[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies indicated that CD40-mediated Fas-dependent apoptosis is important for the glandular destruction of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), although other immune and nonimmune mechanisms are also involved in exocrine dysfunction. We investigated the roles of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in salivary epithelial cell death in SS.
Expression of p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), and IκB-α was examined by Western blotting upon CD40 ligation. Activity of NF-κB induced by anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Western blotting. Expression of Fas was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blotting with or without the p38-specific inhibitor SB203580 or the NF-κB-specific inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). Induction of apoptosis in salivary epithelial cells was examined by DNA fragmentation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Expression of phosphorylated p38MAPK and NF-κB was measured by immunohistochemistry.
pp38MAPK and NF-κB p65 were predominantly expressed in the ductal and acinar epithelium adjacent to lymphoid infiltrates of SS salivary gland by immunohistochemistry. CD40 ligation strongly enhanced p38MAPK and NF-κB activity by EMSA and Western blotting in cultured salivary epithelial cells. Treatment of cells with anti-CD40 mAb resulted in significantly upregulated Fas expression and induction of Fas-dependent apoptosis. Inhibition of p38MAPK and NF-κB activity by SB203580 and/or CAPE reduced Fas expression and apoptosis in salivary epithelial cells, establishing p38MAPK and NF-κB as proapoptotic factors in this context.
CD40 ligation plays an important role in activation of p38MAPK, NF-κB, and Fas molecules to initiate proapoptotic signaling. p38MAPK and NF-κB collaborate in regulation of proapoptotic signaling in CD40-mediated Fas-dependent apoptosis in salivary epithelial cells.
The Journal of Rheumatology 04/2012; 39(6):1256-64. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 78-year-old Japanese man with adult-onset Still's disease that was refractory to conventional treatment, such as prednisolone (PSL) concomitant with methotrexate (MTX). Etanercept (50 mg/week) was added to PSL (12.5 mg/day) and MTX (12 mg/week). His manifestation improved dramatically, nonetheless massive edema of the periorbital region developed by the fourth injection, which kept his palpebral fissure completely closed. There was also a marked injection site reaction to etanercept. A diagnosis of angioedema due to etanercept was thus made, and the drug was discontinued. His angioedema began to ameliorate soon after antihistamines were introduced without any critical involvement, such as laryngeal obstruction.
Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(19):2801-4. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been reported recently to be effective in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The therapeutic range of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in SLE in the remission-maintenance phase remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of MMF and predose plasma concentrations of MPA and its phenolic glucuronide (MPAG) in patients with SLE in the remission-maintenance phase.
Thirty-one patients with SLE receiving a fixed dosage regimen of MMF (median and interquartile range, 1500 and 1000-2000mg/day) for at least 1month and who had not experienced any adverse drug reactions for more than 3months were enrolled.
Significant improvement was observed after MMF administration in total haemolytic complement CH(50) and its fractions C3 and C4, immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM, anti-dsDNA antibody, serum concentration of albumin and red blood cell count, even though the mean daily dose of prednisolone was significantly reduced (P=0·02). Median predose plasma concentrations of MPA and MPAG were 1·95 and 26·2μg/mL (interquartile ranges, 0·94-2·96 and 18·6-53·7 μg/mL). Predose plasma concentrations of MPA and MPAG correlated significantly with MMF dose (r=0·64, P<0·01 and r=0·39, P=0·03).
