Eun Kyung Cho

Soonchunhyang University, Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea

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Publications (118)316.92 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin blood levels in predicting the incidence of systemic infection among adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with induction chemotherapy. Adult patients with newly diagnosed AML who were initially treated with conventional 3 + 7 induction chemotherapy within 5 days of their diagnosis were included. Patients with previous cytotoxic chemotherapy <3 years, acute promyelocytic leukemia diagnosis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, or significant systemic infection at the time of diagnosis were excluded. Patients were treated with an institutional policy of substantial identity with negligible differences regarding supportive care. Among 110 patients (median age 54.5 years), 39 infectious events in 38 patients were reported, along with 21 episodes of infectious treatment-related mortality (TRM; 19.1 %). Elevated pre-treatment CRP (p = 0.032) and ferritin (p = 0.002) were related to the incidence of systemic infection. The degree of increase of blood CRP and ferritin level was correlated with the extent of leukocytosis. However, patients with elevated inflammatory markers above normal range had increased risk of infection irrespective of whether they had leukocytosis or not, suggesting that expansion of leukemic blast is another factor affecting the elevation of the markers independent to infection propensity and therefore the magnitude of the elevation does not quantitatively predict the risk of infection. Modest elevation of baseline blood inflammatory markers above the normal range could be an indicator for predicting the incidence of systemic infection in patients with AML.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00520-015-2762-1 · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):P3-12-07-P3-12-07. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-P3-12-07 · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):P3-10-04-P3-10-04. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-P3-10-04 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed versus gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with chemotherapy. Patients with advanced (stage IIIB or IV) or recurrent NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive either 500 mg/m² of pemetrexed intravenously every 3 weeks or gefitinib 250 mg/day orally. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months. A total of 95 patients were enrolled (47 for pemetrexed and 48 for gefitinib). Most patients were male (72%) and current/ex-smokers (69%), and 80% had non-squamous cell carcinoma. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status was determined in 38 patients (40%); one patient per each arm was positive for EGFR mutation. The 6-month PFS rates were 22% and 15% for pemetrexed and gefitinib, respectively (p=0.35). Both arms showed an identical median PFS of 2.0 months and a median overall survival (OS) of 8.5 months. In EGFR wild-type patients, higher response rate (RR) and longer PFS as well as OS were achieved via pemetrexed compared with gefitinib, although there were no significant differences (RR: 39% vs. 9%, p=0.07; median PFS: 6.6 months vs. 3.1 months, p=0.45; median OS: 29.6 months vs. 12.9 months, p=0.62). Toxicities were mild in both treatment arms. Frequently reported toxicities were anemia and fatigue for pemetrexed, and skin rash and anorexia for gefitinib. Both pemetrexed and gefitinib had similar efficacy with good tolerability as second-line treatment in unselected patients with advanced NSCLC. However, pemetrexed is considered more effective than gefitinib for EGFR wild-type patients.
    Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2015; DOI:10.4143/crt.2014.307 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of study is to identify the dependence of right ventricular (RV) free wall longitudinal deformation on ventricular loading through segmental approach in relatively large number of patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). Patients with ASD (n = 114) and age matched healthy children (n = 60) were echocardiographically examined the day before percutaneous device closure and within 24 hours afterwards. RV free wall deformation parameters, strain (є) and strain rate (SR), were analyzed in the apical (єA, SRA) and basal (єB, SRB) segments. Measured deformation parameters were adjusted for RV size (єAL, SRAL, єBL, SRBL) by multiplying by body surface area indexed RV longitudinal dimension. Regression analyses determined the relationships of these deformation parameters with RV loading parameters that were measured by catheterization. єBL and SRBL were not different between pre-closure patients and controls (p = 0.245, p = 0.866), and were decreased post-closure (p = 0.001, p = 0.018). Post-closure єBL was lower than in controls (p = 0.001). Pre-closure єAL and SRAL were higher than in controls (p = 0.001, p < 0.001), but decreased after closure (all p < 0.001). The pulmonary to systemic flow ratio was related to procedural differences of єBL (p = 0.017) and of SRBL (p = 0.019). RV end diastolic pressure was negatively related to post-closure єBL (p = 0.020) and post-closure SRBL (p = 0.012), and the procedural SRBL difference (p = 0.027). The longitudinal deformation of the RV basal segment is dependent and its remodeling is also dependent on volume loading in children with ASD.
    Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound 12/2014; 22(4):182-8. DOI:10.4250/jcu.2014.22.4.182
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    ABSTRACT: NSCLC can be defined by various molecular criteria, especially by the type of EGFR mutations present. Besides two major EGFR mutations, other rare or complex types have not been fully described. We performed this study to investigate the clinical significance and efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC patients with rare or complex EGFR mutations. We retrospectively reviewed data for consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC. Subjects with wild type EGFR, EGFR del-19 alone, or EGFR L858R alone were excluded. A rare mutation was defined as any mutation other than del-19 or L858R in exon 21 and a complex mutation was defined as two or more different mutations co-existing within the same tumor sample. A total of 1738 patients underwent EGFR genotyping. Among them, 88 (5.1%) had rare or complex mutations and 54 were treated with TKIs. Thirty-three patients had single rare mutations and 21 had complex mutations. The response was evaluated in 50 patients. Partial response was achieved in 11 (20.4%) patients, and stable disease was achieved in 20 (37.0%) patients. The median progression-free survival was 2.6 months (95% CI; 0.0-5.4 months) at a median follow-up duration of 381.0 days (range; 10-1307 days). The median overall survival was 12.7 months (95% CI; 7.2-18.2 months). These results suggest that rare or complex EGFR mutations confer inferior response and survival to the EGFR-TKI treatment compared to common mutations. Further studies using larger numbers of patients are needed to determine better subclassifications for these patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2014; 87(2). DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.11.013 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the prognostic value of anemia, an easy to estimate parameter in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy. A total of 157 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL treated with ≥ 1 cycle of R-CHOP were included. Hemoglobin level without red cell transfusion within seven days before initiation of treatment was chosen as a parameter of baseline cancer-induced anemia (CIA). To investigate the clinical significance of chemotherapy-induced anemia (CTIA) and its recovery after completion of treatment, 87 patients in complete remission for ≥ 6 months from the time of the last cycle of R-CHOP were grouped and analyzed separately. Patients with a CIA of hemoglobin < 10 g/dL showed inferior event-free and disease-free survival compared to those with hemoglobin ≥ 10 g/dL. This finding was observed irrespective of the status of pre-treatment bone marrow involvement. In multivariate analysis, hemoglobin < 10 g/dL was found to be an international prognostic index-independent prognostic factor. Risk of relapse was significantly higher for patients who were still anemic at six months after R-CHOP, compared to those who achieved complete recovery from CTIA within six months.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Cancer Science 09/2014; 105(12). DOI:10.1111/cas.12544 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) measured by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy.
    09/2014; 48(3):187-95. DOI:10.1007/s13139-014-0280-6
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the predictive value of rare epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 mutations in determining a patient's response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment is unclear. Patients and Methods We reviewed data for NSCLC patients harboring EGFR exon 20 mutations from two hospitals in Korea. EGFR mutations were analyzed using directional sequencing. Results We identified eight patients carrying EGFR exon 20 mutations, seven of whom had insertional mutations. Three patients carried previously unreported insertional mutations. Among six patients who were treated with EGFR TKI, one showed stable disease and three showed primary resistance. Response evaluations were not performed for the other two patients because of their clinical deterioration. Conclusions EGFR exon 20 insertional mutations, including three that were previously unreported, were associated with the poor response of patients to TKI treatment.
