[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale to study the disorders of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the SCOPA-AUT, was administered to all the patients and controls. The SCOPA-AUT consists of 25 items assessing the following domains: gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor, and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic symptoms between our iRBD patients and controls emerged in the gastrointestinal domain. Interestingly, it has been reported that an altered gastrointestinal motility can predate the motor phase of PD. The cardiovascular domain SCOPA-AUT score in our study in iRBD patients was intermediate with respect to the scores reported in PD patients by other authors. Our findings underline the importance of collecting data on autonomic symptoms in iRBD. These data may be used in prospective studies for evaluating the risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders.
Journal of Neurology 04/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, skeletal muscles are almost paralyzed. However, in REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which is a rare neurological condition, muscle atonia is lost, leaving afflicted individuals free to enact their dreams. Although this may sound innocuous, it is not, given that patients with RBD often injure themselves or their bed-partner. A major concern in RBD is that it precedes, in 80% of cases, development of synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This link suggests that neurodegenerative processes initially target the circuits controlling REM sleep. Clinical and basic neuroscience evidence indicates that RBD results from breakdown of the network underlying REM sleep atonia. This finding is important because it opens new avenues for treating RBD and understanding its link to neurodegenerative disorders.
Trends in Neurosciences 03/2014; · 13.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This controlled study investigated associations between comorbidity and medication in patients with polysomnographically confirmed idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD), using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort.
Data of a self-administered questionnaire on comorbidity and medication use of 318 patients with iRBD and 318 matched controls were analyzed. Comparisons between cases and controls were made using logistic regression analysis.
Patients with iRBD were more likely to report depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.9) and concomitant antidepressant use (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.6). Subanalysis of antidepressant agents revealed that the increased use of antidepressants in iRBD was due to selective serotoninergic reuptake inhibitors (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.8-7.0) and not due to other antidepressant classes. Patients with iRBD reported more lifetime antidepressant use than comorbid depression (antidepressant use: OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3; depression: OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.5). Patients with iRBD reported more ischemic heart disease (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). This association did not change substantially when adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.9). The use of inhaled glucocorticoids was higher in patients with iRBD compared to controls (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.8-15.8), likely reflecting the higher smoking rate in iRBD (smoking: OR 15.3, 95% CI 2.0-118.8; nonsmoking: OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.4-13.2) and consequent pulmonary disease.
This large study confirms the association between comorbid depression and antidepressant use in iRBD. In addition, there was an unexpected association of iRBD with ischemic heart disease that was not explained by cardiovascular risk factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether the Parkinson disease-related covariance pattern (PDRP) expression is abnormally increased in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and whether increased baseline activity is associated with greater individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion.
For this cohort study, we recruited 2 groups of RBD and control subjects. Cohort 1 comprised 10 subjects with RBD (63.5 ± 9.4 years old) and 10 healthy volunteers (62.7 ± 8.6 years old) who underwent resting-state metabolic brain imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Cohort 2 comprised 17 subjects with RBD (68.9 ± 4.8 years old) and 17 healthy volunteers (66.6 ± 6.0 years old) who underwent resting brain perfusion imaging with ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT. The latter group was followed clinically for 4.6 ± 2.5 years by investigators blinded to the imaging results. PDRP expression was measured in both RBD groups and compared with corresponding control values.
PDRP expression was elevated in both groups of subjects with RBD (cohort 1: p < 0.04; cohort 2: p < 0.005). Of the 17 subjects with long-term follow-up, 8 were diagnosed with Parkinson disease or dementia with Lewy bodies; the others did not phenoconvert. For individual subjects with RBD, final phenoconversion status was predicted using a logistical regression model based on PDRP expression and subject age at the time of imaging (r(2) = 0.64, p < 0.0001).
Latent network abnormalities in subjects with idiopathic RBD are associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent phenoconversion to a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To compare two different methods, one visual and the other automatic, for the quantification of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) in diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).
Seventy-four RBD patients (mean age, 62.14 ± 9.67 years) and 75 normal controls (mean age, 61.04 ± 12.13 years) underwent one night video-polysomnographic recording. The chin electromyogram (EMG) during REM sleep was analyzed by means of a previously published visual method quantifying the percentage of 30 s epochs scored as tonic (abnormal, ⩾30%) and that of 2 s mini-epochs containing phasic EMG events (abnormal ⩾15%). For the computer quantitative analysis we used the automatic scoring algorithm known as the atonia index (abnormal, <0.8). The percentage correct classification, sensitivity, specificity, and Cohen kappa were calculated.
