[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-3, and IL-6 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has long been reported in literature. In this case-control study, the concentrations of these cytokines in altered T lymphocytes, as well as serum vitamin B12, have been compared in terms of factors such as, age, the clinical course and the patients' disease risk. 40 patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria of AD were selected and an age- and gender-matched control group was recruited. The participants' cognitive performance was measured according to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) and Clinical Dementia Ratio (CDR). The levels of cytokines were measured in supernatants of lymphocytes culture, using assays of ELISA and atomic absorption. Higher levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ were found more in the altered T lymphocytes of the AD patients rather than in the control individuals. Furthermore, a marginal significant difference was found between the TGF-β levels of the two study groups. Regression analysis of CDR score and cytokines showed the inverse significant correlation between CDR score and IFN-γ levels. Furthermore, the relation between MMSE scores and IFN-γ was significant, meaning that by increasing MMSE score, IFN-γ level was significantly increased. This study suggests that the levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ are significantly increased in altered T lymphocytes of AD patients, as compared to those who are not inflicted with AD, and that they are related to the patient's age. Also, IFN-γ is related to the severity stage of the AD.
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. 12/2014; 13(6):433-439..
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and the most common gastrointestinal cancer in Iran. Chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5/RANTES) is one of the most potent angiogenic factors that plays an important role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. We aimed to assess the serum level of CCL5 in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and its relation with histological grade and tumor stage, as well as the disease prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma is the most common chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by cough, wheezing and dyspnea in children. Nutrition is an important factor which influences on induction and exacerbation of asthma. There are controversies to use Vitamin E in asthmatic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplement in children with moderate asthma. This is a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial performed on children (age 2-17 years old) with moderate asthma (5-17 years old) from March 2010 to March 2012. Case group were treated with fluticasone and vitamin E (50mg/day) and control group received fluticasone plus placebo for 8 weeks. Out of 300 cases, 240 cases completed the study. Female to male ratio was 0.84. Serum level of Vitamin E significantly increased after treatment in intervention group. FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly improved in case group compared to the control group. It can be concluded that vitamin E supplement could improve clinical manifestations and pulmonary function test in children with moderate asthma.
Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology 04/2014; 13(2):98-103. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are massively produced in the environment, and because of their wide usage, they are a potential risk of damage to human health. TiO2-NPs are often used as additives for paints, papers, and foods. The central nervous system (CNS), including hippocampal regions, is potentially susceptible targets for TiO2-NPs. This study aimed to determine the effects of exposure to TiO2-NPs during pregnancy on hippocampal cell proliferation and the learning and memory of offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats received intragastric TiO2-NPs (100mg/kg body weight) daily from gestational day (GD) 2 to (GD) 21. Animals in the control group received the same volume of distilled water via gavage. After delivery, the one-day-old neonates were deeply anesthetized and weighed. They were then killed and the brains of each group were collected. Sections of the brains from the rat offspring were stained using Ki-67 immunolabeling and the immunohistochemistry technique. Some of the male offspring (n=12 for each group) were weaned at postnatal day (PND21), and housed until adulthood (PND60). Then the learning and memory in animals of each group were evaluated using passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. The immunolabeling of Ki-67 protein as a proliferating cell marker showed that TiO2-NPs significantly reduced cell proliferation in the hippocampus of the offspring (P<0.05). Moreover, both the Morris water maze test and the passive avoidance test showed that exposure to TiO2-NPs significantly impaired learning and memory in offspring (P<0.05). These results may provide basic experimental evidence for a better understanding of the neurotoxic effects of TiO2-NPs on neonatal and adult brains.
Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 01/2014; 37(2):617-625.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) sera on activation of primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model for vascular endothelial cells.
Study subjects included 21 TAO patients as the case group and 20 healthy smokers and 17 healthy non-smokers as control groups. Case and control groups were matched based on their age, socioeconomic status and smoking habit. HUVECs were incubated with the sera of case and control groups and gene expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction, TaqMan method.
The expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were significantly higher in HUVECs after incubation with TAO sera compared to control groups (P < 0.05). VCAM-1 had a significant correlation with duration of smoking (P < 0.001, R = 0.672), while the expression of ICAM-1 had a significant correlation with the number of cigarettes smoked daily (P = 0.04, R = 0.421).
Sera from TAO patients could activate HUVECs. This same activation might occur in vivo by the responsible cytokines, in particular those released from activated platelets, free oxygen radicals, and possibly low levels of nitric oxide (NO) of the sera of TAO patients, as a consequences of chronic cigarette smoking and of endothelial NO synthase polymorphism. Therefore, plasma exchange might be helpful in acute phase of the disease for saving the limbs and administration the combinations of exogenous NO with anti-oxidants might be helpful in long-term management of TAO patients to reduce the risk and rate of amputation.