MMF improved clinical laboratory markers and reduced prednisolone dosage in SLE patients with predose plasma concentration of MPA and MPAG in the interquartile ranges of 0·94-2·96 and 18·6-53·7μg/mL, respectively.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 04/2011; 37(2):217-20. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. MZB is a purine analog, and is used as a disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). We conducted an open label uncontrolled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with methotrexate (MTX) and mizoribine (MZB). Methods. Thirty one RA patients (9 males, 22 females, 68±12 year-old) who fulfilled ACR criteria of RA and did not show sufficient clinical response to MTX were included. MZB (150 mg/day, once a day) were added to MTX. DAS28-CRP was measured at day 0 and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the treatment. Adverse events were recorded. Results. Overall DAS28-CRP was significantly decreased from 4.4±1.0 to 3.1±1.3 at 3 months (p<0.01), 2.7±0.68 at 6 months (p<0.01), 2.4±1.4 at 12 months (p<0.01). Seventeen patients (55%) achieved significant improvement of DAS28-CRP. Number of swollen joints of responders before the treatment was significantly fewer than that of non-responders. Improvement of DAS28-CRP was significantly different between the responders (0.91±0.74) and non-responders (0.18±0.66) at 1 month (p<0.01). Nine patients (29%) could achieve remission Four patients experienced adverse events. Conclusions. MTX and MZB combination therapy was effective and relatively safety.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology 01/2011; 34(3):149-53.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its 7-O-glucuronide (MPAG) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Thirty-one SLE patients in remission maintenance phase treated with mycophenolate mofetil (median 1500 mg/d) and prednisolone and followed-up for up to 56 months (median 13 months) were enrolled. Creatinine clearance and metal medication were significant predictors accounting for interindividual variability in the dose-normalized predose plasma concentration (C₀) of MPA (adjusted R²=0.305, p=0.01) in a multivariate analysis. Dose-normalized MPAG C₀ was significantly correlated with only creatinine clearance (adjusted R²=0.135, p=0.03). The free fraction of MPA was significantly correlated with only serum albumin (adjusted R²=0.700, p<0.01). The free fraction of MPAG was significantly correlated with serum albumin, metal medication, and age (adjusted R²=0.598, p=0.02). In conclusion, renal function and co-administered metal influenced the pharmacokinetics of MPA and MPAG in SLE patients in remission maintenance phase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to identify key target genes in peripheral blood from patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS).
DNA microarray analysis was performed in 19 patients with SS (all women) and 10 healthy controls (5 men and 5 women) using a low-density DNA microarray system with 778 genes. For confirmation, the expression of upregulated genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in another 37 SS patients (35 women and 2 men) and 9 healthy controls (8 women and 1 man). Relationships between gene signatures and various clinical measures, such as disease duration, symptoms and signs, complications, immunological findings, and salivary and lacrimal functions, were analyzed.
Interferon-α (IFN-α)-inducible protein 27 (IFI27) showed the most significant difference between SS patients and controls in the microarray screening. We performed quantitative RT-PCR for IFI27. IFI27 gene expression level was increased in patients with SS compared with controls (p < 0.01) by real-time PCR, supporting our observations from the microarray data. The level of IFI27 was significantly correlated with serum IgG levels (r = 0.462, p < 0.01) and ß(2)-microglobulin (r = 0.385, p < 0.05), soluble interleukin 2 receptor (r = 0.473, p < 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.333, p < 0.05), and antinuclear antibody titer (speckled pattern; r = 0.445, p < 0.01).
Our results suggest that upregulation of IFN-inducible genes in SS patients is a systemic phenomenon, and IFN may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SS. The expression level of IFI27 could be an effective and specific biomarker associated with SS.
The Journal of Rheumatology 11/2010; 38(2):310-6. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine therapeutic effect of leukocytapheresis (LCAP) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) resistant to various treatments.
Thirteen patients with RA (mean age : 60.8+/-11.4, male : female=5 : 8), 1 who were resistant to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologics, or 2 who failed with those medicines because of side effects or complications. We performed LCAP, which was carried out once a week for a total of five sessions, with a throughput of about 0.1 L/kg. Before and after LCAP, we evaluated the effect of LCAP therapy.
DAS28 (CRP) score was 5.70+/-1.12 before LCAP, 4.57+/-1.19 (P<0.05) just after the final LCAP and 4.83+/-1.35 (P<0.05) about 4 weeks after LCAP. DAS28 score decreased in all patients after LCAP. No serious adverse events were observed except temporary anemia.