The atonia index classified correctly 82.6% of subjects, similar to the percentage of correct classifications with individual components of the visual analysis (83.2% each for tonic and phasic), and the combined visual parameters (85.9%). The sensitivity and specificity of automatic analysis (84% and 81%) was similar to the combined visual analysis (89% and 83%). The correlation coefficient between the automatic atonia index and the percentage of visual tonic EMG was high (r = -0.886, P < 0.00001), with moderately high correlation with the percentage of phasic EMG (r = -0.690, P < 0.00001). The agreement between atonia index and the visual parameters (individual or combined) was approximately 85% with Cohen’s kappa, ranging from 0.638 to 0.693.
Sensitivity, specificity, and correct classifications were high with both methods. Moreover, there was general agreement between methods, with Cohen’s kappa values in the ‘good’ range. Given the considerable practical advantages of automatic quantification of REM atonia, automatic quantification may be a useful alternative to visual scoring methods in otherwise uncomplicated polysomnograms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (Willis-Ekbom disease [WED]) usually have periodic leg movements (PLMs). The suggested immobilization test (SIT) measures sensory and motor features of WED during wakefulness. Surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings of the anterior tibialis (AT) are used as the standard for counting PLMs. However, due to several limitations, leg activity meters such as the PAM-RL were advanced as a potential substitute. In our study, we assessed the validity of the measurements of PLM during wakefulness (PLMW) in the SIT for PAM-RL using both default and custom detection threshold parameters compared to AT EMG.
Data were obtained from 39 participants who were diagnosed with primary WED and who were on stable medication as part of another study using the SIT to repeatedly evaluate WED symptoms over 6-12months. EMG recordings and PAM-RL, when available, were used to detect PLMW for each SIT. Complete PAM-RL and polysomnography (PSG) EMG data were available for 253 SITs from that study. The default PAM-RL (dPAM-RL) detected leg movements based on manufacturer's noise (resting) and signal (movement) amplitude criteria developed to accurately detect PLM during sleep (PLMS). The custom PAM-RL (cPAM-RL) similarly detected leg movements except the noise and movement detection parameters were adjusted to match the PAM-RL data for each SIT.
The distributions of the differences between either dPAM-RL or cPAM-RL and EMG PLMW were strongly leptokurtic (Kurtosis >2) with many small differences and a few unusually large differences. These distributions are better described by median and quartile ranges than mean and standard deviation. Despite an adequate correlation (r=0.66) between the dPAM-RL and EMG recordings, the dPAM-RL on average significantly underscored the number of PLMW (median: quartiles=-13: -51.2, 0.0) and on Bland-Altman plots had a significant magnitude bias with greater underscoring for larger average PLMW/h. There also was an adequate correlation (r=0.70) between cPAM-RL and EMG but with minimal underscoring of PLMW (median quartiles=0.0; -20, 10) and no significant magnitude bias. Two scorers independently scoring 13% of the SITs showed an adequate interscorer reliability of 0.96-0.98.
Our study confirms our expectation that measuring PLMW in a SIT using dPAM-RL is not valid and that adjustments to the detection threshold criteria are required. The PAM-RL, using parameters customized for each SIT provided a valid and reliable measure of PLMW with minimal magnitude bias compared to the AT EMG recordings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleepwalking (SW) often has been associated with psychopathology, but the nature and magnitude of this relation remains unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of psychopathology in a large cohort of sleepwalkers and to determine if levels of psychopathology showed differential relations to specific characteristics of the disorder, including clinical history.
One-hundred and five sleepwalkers (39 men, 66 women; mean age, 32.4±9.5years) referred to our sleep disorders clinic for chronic SW underwent a comprehensive clinical investigation that included an overnight polysomnography (PSG) assessment in 90% of cases. All participants also completed a series of questionnaires, including the Beck Depression Inventory, Second Revision (BDI-II), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R).
The proportion of sleepwalkers who scored above the minimal clinical threshold on the BDI-II, BAI, and SCL-90-R was 27%, 40%, and 28%, respectively. Only 15% of sleepwalkers showed moderate to severe symptoms on the BDI-II and 19% on the BAI. Taken as a whole, these profiles are similar to those observed in the general adult population. The presence of psychopathology in sleepwalkers was associated with a negative family history for SW, a higher frequency of nightmares, and with potentially injurious behaviors enacted during somnambulistic episodes.
A majority of adult sleepwalkers consulting for the disorder do not report clinically significant levels of depression or anxiety. Overall, sleepwalkers with and without psychopathology appear more similar than dissimilar.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a well-documented risk factor for synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Moreover, approximately 50% of iRBD patients have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The purpose of our study was to investigate waking electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities specific to iRBD patients with MCI.