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 01/2014; 17(1):106-12. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis is under investigation. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between serum values of 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients according to Disease Activity Score 28 joints and ESR (DA S28 ESR).
Caspian journal of internal medicine. 01/2014; 5(3):148-55.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective(s): HTLV-I and HIV virus quantification is an important marker for assessment of virus activities. Since there is a direct relationship between the number of virus and disease progression, HTLV-I and HIV co-infection might have an influence on the development of viral associated diseases, thus, viral replication of these viruses and co-infection were evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 subjects were selected; 14 HIV infected, 20 HTLV-I infected and 6 HTLV-I/HIV co-infected subjects. The amount of viruses was measured using qPCR TaqMan method and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes were assessed by flow cytometry. Results: The mean viral load of HIV infected subjects and HTLV-I infected individuals were 134626.07±60031.07 copies/ml and 373.6±143.3 copies/10(4) cells, respectively. The mean HIV viral load in co-infected group was 158947±78203.59 copies/ml which is higher than HIV infected group. The mean proviral load of HTLV-I in co-infected group was 222.33±82.56 copies/ml which is lower than HTLV-I infected group (P<0.05). Also, the mean white blood cell count was higher in co-infected group (5666.67±1146.49 cells/μl). However, the differences between these subjects did not reach to a statistical significance within 95% confidence interval level (P =0.1). No significant differences were observed regarding CD4 and CD8 positive lymphocytes between these groups. Conclusion: HTLV-I/HIV co-infection might promote HIV replication and could reduce the HTLV-I proviral load, in infected cells. Considering the presence of both viruses in Khorasan provinces, it encourages researchers and health administrators to have a better understanding of co-infection outcome.
Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Science 01/2014; 17(1):49-54. · 0.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and effect of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) on Th1/Th2 balance were previously described. Different therapeutic effects of this plant have been described in Iranian traditional medicine.
To evaluate the immune modulatory effects of Z. multiflora on Th1/Th2 balance, which may be implicated in inflammatory disorders, in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out.
The effects of three concentrations of the extract, dexamethasone, and saline on interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) gene expression were evaluated in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated and non-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). RNA was extracted from the hPBMCs to make cDNA for real time PCR relative quantification. Furthermore, the effect of the extract on serum level of IL-4 and IFN-γ was assessed in ovalbumin (OA) sensitized guinea pigs (n=6 for each group).
Although, dexamethasone showed significant inhibitory effect on both IFN-γ and IL-4 gene expression and serum level of the cytokines and significantly enhanced IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (p<0.05 to p<0.001). The extract inhibited IL-4 and enhance IFN-γ gene expression and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio too (p<0.05 to p<0.001). In sensitized animals also serum level of IL-4 were significantly decreased after treatment with both dexamethasone and extract, but serum level of IFN-γ and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio were significantly increased due to extract treatment (p<0.01 for medium and p<0.001 for high concentration).
These results indicated consistent in vitro and in vivo data for selective immune modulatory effect of the extract of Z. multiflora which increased IFN-γ, decreased IL-4, and enhanced the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 (Th1/Th2 balance). Therefore, the extract of Z. multiflora may have therapeutic value in inflammatory responses such as allergy, autoimmunity and infectious diseases associated with Th1/Th2 imbalance.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 10/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2), which is massively produced and widely used in living environment, seems to have a potential risk on human health. The central nervous system (CNS) is the potential susceptible target of nanoparticles, but the studies on this aspect are limited so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles during lactation period on learning and memory of offspring. Lactating Wistar rats were exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (100 mg/kg; gavage) for 21 days. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests showed that the exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles could significantly impair the memory and learning in the offspring. Therefore, the application of TiO2 nanoparticles and the effects of their exposure, especially during developmental period on human brain should be cautious.
Toxicology and Industrial Health 09/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic inflammatory disease and it is a major
health problem. Trace elements such as copper and zinc are essential components of antioxidant
enzymes and optimal function of the immune response. Changes in the levels of
these elements may lead to increase the risk of asthma.
Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 175 asthmatic children and 165
control group of healthy general population who attend the outpatient allergic clinic (Bou
Ali Hospital) in Sari, Mazandaran, Iran between August 2010 and March 2011. Complete
blood count, eosinophil count and serum total IgE level and Serum trace element levels
(Zinc, lead and copper) were measured in both groups.
Results: There was a significant difference in serum levels of copper, lead, IgE
(increased), and decreased IgA, between two groups (p=0.001). There was no significant
difference in blood zinc levels and eosinophilia between two groups (p=0.732 and 0.068,
Conclusion: Increased serum levels of copper and lead may be associated with asthma.