LCAP therapy may be useful and safe for patients with RA resistant to conventional medication. Patients who show good clinical response by LCAP needs to be clarified.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology 12/2009; 32(6):499-505.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is usually treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. However, some patients are refractory to these agents, others show adverse effects. Usefulness of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in SLE has been reported in several studies. In this study, we evaluated the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of MMF in SLE. Sixteen cases which were difficult to reduce the dose of corticosteroid, resistant to immunosuppressive agents or could not use them for adverse effects were treated with MMF. Thirteen cases were females and three were males. Mean age was 44.4+/-9.2 year-old. Mean duration of SLE was 12.5+/-6.9 years. Mean observational duration was 12.0+/-5.5 months. Mean maintenance dose of MMF was 1.95+/-0.61 g/day. Good clinical response was obtained in 69% of total cases. In laboratory data, serum IgG (p<0.05) decreased and the levels of serum albumin (p<0.01) and complement (p<0.05) increased significantly. Adverse effects, mainly infections, were observed, but severe infection was not experienced. This study suggests that MMF is effective and relatively safe for SLE.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology 08/2009; 32(4):263-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minor salivary gland biopsy is useful for diagnosis of Sjögren's Syndrome, because it has 87.4% of sensitivity, 87.3% of specificity and 87.4% of accuracy. However, SS cannot be diagnosed solely on focus score (FS). Moreover, FS is at most semi-quantitative. We questioned 30 registered facilities of Society of Japan Sjögren's Syndrome about the method and evaluation of minor salivary gland biopsy. As a result, it turned out that there were no standard methods in the procedure of salivary gland biopsy. The small salivary gland can be reached easily with little invasive method, however there are several problems, which include 1. necessity of a standard technique, 2. minimization of the pain and 3. establishment of proper evaluation system. It is thought that the establishment of a standard technique and evaluation method is necessary to minimize the pain and collect the sufficient amount of tissue. Here we report the analysis of the procedure of minor salivary gland biopsy performed in other institutions as well as in our hospital in order to propose a standardized procedure and evaluation system.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology 03/2009; 32(1):53-60.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine clinical significance of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP antibody) in RA.
Hundred fifteen patients with polyarthralgia (89 females, 26 males) were recruited, and subjected for the study. We studied anti-CCP antibody, ESR, CRP, IgM-RF, IgG-RF, RAPA, MMP-3, CARF, C1q-IC, Stage, Class, Joint score, Sharp score, KL-6, SP-D, chest CT.
Anti-CCP antibody test had high specificity (93.5%). In RA with positive anti-CCP antibody, Sharp score (10.9+/-22.4) was higher than those with negative anti-CCP (1.7+/-1.8), and may serve as a prognostic marker of joint destruction (P<0.05). Anti-CCP antibody in RA with interstitial pneumonia is higher (84.5+/-36.4 U/mL) than those without interstitial pneumonia (52.6+/-44.7 U/mL) (P<0.05).
Anti-CCP antibody is useful for diagnosis of RA, and could be a specific marker of joint destruction. Further investigation is necessary to clarify the relation of anti-CCP antibody with organ involvement and activity of RA.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology 10/2007; 30(5):408-13.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This multicenter clinical trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mizoribine for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome. Fifty-nine patients with a definite diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome received 150;Smg of mizoribine daily for 16 weeks. The salivary secretion volume was determined at baseline, at weeks 8 and 16 after the start of the study treatment by the Saxon test, and clinical manifestations were assessed by the investigator and the patients using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Adverse drug reactions were reported in 18 patients, of whom 6 patients had to discontinue the study due to such adverse reactions; however, no serious adverse drug reactions definitely related to the study drug were noted. The salivary secretion volume, the rate of change in salivary secretion, the patients' own assessments of dry mouth and dry eyes, the investigators' assessment of oral sicca symptoms, and the investigators' overall assessment improved following the treatment regimen with statistical significance at week 16 after the start of treatment in comparison to the baseline values. These results suggested that mizoribine may be effective in producing a subjective and objective amelioration of the glandular symptoms in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, without observing any serious adverse effects related to this drug.