Forty-two polysomnographically confirmed iRBD patients, including 23 iRBD [+]MCI patients 19 patients without MCI (iRBD [-]MCI), and 37 healthy subjects participated in the study. All participants underwent a complete neuropsychologic assessment for MCI diagnosis and a waking quantitative EEG recording.
iRBD [+]MCI patients had a higher slow-to-fast frequency ratio than iRBD [-]MCI patients and controls in the parietal, temporal, and occipital regions. iRBD [+]MCI patients also had higher relative θ power in the parietal, temporal, and occipital regions and lower relative α power in the occipital region compared to iRBD [-]MCI patients and controls. Moreover, iRBD [+]MCI patients had higher relative θ power in the frontal and central areas and lower relative β power in the central, parietal, and temporal regions compared to controls. The dominant occipital frequency also was slower in iRBD [+]MCI patients compared to controls. No between-group differences were observed between iRBD [-]MCI patients and controls.
In iRBD patients, only those with concomitant MCI showed waking EEG slowing in the posterior cortical regions, providing a potential marker for an increased risk for developing DLB or PD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characterize disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) in narcolepsy, an important symptom of narcolepsy.
A panel of international narcolepsy experts was convened in 2011 to build a consensus characterization of DNS in patients with narcolepsy. A literature search of the Medline (1965 to date), Medline In-Process (latest weeks), Embase (1974 to date), Embase Alert (latest 8 weeks), and Biosis (1965 to date) databases was conducted using the following search terms: narcolepsy and disrupted nighttime sleep, disturbed nighttime sleep, fragmented sleep, consolidated sleep, sleep disruption, and narcolepsy questionnaire. The purpose of the literature search was to identify publications characterizing the nighttime sleep of patients with narcolepsy. The panel reviewed the literature. Nocturnal sleep can also be disturbed by REM sleep abnormalities such as vivid dreaming and REM sleep behavior disorder; however, these were not reviewed in the current paper, as we were evaluating for idiopathic sleep disturbances.
The literature reviewed provide a consistent characterization of nighttime sleep in patients with narcolepsy as fragmented, with reports of frequent, brief nightly awakenings with difficulties returning to sleep and associated reports of poor sleep quality. Polysomnographic studies consistently report frequent awakenings/arousals after sleep onset, more stage 1 (S1) sleep, and more frequent shifts to S1 sleep or wake from deeper stages of sleep. The consensus of the International Experts' Panel on Narcolepsy was that DNS can be distressing for patients with narcolepsy and that treatment of DNS warrants consideration.
Clinicians involved in the management of patients with narcolepsy should investigate patients' quality of nighttime sleep, give weight and consideration to patient reports of nighttime sleep experience, and consider DNS a target for treatment.
Roth T; Dauvilliers Y; Mignot E; Montplaisir J; Paul J; Swick T; Zee P. Disrupted nighttime sleep in narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):955-965.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 09/2013; 9(9):955-65. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleepwalkers often complain of excessive daytime somnolence (EDS). Our retrospective study aimed to document the presence of EDS in a substantial sample of sleepwalkers and to explore the contribution of other sleep disorders, nocturnal sleep disruption, and sleep depth to the alteration of their daytime vigilance.
Seventy adult sleepwalkers and 70 control subjects completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Sleepwalkers also were studied for one night in the sleep laboratory. We compared the sleep profiles of 32 somnolent vs 38 nonsomnolent sleepwalkers and investigated the relationship between ESS scores and sleep-related variables.
No differences were found in polysomnographic (PSG) parameters. Slow-wave activity (SWA) also was similar in the two subgroups. Sleepwalkers' ESS scores were not correlated with their body mass index (BMI) or periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) index, but they tended to be negatively correlated with indices of respiratory events.
The EDS reported by adult sleepwalkers does not appear to be explained by the presence of concomitant sleep disorders or PSG signs of nocturnal sleep disruption. These results raise the possibility that EDS is part of the sleepwalking phenotype and that it is linked to its underlying pathophysiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to compare rhythmic masticatory muscle activity typical of sleep bruxism and oromandibular myoclonus (OMM) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and in Parkinson disease (PD) patients with RBD (PD-RBD).
Sleep polygraphic data were collected from 9 age-matched controls and 28 patients (mean±standard error of the mean, 66.0±1.7y) with a clinical and sleep laboratory diagnosis of RBD. Patients were divided into two groups: 13 patients with iRBD and 15 patients with PD-RBD. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity, a marker of sleep bruxism, and OMM were scored blind to subject's diagnosis from jaw electromyographic recordings during sleep.
The rhythmic masticatory muscle activity index was significantly higher during REM sleep in iRBD subjects compared to controls (P<.01) and was significantly higher during non-REM (NREM) sleep in both subject groups compared to controls (P⩽.03). A positive sleep laboratory diagnosis of sleep bruxism was made in 25% of all patients. In iRBD, patients had more OMM during REM sleep than controls (2.4 times higher; P=.01).
In the presence of a high frequency of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity during REM sleep, RBD may be suspected and further neurologic assessment is recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD) and related neurodegeneration in RBD.
The consensus statement was generated during the fourth IRBD-SG symposium in Marburg, Germany in 2011. The IRBD-SG identified essential methodologic components for a randomized trial in RBD, including potential screening and diagnostic criteria, inclusion and exclusion criteria, primary and secondary outcomes for symptomatic therapy trials (particularly for melatonin and clonazepam), and potential primary and secondary outcomes for eventual trials with disease-modifying and neuroprotective agents. The latter trials are considered urgent, given the high conversion rate from idiopathic RBD (iRBD) to Parkinsonian disorders (i.e., PD, dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB], multiple system atrophy [MSA]).
Six inclusion criteria were identified for symptomatic therapy and neuroprotective trials: (1) diagnosis of RBD needs to satisfy the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition, (ICSD-2) criteria; (2) minimum frequency of RBD episodes should preferably be ⩾2 times weekly to allow for assessment of change; (3) if the PD-RBD target population is included, it should be in the early stages of PD defined as Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-3 in Off (untreated); (4) iRBD patients with soft neurologic dysfunction and with operational criteria established by the consensus of study investigators; (5) patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI); and (6) optimally treated comorbid OSA. Twenty-four exclusion criteria were identified. The primary outcome measure for RBD treatment trials was determined to be the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) efficacy index, consisting of a four-point scale with a four-point side-effect scale. Assessment of video-polysomnographic (vPSG) changes holds promise but is costly and needs further elaboration. Secondary outcome measures include sleep diaries; sleepiness scales; PD sleep scale 2 (PDSS-2); serial motor examinations; cognitive indices; mood and anxiety indices; assessment of frequency of falls, gait impairment, and apathy; fatigue severity scale; and actigraphy and customized bed alarm systems. Consensus also was established for evaluating the clinical and vPSG aspects of RBD. End points for neuroprotective trials in RBD, taking lessons from research in PD, should be focused on the ultimate goal of determining the performance of disease-modifying agents. To date no compound with convincing evidence of disease-modifying or neuroprotective efficacy has been identified in PD. Nevertheless, iRBD patients are considered ideal candidates for neuroprotective studies.
The IRBD-SG provides an important platform for developing multinational collaborative studies on RBD such as on environmental risk factors for iRBD, as recently reported in a peer-reviewed journal article, and on controlled active treatment studies for symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy that emerged during the 2011 consensus conference in Marburg, Germany, as described in our report.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Task Force was established by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) to develop evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations for the long-term pharmacologic treatment of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED). The Task Force reviewed the results of all studies of RLS/WED treatments with durations of 6months or longer presented at meetings over the past 2years, posted on Web sites of pharmaceutical companies, or published in peer-reviewed journals, asking the questions, "What is the efficacy of this treatment in patients with RLS/WED?" and "What is the safety of this treatment in patients with RLS/WED?" The Task Force developed guidelines based on their review of 61 papers meeting inclusion criteria, and using a modified evidence-grading scheme. Pregabalin has been established as effective for up to 1year in treating RLS/WED (Level A evidence). Pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine have been established as effective for up to 6months in treating RLS/WED (Level A). The following drugs have been established as probably effective (Level B) in treating RLS/WED for durations ranging from 1 to 5years: gabapentin enacarbil, pramipexole, and ropinirole (1year); levodopa (2years); and rotigotine (5years). Because of associated safety concerns, pergolide and cabergoline should not be used in the treatment of RLS/WED unless the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. Other pharmacologic therapies have insufficient evidence to support their long-term use in treating RLS/WED. The IRLSSG Task Force also developed consensus-based strategies for the prevention and treatment of complications (such as augmentation, loss of efficacy, excessive daytime sleepiness, and impulse control disorders) that may develop with the long-term pharmacologic treatment of RLS/WED. The use of either a dopamine-receptor agonist or α2δ calcium-channel ligand is recommended as the first-line treatment of RLS/WED for most patients, with the choice of agent dependent on the patient's severity of RLS/WED symptoms, cognitive status, history, and comorbid conditions.