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 09/2013; 15(9):27-30.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors are a family of sensor proteins that induce the inflammatory diseases in context of microbial infection. The role of these proteins in periodontal disease and their interaction with smoking status are yet to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on gene expression of toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in patients with periodontitis.
RNAs were extracted from gingival biopsies of healthy sites (no bleeding on probing and pocket depth ≤3 mm) as well as diseased sites (with bleeding on probing and pocket depth ≥5 mm) of 20 smoker and 17 non-smoker subjects with chronic periodontitis. Gingival biopsies from eight periodontally healthy, never-smoker subjects served as control. Real-time PCR was carried out to evaluate the relative quantities of TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA concentrations.
Regardless of smoking status, the relative expression levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 were significantly greater (about 3 fold) at diseased sites compared to healthy sites of patients with periodontitis and healthy controls (p < 0.05). In sites with periodontitis, smoking caused an increase of about 6.5 fold in mRNA levels of TLR-4 in gingival tissue (p < 0.05).
Although periodontitis might significantly increase TLR-2 and TLR-4 gene expression in gingival tissues, smoking habit in periodontitis subjects could selectively potentiate TLR-4 gene expression.
Australian Dental Journal 09/2013; 58(3):315-20. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokines, a subclass of cytokine superfamily have both pro-inflammatory and migratory role and serve as chemoattractant of immune cells during the inflammatory responses ensuing spinal cord injury (SCI). The chemokines, especially CXCL-1, CXCL-9, CXCL-10 and CXCL-12 contribute significant part in the inflammatory secondary damage of SCI. Inhibiting chemokine's activity and thereby the secondary damage cascades has been suggested as a chemokine targeted therapeutic approach to SCI. To optimize the inhibition of secondary injury through targeted chemokine therapy, accurate knowledge about the temporal profile of these cytokines following SCI is required. Hence, the present study was planned to determine the serum levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-9, CXCL-10 and CXCL-12 at 3-6h, 7 and 28 d and 3m after SCI in male and female SCI patients (n = 78) and compare with age- and sex-matched patients with non-spinal cord injuries (NSCI, n = 70) and healthy volunteers (n=100). ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis was used to determine the differences between the groups. The data from the present study show that the serum level of CXCL-1, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 peaked on day 7 post-SCI and then declined to the control level. In contrast, significantly elevated level of CXCL-12 persisted for 28 d post SCI. In addition, post-SCI expression of CXCL-12 was found to be sex-dependent. Male SCI patients expressed significantly higher CXCL-12 when compared to control and SCI female. We did not observe any change in chemokines level of NSCI. Further, the age of the patients did not influence chemokines expression after SCI. These observations along with SCI-induced CSF-chemokine level should contribute to the identification of selective and temporal chemokine targeted therapy after SCI.
Neurochemistry International 08/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic urticaria is defined as a skin disease with central induration (wheal) and erythema formation around it (flare) that appears at least twice a week and remains at least for 6 weeks continually. The incidence of urticaria in children is about 0.1-3%. Most cases of chronic urticaria occur in children between 6-11 years. Autoimmune and allergy immaturity is one of the reasons of lower incidence of chronic urticaria in younger children.
Quality of life impairment in children with urticaria has been known to be similar to diseases with severe atopic dermatitis, epilepsy, diabetes mellitus and asthma.