    Investigational New Drugs 08/2014; 32(6). DOI:10.1007/s10637-014-0146-x · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • The Breast Journal 07/2014; 20(5). DOI:10.1111/tbj.12326 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases leading to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver failure. We have previously shown that HCV sensitizes hepatocytes to mitochondrial apoptosis via the TRAIL death receptors DR4 and DR5. Although TRAIL and its receptors are selective targets for cancer therapy, their potential against HCC with chronic HCV infection has not been explored yet. Here we show that HCV induces DR4/DR5-dependent activation of caspase-8 leading to elevation of apoptotic signaling in infected cells and also present TRAIL effect in HCV-induced apoptotic signaling. HCV induced proteolytic cleavage of caspase-9 by stimulating DR4 and DR5, resulting in subsequent cleavage of caspase-3. Further, HCV-induced proteolytic cleavage in caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 was enhanced in the presence of recombinant TRAIL. HCV-induced cleavage in caspase-9 and increase in caspase-3/7 activity was completely suppressed by silencing of either DR4 or DR5. Perturbing DR4/DR5-caspase-8 signaling complex by silencing DR4 and DR5 or by chemical inhibitor specific to caspase-8 led to decrease of HCV-induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a substrate for caspase-3 during apoptosis, indicating the functional role of caspase-8 in HCV-induced apoptotic signaling network. Furthermore, TRAIL enhanced PARP cleavage in apoptotic response induced by HCV infection, indicating the effect of TRAIL for the induction of selective apoptosis of HCC cells infected with HCV. Given the importance of apoptosis in HCC development, our data suggest that HCV-induced DR4 and DR5 may be considered as an attractive target for TRAIL therapy against HCC with chronic HCV infection.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98171. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098171 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genexol-PM is a Cremorphor EL (CrEL)-free polymeric micelle formulation of paclitaxel that allows higher-dose administration with less hypersensitivity. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Genexol-PM and gemcitabine combination in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients as a first-line treatment. This is a prospective, single-arm, single-center phase II study. Patients with advanced NSCLC received Genexol-PM at 230 mg/m(2) on day 1 and gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) on day 1 and day 8 of a 3-week cycle. Six cycles of chemotherapy were planned unless there was disease progression. The primary endpoint was overall response rate. Forty-three patients received the study drugs with a median of 4 cycles per patient (range 1-6). The overall response rate was 46.5 %. The median progression-free survival was 4.0 months (95 % CI 2.0-6.0 months), and median overall survival was 14.8 months (95 % CI 9.1-20.5 months). The most common toxicities were anemia (n = 29, 67 %), asthenia (n = 17, 40 %), myalgia (n = 16, 37 %), peripheral neuropathy (n = 15, 35 %), and diarrhea (n = 12, 30 %). The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (n = 7, 16 %) and pneumonia (n = 5, 12 %). Two patients died of pneumonia and dyspnea. CrEL-free paclitaxel in combination with gemcitabine demonstrated favorable antitumor activity with little emetogenicities in non-small cell lung cancer patients. However, frequent grade 3/4 toxicities were observed, and safety should be evaluated thoroughly in future studies.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 06/2014; 74(2). DOI:10.1007/s00280-014-2498-5 · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Cancer 05/2014; 50:e67. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.03.252 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore the association of Ki-67 and p53 expression with prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who underwent curative resection. We retrospectively identified 116 consecutive patients with stages I-III NSCLC who underwent curative resection at a single center from January 2007 to December 2012. Ki-67 and p53 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Data on clinicopathologic features and survival were collected retrospectively. Ki-67 expression in 109 samples and p53 expression in 115 patients were analyzed. According to the results, 108 patients (99 %) showed at least some expression of Ki-67. The median Ki-67 expression level was 30 %. Positive p53 expression was observed in 91 (79 %) patients. Higher Ki-67 expression (>40 %) was significantly more frequent in male (26 vs. 4 % in female, p = 0.002), ever-smoker (31 vs. 10 % in never-smoker, p = 0.024), and non-adenocarcinoma (30 vs. 11 % of adenocarcinoma, p = 0.012) patients. In univariable analysis, median disease-free survival (DFS) was shorter with higher Ki-67 expression (16.1 vs. 61.9 months in those with lower Ki-67 expression, p = 0.005), and p53 expression did not show an association with DFS. Among 42 patients with stage I NSCLC who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, DFS was significantly worse in patients with higher Ki-67 expression (2-year DFS rate 57 vs. 88 %, p = 0.018). In a Cox regression model, higher Ki-67 expression (>40 %) was a significant independent prognostic factor associated with poorer DFS (HR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.3-6.2) along with TNM stage and age. Higher Ki-67 expression (>40 %) showed an independent association with shorter DFS in NSCLC patients who underwent curative resection.