Modern Rheumatology 02/2007; 17(6):464-9. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 65-year-old woman who had fever was admitted. Laboratory data showed renal tubular dysfunction, elevated C-reactive protein, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and IgG. Her blood showed proteinase 3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (PR3-ANCA) as well as antinuclear antibody and anti-Ro/SS-A antibody. Salivary gland and renal biopsy showed inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes. A diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and interstitial nephritis was made. beta(2)-microglobulin, sIL-2R, IgG, and PR3-ANCA were decreased in response to medium-dose oral prednisolone. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody could be a new marker for extraglandular features of SS. It would be beneficial for SS patients who have positive ANCA to investigate extraglandular lesions such as interstitial nephritis.
Modern Rheumatology 02/2007; 17(6):514-7. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to clarify signal transduction of expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) via CD40-CD40 ligand in salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We used cultured salivary gland epithelial cells (SG cells) from 15 SS patients and 8 controls obtained by labial minor salivary gland biopsy. First, ICAM-1 expression was determined with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry in the presence or absence of soluble CD40L (sCD40L). Next, SG cells were transfected with plasmids of pGL1.3-Luc inserted with promoter region of ICAM-1, pGL1.3kB(-)-Luc mutated in nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) binding site of pGL1.3-Luc and pNF-kappaB-Luc by lipofection method. Luciferase activity of the cells was measured in the presence or absence of sCD40L or sCD40L and an NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). Finally NF-kappaB family proteins of cell nuclear extracts were determined. ICAM-1 expression was significantly enhanced with sCD40L at the mRNA and protein level. Activity of pNF-kappaB-Luc and pGL1.3-Luc was significantly elevated by stimulation with sCD40L and suppressed by PDTC. NF-kappaB p50 protein level was elevated by stimulation with sCD40L and suppressed by PDTC. Our results suggest that sCD40L enhances the ICAM-1 expression by activation of NF-kappaB p50 in the SS SG cells.
Modern Rheumatology 02/2007; 17(1):45-53. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with human immunodeficiency virus-negative T-cell lymphoma was examined in 68 patients using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and an in situ hybridization technique. EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) was detected in 43 of 68 cases (63%) of peripheral T-cell lymphoma: in 100% (11 of 11 cases) of NK/T-cell lymphomas, 70% (14 of 20 cases) of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas (AILT) and 49% (18 of 37 cases) of other types of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. A positive band was also detected at high incidence (36 of 65 cases; 55%) in a PCR analysis using primers to detect the Bam HI-W fragment of EBV. In the immunohistochemical analysis using a monoclonal antibody to latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) of EBV, one of the EBV-encoded latent gene products, LMP-1, was found to be expressed in 13 of 64 cases (20%), but EBNA-2 was not expressed in all the cases examined (0 of 59 cases; 0%). The 5-yr survival rate was 28% for peripheral T-cell lymphomas overall, 0% for NK/T-cell lymphomas, 38% for AILTs and 28% for other types of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. The difference in the overall survival rate between NK/T-cell lymphoma and non-NK/T-cell lymphoma was significant (P = 0.0498 by Log-rank test). Among peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients overall, the group severely infected with EBV (EBER-ISH ++) had a lower 5-yr survival rate (8%) than the group slightly (EBER-ISH +) or not infected (38%; P = 0.0013).
European Journal Of Haematology 03/2006; 76(2):109-18. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) complicated with inflammatory intestinal ulcers all had cytogenetic abnormalities with trisomy 8. The first two patients were diagnosed with intestinal Behçets disease and were successfully treated with salazosulphapiridine, and the third patient died after leukemic transformation. We review the reported cases of MDS complicated with Behçets disease. Most of these cases are Japanese, having intestinal involvement as well as cytogenetic abnormalities with trisomy 8. We discuss the significance of trisomy 8 in intestinal involvement in MDS.