There are several causes for chronic urticaria in children in different reports. In most of cases the known etiologic agents are varies from 21 to 83%. Overall, infectious causes of chronic urticaria in children are more common and obvious than other in adults .In most cases, the cause of chronic urticaria are idiopathic or autoimmune. Urticaria severity divided to mild, moderate and severe was based on the number of wheals and severity of pruritus. Diagnosis of chronic urticaria is based on a good history and physical examination. The treatment of chronic urticaria is a patient education that is to remove the triggering and aggravating agents, resolving and treating of the known disease and the use of various medicines based on the history and clinical findings. The first medical therapeutics lines in children are anti-histamines, beta-blocker H1 and new generation of non-sedating agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to introduce clinical manifestations of patients in northeast Iran with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and describe the epidemiological features, as well as risk factors for HTLV-1 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of HTLV-1 infected cases and HAM/TSP patients referred by outpatient neurology clinics as well as Mashhad Blood Transfusion Center from 2005 to 2010. The study comprises 513 cases, including 358 healthy carriers (HCs) and 145 HAM/TSP patients. The majority of carriers were male (73.5 %), whereas 67.6 % of HAM/TSP sufferers were female (P < 0.001). The mean age of HAM/TSP patients and HCs was 45.9 ± 13.6 and 39.5 ± 11.58 years, respectively (P < 0.001). The history of transfusion, surgery, hospitalization and cupping was observed in a significant greater number of HAM/TSP patients than the HCs (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.029, respectively). Gait disturbance was the most common complaint in HAM/TSP patients (72.4 %). This research develops an HTLV-1 data registry in an endemic area such as Mashhad which can serve useful purposes, including evaluation of clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients and epidemiological data of HTLV-1-infected cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the cytokines, chemokines and effective molecules of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that play a role in neovascularization in thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). Lymphocytes from TAO patients (n = 20) and control subjects (healthy smokers [n = 16] and non-smokers [n = 17]) were evaluated using realtime polymerase chain reaction in order to examine the mRNA expression of CXCL1 and interleukin 8 (IL-8; inducers of collateral development by recruitment of circulating progenitor cells [CPCs]), endothelial cell growth factor A (VEGF-A) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; inducers of angiogenesis) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1; inhibitors of angiogenesis). CXCL1 expression was significantly higher in the TAO patients than control subjects. The expressions of IL-8, VEGFR-1 and IFN-γ were significantly higher in the TAO patients and smokers than in non-smokers. However, no differences in iNOS and VEGF-A expression were noted. In conclusion, PBMCs from TAO patients expressed cytokines that potentially recruit CPCs and promote arteriogenesis. However, TAO patients typically have low CPC levels, perhaps due to high oxidative stress. Further studies are recommended in order to investigate the efficacy of antioxidant therapy on the outcome of TAO before administration of angiogenic factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers suspected to CL by PCR method.
Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL referred to the Parasitology lab, negative Giemsa stained smears were collected. DNA extraction performed by scraping stained smears, then PCR was performed.
Among the DNA extracted from smears, L. tropica was isolated from 9 (11.1%) of the smears and L.major was not isolated from any samples.
Direct microscopy on stained smears for diagnosis of leishmaniasis is not enough accurate. PCR is recommended for clinically suspected lesions with negative result of direct smear.
Iranian Journal of Parasitology 04/2013; 8(2):337-41. · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I alleles (HLA-A*02, HLA-A*24, HLA-Cw*08, HLA-B5401) and proviral load in HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraperesis (HAM/TSP) patients in Iranian population. Materials and Methods: 20 new cases of HAM/TSP patients and 30 HTLV-I infected healthy carriers were recruited. Peripheral blood samples were collected. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. DNA was extracted from PBMC.HTLV-I proviral load was calculated by Taqman quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). PCR sequence-speciﬁc primer (PCR-SSP) reactions were performed to detect HLA-A, HLA-B and, HLA-Cw alleles. Results: There was no signiﬁcant difference in sex and age between asymptomatic and HAM/TSP group. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare proviral load between HAM/TSP patients and healthy carrier. Provirus load of HAM/TSP patients was signiﬁcantly higher than that of HCs (P=0.003, Mann-Whitney U test).Odd ratio was calculated to determine association between class I alleles including (HLA-A*02, HLA-A*24, HLA-Cw*08) and risk of HAM/TSP development. We couldn't find any association between these class I alleles and risk of HAM/TSP development in our study. In our survey HLA-A*02, HLA-A24, HLA-Cw*08 didn't have protective effect on proviral load (P=0.075, P=0.060 and 0.650 Mann-Whitney U test respectively). Conclusion: In conclusion, certain HLA alleles with protective effect in one population may have not similar effect in other population. This may be because of pathogen polymorphism or host genetic heterogeneity and allele frequency in desired population.
Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Science 03/2013; 16(3):264-7. · 0.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The underlying mechanisms leading to the development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-I infected individuals are not fully understood. Host genetic factors appear to be involved as risk factors for developing HAM/TSP. We investigated the possible contribution of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as a risk factor to HAM/TSP by comparing frequencies of promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms in HTLV-I infected Iranian patients who either remained asymptomatic or developed HAM/TSP and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. Healthy, uninfected individuals from the same region served as healthy controls. Significant differences were observed in the distribution of IL-10 promoter alleles and genotypes at position -819 and -592 between HAM/TSP patients and healthy controls (P=0.01), and between HTLV-I carriers and healthy controls (P=0.02). The frequency of the low IL-10 producer haplotype (-1082*A, -819*T, -592*A) was significantly associated with HTLV-I carriage or HAM/TSP compared with healthy controls (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that IL-10 -819*T and -592*A alleles are significant risk factors for developing HTLLV-I infection but do not appear to convey additional risk for developing HAM/TSP.
Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Science 03/2013; 16(3):258-63. · 0.60 Impact Factor