Sleep Medicine 07/2013; 14(7):675-84. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors on daytime and nighttime continuous sleep duration at 6, 18, 30, and 48 months of age, and to identify different subgroups of children who followed different daytime and nighttime sleep duration trajectories and to investigate their etiology.METHODS:The current study included 995 twins (405 monozygotic and 586 dizygotic) of the Quebec Newborn Twin Study recruited from the birth records of the Quebec Statistics Institute. Daytime and nighttime sleep was assessed through maternal reports at 6, 18, 30, and 48 months of age. A semiparametric modeling strategy was used to estimate daytime and nighttime sleep duration trajectories. Quantitative genetic models were used to examine to what extent genetic and environmental factors influenced daytime and nighttime continuous sleep duration.RESULTS:Genetic modeling analyses revealed environmental influences for all daytime sleep duration trajectories. In contrast, strong genetic influences were found for consolidated nighttime sleep duration (except at 18 months and for the short-increasing sleep duration trajectory).CONCLUSIONS:This is the first indication that early childhood daytime sleep duration may be driven by environmental settings, whereas the variance in consolidated nighttime sleep duration is largely influenced by genetic factors with a critical environmental time-window influence at ∼18 months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Sleepiness, cognitive deficits, abnormal event-related potentials (ERP), and slowing of the waking electroencephalography (EEG) activity have been reported in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our study aimed at evaluating if an association exists between the severity of ERP abnormalities and EEG slowing to better understand cerebral dysfunctions in OSA. METHODS: Twelve OSA patients and 12 age-matched controls underwent an overnight polysomnographic recording, an EEG recording of 10min of wakefulness, and an auditory ERP protocol known to specifically recruit attention. P300 and P3a ERP components were measured as well as the spectral power in each frequency band of the waking EEG. Pearson product moment correlations were used to measure associations between ERP characteristics and EEG spectral power in OSA patients and control subjects. RESULTS: A positive correlation between the late P300 amplitude and θ power in the occipital region was observed in OSA subjects (P<.01). A positive correlation was also found between P3a amplitude and β1 power in central region in OSA subjects (P<.01). No correlation was observed for control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: ERP abnormalities observed in an attention task are associated with a slowing of the waking EEG recorded at rest in OSA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort. METHODS: A total of 316 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD were recruited from 12 RBD study group centers, along with 316 controls matched on sex and age group. All subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire that collected proxy-reported information on family history of tremor, gait trouble, balance trouble, Parkinson disease, memory loss, and Alzheimer disease. The questionnaire also included a single question that asked about possible symptoms of RBD among first-degree relatives (siblings, parents, and children). RESULTS: A positive family history of dream enactment was reported in 13.8% of iRBD cases compared to 4.8% of controls (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.0-7.7]). ORs were increased for both siblings (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 2.1-18.1) and parents (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.8). We found no significant difference in sex, current age (65.3 ± 10.2 vs 66.9 ± 10.2 years), or age at self-reported RBD onset (55.2 ± 11.7 vs 56.6 ± 15.1 years) in possible familial vs sporadic iRBD. No differences were found in family history of tremor, walking and balance troubles, Parkinson disease, memory loss, or Alzheimer disease. CONCLUSION: We found increased odds of proxy-reported family history of presumed RBD among individuals with confirmed iRBD. This suggests the possibility of a genetic contribution to RBD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) are associated with important blood pressure (BP) increases in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients. These movements also are highly prevalent in the healthy elderly population. The aims of our study were to evaluate if heart rate (HR) and BP changes associated with PLMS are present in healthy subjects with no report of health concerns and to compare the amplitude of cardiovascular changes in healthy subjects to that of RLS subjects. METHODS: Fourteen healthy subjects (six men, eight women; 46.6±9.7y) and 14 RLS subjects (six men, eight women; 47.6±11.8y) matched for age and gender participated in our study. Beat-to-beat noninvasive BP was continuously recorded during one night of polysomnography. HR, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured for 10 beats before and 15 beats after onset of PLMS with and without microarousals (MA). RESULTS: PLMS were associated with sudden and significant increases of HR, SBP and DBP in both groups; however, cardiovascular increases were more pronounced in RLS subjects than in healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Because PLMS index increases with age in healthy subjects and aging is associated with higher cardiovascular risk, further studies should investigate the impact of PLMS-related BP changes on the development of cardiovascular diseases in healthy elderly populations.