Internal Medicine 02/2006; 45(22):1309-14. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 40-year-old woman who had bilateral swelling in the eyelids and submandibular region was admitted. Clinical findings suggested she had primary Sjögren's syndrome. Laboratory data showed glucosuria, positive CRP (0.50 mg/dl), liver dysfunction (AST 53 U/l, ALT 101 U/l, gamma-GTP 241 U/l, ALP 914 U/l, LAP 496 U/l), hyperglycemia, hypergammaglobulinemia (IgG 3450 mg/dl, IgA 91 mg/dl, IgM 80 mg/dl), hypocomplementemia (C3 73 mg/dl, C4 2 mg/dl, CH50 < 19.0 U/ml), renal tubular dysfunction (urine N-acetyl-beta-D: -glucosaminidase 8.6 U/l, urine (beta2)-microglobulin 83 microg/l), and urinary concentration defect. Ammonium chloride loading test was normal. Gallium-67 scintigram indicated abnormal uptake in bilateral lacrimal glands, submandibular glands, and kidneys. A diagnosis of Mikulicz's disease and interstitial nephritis was made, since biopsy specimens of her lacrimal gland and minor salivary gland showed diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes. Renal biopsy specimens also showed severe interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes. Symptoms and laboratory data normalized in response to methylprednisolone pulse therapy and prednisolone 60 mg/day. This case of Mikulicz's disease complicated with interstitial nephritis was successfully treated by high-dose corticosteroid.
Modern Rheumatology 01/2006; 16(3):176-82. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 46-year-old man with relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after salvage therapy (EPOCH and ESHAP regimens) was treated with continuous low-dose CPT-11 (irinotecan hydrochloride) at 30 mg/day (20 mg/m2/day) for three consecutive days every week. The patient's general condition and both LDH and CRP, tumor related markers, improved dramatically. Complete remission was achieved after a 10-week cycle of therapy without severe adverse effects. Unfortunately, the lymphoma relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, low-dose CPT-11 therapy was used again to palliate tumor symptoms for 12 months. This therapy may be a useful salvage and palliative chemotherapy for relapsed and refractory lymphoma.
[Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology 10/2005; 46(9):1074-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IFNgamma plays an important role to induce several functional molecules on salivary epithelial cells, including class II MHC, Fas and CD40 in salivary glands from patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). IFNgamma also contributes to the development of lymphocytic infiltrates by inducing T cell attracting chemokines in SS salivary epithelial cells, such as IP-10 (CXCL10), Mig (CXCL9), and I-TAC (CXCL11). IFNgamma dysregulation in SS salivary gland may attribute to the decreased production of TGFbeta from salivary epithelial cells in some patients. Expression of Fas and CD40 was significantly higher in SS salivary epithelial cells than in normal cells after IFNgamma stimulation. Although neither anti-Fas (CH11) nor anti-CD40 mAb alone could induce typical apoptosis, the two together and preincubation with IFNgamma efficiently induced apoptosis in SS salivary epithelial cells. This apoptosis was almost completely blocked by neutralizing anti-Fas mAb (ZB4). c-FLIP, an important inhibitory molecule in the Fas death pathway, was strongly expressed in SS salivary epithelial cells, but its expression was downregulated, at the protein level, by anti-CD40 mAb. CD40 signals promote Fas-dependent death of SS salivary epithelial cells by downregulating c-FLIP expression. The presence of c-FLIP in these cells may explain their resistance to undergo apoptosis in response to either anti-Fas or anti-CD40 mAb, despite their surface expression of both proteins. These findings suggest that SS salivary epithelial cell death requires the cooperation of Fas and CD40.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology 03/2005; 28(1):10-20.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 64-year-old woman, who had been treated for gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by total gastrectomy and received 3 courses of CHOP therapy at 61 years of age, was diagnosed with recurrence of DLBCL in the small intestine. After the small intestinal tumor was resected, multiple metastases were found in the liver. Because intensive chemotherapy was difficult for her poor performance status, 50 mg of etoposide daily by oral was administered for 21 consecutive days. After one course of chemotherapy, liver metastases and lymph node swelling almost disappeared without severe adverse effects, and after five courses she achieved complete remission. Though DLBCL invaded the central nervous system, the abdominal regions had been free from recurrence for 12 months. This case report suggests that oral etoposide therapy is useful for gastrointestinal DLBCL which has metastasized to the liver.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 03/2005; 32(2):251-3.