 impairs melanogenesis by interfering with both the TCF/beta-catenin and cAMP/CREB pathways that are known to stimulate Mitf expression in melanocytes and have major implications for the role of NDRG2 in pigmentation and melanoma progression. Taken together, the results not only identify NDRG2 as a novel regulator of pigmentation, but also potentially a key factor in regulating melanoma progression via Mitf.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the inhibitory effects of methylselenol on the invasion of murine B16F10 melanoma cells, we carried out in vivo and in vitro experiments using Se-methylselenocysteine (Se-MSC) and selenomethionine (SeMet), respectively. In an animal experiment, the supplementation of drinking water with Se-MSC (4 ppm Se) led to a significant increase in Se levels in the lung, liver and serum in mice. Mice given a mash diet or water supplemented with Se-MSC (2, 4 and 6 ppm Se in the mash diet, and 2 and 4 ppm Se in the drinking water) displayed an almost completely diminished pulmonary metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells and an enhanced survival, compared to the control mice which were given a basal diet. Treatment with non-cytotoxic concentrations of SeMet (2.5, 5 and 10 microM plus 0.02 U/ml METase, methioninase) induced a substantial decrease in the expression of integrin alphavbeta3, the FN receptor and adhesion ability to vitronectin (VN) and fibronectin (FN) in B16F10 melanoma cells. Moreover, these compounds suppressed gelatinase activity, invasive ability and wound migration in the culture system. SeMet-METase prevented the conversion of pro-MMP-9 to its active form and decreased pro-MMP-2 activities in a zymogram. The pre-treatment of B16F10 melanoma cells with SeMet-METase led to a decrease in pulmonary metastasis and extended survival in mice injected with tumor cells. Collectively, our results indicate that integrin expression is crucial in promoting the metastatic phenotype in murine B16F10 melanoma cells by supporting specific adhesive and invasive properties, suggesting that Se-MSC effectively reduces the metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells as a nutritional adjuvant. Methylselenol may also contribute to the suppression of integrin expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although NDRG2 inactivation has recently been found to have an important role in some tumorigenesis, its role in intracellular signal transduction pathways remains poorly defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that NDRG2 overexpression in malignant breast cancer cells specifically inhibits Akt phosphorylation and induces phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK. In addition, we investigated whether NDRG2 expression affects JAK/STAT- or mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signal activation. JAK2 or STAT3 activation in both resting and IGF-stimulating cells was remarkably inhibited by NDRG2 expression. Furthermore, NDRG2 has been found to highly up-regulate the expression level of SOCS1 mRNA and protein. We have found that NDRG2 was able to regulate cytokine signaling in breast cancer cells through the regulation of SOCS1 expression. Finally, inhibition of p38 MAPK activity blocked the induction of SOCS1 expression by NDRG2, resulting in the recovery of STAT3 phosphorylation level. Together, these data demonstrate that NDRG2 expression in breast cancer cells is able to inhibit STAT3 activation via SOCS1 induction in a p38 MAPK dependent manner, implicating NDRG2 as a growth inhibitory gene in signal transduction pathways of breast tumor cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2007; 363(2):361-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.08.195 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanoma is a highly metastatic cancer resistant to current chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic approaches. Several studies have shown that interactions between cancer cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are critical for the survival and invasion of metastatic cancer cells. In this study, we examine the effects of methylselenol generated from selenomethionine (SeMet) by methioninase (METase) on cell proliferation, adhesion, and expression of integrins in murine melanoma B16F10 cells, which are metastatic in the lungs of syngeneic C57BL/6J mice. Combined treatment with SeMet-METase decreased the expression of integrins alpha(4), beta(1), alpha(nu), and beta(3), and inhibited melanoma-ECM adhesion. Caspase-mediated apoptosis was induced following loss of cell adherence. Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Akt, related to integrin-mediated survival, were decreased upon treatment with SeMet-METase while phosphorylation of p38, PKC-delta, and IkappaBalpha increased. In the presence of specific inhibitors of p38, PKC-delta, and NF-kappaB, expression of integrins and cell adhesion to ECM were maintained and cell apoptosis was prevented in SeMet-METase-treated melanoma cells. Treatment with caspase inhibitors restored cell viability and blocked poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, but did not restore integrin expression and cell adhesion to ECMs reduced by SeMet-METase. Based on these results, we propose that combined treatment with SeMet-METase induces caspase-mediated apoptosis in melanoma cells by altering integrin expression and adhesion. Furthermore, activation of p38, PKC-delta, and NF-kappaB is a prerequisite for the down-regulation of integrin expression, followed by detachment-mediated apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium, an essential biological trace element, reduces the incidence of cancer. Our previous studies show that selenite inhibits tumor invasion by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and -9. Methylseleninic acid (MSeA), an immediate precursor of methylselenol, inhibits tumor cell growth in vitro and mammary carcinogenesis in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that MSeA suppresses pro-MMP-2 activation in a dose-dependent manner induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA), and further decreases the invasiveness of HT1080 tumor cells. Membrane type-1-MMP (MT1-MMP) is a crucial element in the process of pro-MMP-2 activation. Pro-MMP-2 binds MT1-MMP, using tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) as an adaptor, by forming a trimolecular complex on the cell surface. MSeA blocked MT1-MMP in a dose-dependent manner, but not TIMP-2 expression. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were not affected by MSeA. Selenite induced a decrease in protein levels of both pro-MMPs -9 and -2, but not active forms of pro-MMP-2. MT1-MMP expression is regulated by NF-kappaB. Our data show that the effect of MSeA on MT1-MMP expression is mediated through suppression of NF-kappaB activity. Methylselenol generated by selenomethionine (SeMet) and methioninase (METase) inhibited pro-MMP-2 activation induced by PMA, confirming the effect of MSeA on pro-MMP-2 activity. Moreover, ROS production induced by PMA was partly decreased in the presence of MSeA. This suppression of ROS production may be related to diminished NF-kappaB activity. Thus, our results suggest that MSeA blocks tumor invasion in vitro via inhibiting pro-MMP-2 activation mediated by suppression of MT1-MMP expression, which is regulated by the NF-kappaB signal pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucial enzymes for ultraviolet irradiation-induced photoaging in human skin. Ultraviolet B (UVB) stimulates dermal fibroblasts to increase MMP-1 and -3 expression and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in photoaging. We investigated whether phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/Akt pathway is involved in secretions of MMP-1 and -3 in human dermal fibroblasts. The increase in MMP-1 and -3 expression and secretion occurred along with the increase in PTEN and Akt phosphorylation by UVB irradiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, treatment with a casein kinase 2 inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole, inhibited their phosphorylations and MMP-1 and -3 secretions. Transfection of wild-type PTEN (Wt-PTEN) decreased basal and UVB-induced MMP-1 and -3 secretions, as well as activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity, while transfection of small interference RNA of PTEN (siRNA-PTEN), phosphatase-inactive PTEN (C124S-PTEN), or lipid phosphatase-inactive PTEN (G129E-PTEN) increased basal or UVB-induced MMP-1 and -3 secretions and AP-1 activity. Transfection of constitutively active Akt (Myr-Akt) also increased basal or UVB-induced MMP-1 and -3 secretions, as well as AP-1 activity. However, transfection of kinase-inactive Akt (K179M-Akt) decreased their secretions, but showed no significant change of AP-1 activity without UVB irradiation, and a significant increase of AP-1 activity with UVB irradiation. Treatment with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, LY294002 or wortmannin, downregulated basal and UVB-induced MMP-1 and -3 secretions. In conclusion, UVB irradiation increases PTEN and Akt phosphorylation in human dermal fibroblasts, and these inhibition of PTEN and activation of Akt by phosphorylation are involved in UVB-induced MMP-1 and -3 secretions partly through upregulation of AP-1 activity.