    Tumor Biology 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s13277-014-1760-0 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study aimed at evaluating the role of routine imaging versus symptom-directed unplanned early out-patient department (OPD) visits in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in complete remission (CR) by analyzing the patterns and outcomes of OPD visits for disease monitoring. Patients with DLBCL in CR after treatment in the rituximab era with any OPD monitoring visit were analyzed. A total of 856 OPD visits were recorded: 501 visits were with routine imaging, 322 were without routine imaging, and 33 visits (3.9%) were unplanned early visits due to abnormal symptoms. Of the 106 analyzed patients, 15 experienced a relapse (median follow-up duration of 38.1 months). Routine imaging showed an unsatisfactory positive predictive value due to frequent false-positive visits, and a substantial number of patients with false-positive imaging underwent unnecessary biopsies or additional scans. Compared with planned OPD visits, unplanned early visits were highly related to relapse.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 01/2014; 55(10). DOI:10.3109/10428194.2014.882505 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    Eun Kyung Cho, Su Hee Kang, Young Ju Choi
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    ABSTRACT: SC092 strain, producing a polysaccharide degrading enzyme, was isolated from the seawater. This strain was identified as Microbulbifer sp. using the comparative sequence analysis against known 16S rRNA sequence. A polysaccharide degrading enzyme from this strain was used to acquire the enzymatic extracts of Sargassum fulvellum. DPPH radical scavenging and SOD activity of the enzyme extracts of S. fulvellum were about 61.9% and 82.9% at 2 mg/mL, respectively. Nitrite scavenging activities was 52.5% at 2 mg/mL on pH 1.2. In addition, -glucosidase inhibitory activity was also increased in a dose-dependent manner and was about 52.7% at 2 mg/mL. To determine the influence of enzyme extracts of S. fulvellum on alcohol metabolism, the generating activity of reduced-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were measured. ADH and ALDH activities were 118.0% and 177% at 2 mg/mL, respectively. -glucosidase inhibitory activity of enzyme extracts of S. fulvellum was remarkably increased in a dose-dependent manner and was about 52.7% at 2 mg/mL. These results indicate alcoholizing and -glucosidase inhibitory activities can be enhanced by the enzymatic extracts of S. fulvellum.
    12/2013; 28(6). DOI:10.7841/ksbbj.2013.28.6.349
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare CKD-810 (test docetaxel) with Taxotere(®) (reference docetaxel) in terms of pharmacokinetics and safety for patients with advanced or metastatic carcinoma. A randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study was conducted in eligible patients. Patients received with reference or test drugs of 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel by intravenous infusion for 60 min in the first period and the alternative drug in the second period with a washout of 3 weeks. Plasma concentrations of docetaxel were determined by validated high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the maximum plasma concentration (C max) and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), were determined by non-compartmental analysis. A total of 44 patients were included in the study, 21 patients received test drug and 23 received reference drug for the first cycle. The C max of docetaxel was 2,658.77 ng/mL for test drug and 2,827.60 ng/mL for reference drug, and two drugs showed no difference with a statistical significance. Time to reach C max (T max) of CKD-810 (0.94 h) versus reference docetaxel (0.97 h) was also not significantly different. Other pharmacokinetic parameters including the plasma AUC, elimination half-life, and total body clearance exhibited similar values without a significant difference. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicity was neutropenia (CKD-810 19.5 or 29.3 %; reference docetaxel 14.6 or 41.5 %). Febrile neutropenia was experienced by only one patient in each group. Two patients died of progression of disease during the study. Docetaxel anhydrous CKD-810 use with patients suffering advanced or metastatic solid malignancies was equivalent to reference docetaxel in terms of pharmacokinetic parameters and safety profile. Additionally, the test and reference drug met the regulatory criteria for pharmacokinetic equivalence.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 12/2013; 73(1). DOI:10.1007/s00280-013-2264-0 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Docetaxel, in combination with cisplatin or oxaliplatin, has demonstrated efficacy in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). This randomized, non-comparative phase II trial evaluated two weekly docetaxel-based regimens to determine which is the most promising in terms of efficacy and safety as a front-line therapy in AGC. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with measurable unresectable and/or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel (35 mg/m(2)) weekly on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle plus either cisplatin (60 mg/m(2) on day 1) (wDP) or oxaliplatin (120 mg/m(2) on day 1) (wDO). Of the 77 randomly assigned patients, 76 patients (38 per arm) received one of the study treatments. Overall, response rate (ORR) was 37 % for wDP and 41 % for wDO. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.9 and 4.4 months for wDP and wDO, respectively, and median overall survival (OS) was 9.7 and 12.3 months, respectively. Exploratory analyses showed no significant difference between wDP and wDO in terms of ORR (P = 0.707), PFS (P = 0.324), or OS (P = 0.581). The main grade 3 or 4 toxicity in the wDP and wDO groups was neutropenia (47 % in both groups). wDO was less associated with nausea (66 vs. 82 %) and vomiting (39 vs. 63 %), but more associated with peripheral neuropathy (68 vs. 39 %) than wDP. Rates of overall grade 3 or 4 adverse events were similar (wDP 66 vs. wDO 68 %). wDP and wDO were found to be equally active and tolerable as front-line treatments in AGC.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 11/2013; 73(1). DOI:10.1007/s00280-013-2334-3 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction can cause the development of collateral vessels. During contrast-enhanced thoracic computed tomography (CT), contrast material may reflux into the collaterals such as paravertebral venous plexus. However, an unusual pseudopathologic vertebral body enhancement on CT in the presence of SVC obstruction has not been studied previously. To demonstrate clinical presentation and imaging findings of pseudopathologic vertebral body enhancement in patients with SVC obstruction. Retrospective study of diagnostic CT images examined at our clinic. From March, 2009 to September, 2012, a retrospective radiologic database review was performed to identify patients with obstruction of SVC causing contrast reflux into collateral vessels and presented with an unusual vertebral body enhancement on thoracic CT. Thirteen patients (11 men, mean age 51.4 years) with vertebral body enhancement were enrolled. Enhancement patterns of vertebral bodies were classified as nodular enhancement with round shape occupying less than one-third of vertebral body or polygonal enhancement occupying greater than or equal to one-third of vertebral body on axial image. The locations of enhanced areas within vertebral bodies were described using right lateral/central/left lateral, anterior/posterior, and upper/middle/lower in the x-, y-, or z-axis directions, respectively. Enhancement patterns, locations, and the presence of a connection between vertebral body enhancement and the paravertebral venous plexus were evaluated. A total of 39 vertebral body enhancements were found in the 13 patients, involving cervical (n=12), thoracic (n=25), or lumbar (n=2) vertebrae. Vertebral body enhancements showed a nodular (n=19) or a polygonal (n=20) pattern. The central portions of vertebral bodies were more frequently involved. The connection to the paravertebral venous plexus was observed in 34 lesions (87.2%). Patients with SVC obstruction with extensive collateral vessels might exhibit a pseudopathologic vertebral enhancement. They tended to involve the central portion of the vertebral body, and most of them showed connection to the paravertebral venous plexus.
    The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.spinee.2013.07.440 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This randomized, phase II study investigated whether benefit could be obtained by giving vandetanib, an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial and epithelial growth factor receptor, as a maintenance treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients were randomly assigned to either vandetanib or placebo after completion of 4 cycles of first-line chemotherapy. A progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 3 months was selected as the primary endpoint. We set a maximum PFS rate at 3 months to 30% (null hypothesis), and a minimum PFS rate at 3 months to 50% (alternative hypothesis). At the interim analysis, 9 of 24 patients in the vandetanib arm were progression-free at 3 months, whereas 7 of 24 in the placebo arm were progression-free. The placebo arm was closed at the first stage. The vandetanib arm proceeded to the second stage, and recruited a total of 75 patients. At the second stage, 28 out of 63 evaluable patients receiving vandetanib achieved PFS at 3 months. The alternative hypothesis that the PFS rate at 3 months is at least 50% was accepted. The median PFS was 2.7 months (95% CI, 1.9-4.4 months) in the vandetanib arm and 1.7 months (95% CI, 0.9-2.6 months) in the placebo arm. The most common adverse events in patients receiving vandetanib were rash (77.3%) and diarrhea (60.0%). Maintenance therapy with vandetanib for patients with NSCLC after standard platinum doublet chemotherapy is well tolerated and may prolong PFS compared with placebo, and needs additional investigation.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 09/2013; 82(3). DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2013.08.027 · 3.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

828 Citations
316.92 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Soonchunhyang University
      • College of Medicine
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2005–2014
    • Gachon University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Hemato-oncology
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
    • Ewha Womans University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000–2014
    • University of Ulsan
      • College of Medicine
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2007–2011
    • Silla University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2004–2010
    • Incheon St. Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Medical Center
      Bucheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Sookmyung Women's University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2006
    • Seoul National University
      • • Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 1998
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea