[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of heart failure is frequently reported using hospital discharge diagnoses. The specificity of a diagnosis has been shown to be high but the sensitivity of a reported diagnosis is unknown.
To study the accuracy of a heart failure diagnosis reported to the Danish National Patient Registers during routine clinical work.
The patient population consisted of 3644 consecutive patients admitted to all departments in one hospital. Diagnoses reported to the National Patient Register were recorded. A study team evaluated each patient independently of routine care, performed an echocardiogram and evaluated whether clinical symptoms of heart failure were present. Heart failure was defined in accordance with current ESC guidelines as symptoms of heart failure and evidence of cardiac dysfunction.
A registered diagnosis of heart failure (n=126) carried a specificity of 99% and a sensitivity of 29% for all patients. The positive predictive value was 81%, the negative predictive value 90%.
The diagnosis of Heart Failure in the Danish National Registers is underreported, but very specific.
European Journal of Heart Failure 08/2008; 10(7):658-60. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dronedarone is a novel antiarrhythmic drug with electrophysiological properties that are similar to those of amiodarone, but it does not contain iodine and thus does not cause iodine-related adverse reactions. Therefore, it may be of value in the treatment of patients with heart failure.
In a multicenter study with a double-blind design, we planned to randomly assign 1000 patients who were hospitalized with symptomatic heart failure and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction to receive 400 mg of dronedarone twice a day or placebo. The primary end point was the composite of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure.
After inclusion of 627 patients (310 in the dronedarone group and 317 in the placebo group), the trial was prematurely terminated for safety reasons, at the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board, in accordance with the board's predefined rules for termination of the study. During a median follow-up of 2 months, 25 patients in the dronedarone group (8.1%) and 12 patients in the placebo group (3.8%) died (hazard ratio in the dronedarone group, 2.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 4.25; P=0.03). The excess mortality was predominantly related to worsening of heart failure--10 deaths in the dronedarone group and 2 in the placebo group. The primary end point did not differ significantly between the two groups; there were 53 events in the dronedarone group (17.1%) and 40 events in the placebo group (12.6%) (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.09; P=0.12). More increases in the creatinine concentration were reported as serious adverse events in the dronedarone group than in the placebo group.
In patients with severe heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, treatment with dronedarone was associated with increased early mortality related to the worsening of heart failure. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00543699.)
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2008; 358(25):2678-87. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore vital sign changes among patient subgroups during the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes (SCOUT) trial.
SCOUT is an ongoing, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled outcome trial in overweight/obese patients at high risk of a cardiovascular event. During the 6-week lead-in period, 10,742 patients received sibutramine and weight management. Vital sign changes were assessed post hoc by initial blood pressure (mmHg) categorized as normal (<130/<85), high-normal (130 to <140/85 to <90) or hypertensive (>or=140/>or=90); weight change categories (weight gain/no weight change, >0 to 2.5% weight loss, >2.5 to 5% weight loss and >5% weight loss) and current antihypertensive medication class use (none, one, or two or more). To assess the impact of sibutramine on blood pressure and pulse rate, only patients (N = 10,025) who reported no change in the class of antihypertensive medication used and who did not report an increase in antihypertensive medication use were analysed.
At entry, approximately 50% of patients were hypertensive and 26% were high-normal. In hypertensive patients, blood pressure changes (mmHg) decreased by median [5th, 95th percentile] of -6.5 systolic [-27.0, 8.0] and -2.0 diastolic [-15.0, 8.0] (p < 0.001). Hypertensive patients with no weight loss or with weight gain had median decreases of -3.5 systolic [-26.0, 10.0] and -1.5 diastolic [-16.0, 9.0] (p < 0.001). Normotensive patients had median increases of 1.5 systolic [-15.0, 19.5] and 1.0 diastolic [-10.5, 13.0] (p < 0.001) attenuated with increasing weight loss. Approximately 43% of patients initially categorized as hypertensive had a lower blood pressure category at end-point. Concomitant antihypertensive medication classes did not affect blood pressure reductions. Pulse rates were uniformly elevated (median 1-4 bpm, p < 0.001) across blood pressure and weight change categories.
In hypertensive patients (>or=140/>or=90), blood pressure decreases were observed during 6-week treatment with sibutramine even when body weight was unchanged. In patients with normal blood pressure (<130/<85), weight loss of >5% induced decreases in systolic blood pressure; otherwise, small increases were observed. Small pulse rate increases were observed regardless of blood pressure or weight change status.
Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 07/2008; 11(3):239-50. · 5.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A restrictive transmitral filling (RF) pattern predicts increased mortality in heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular (LV) systolic function. We performed a combined evaluation of LV function and RF for prognosis in patients with HF with and without systolic dysfunction.
Doppler echocardiography was performed in 972 patients with symptomatic HF. RF was considered present when deceleration time (DT) was <or=140 ms and non-RF when >140 ms. A DT >240 ms was defined as delayed relaxation. During a median of 51 months the unadjusted all-cause mortality rates were significantly increased among patients with RF vs. the non-RF group (1- and 4-year mortality was 25% and 54% vs. 17% and 43%). In a multivariable model, RF was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.5-2.6) whereas delayed relaxation was without prognostic importance (HR=0.9, CI:0.5-1.6). Repeating the multivariable model in subgroups of wall motion index (WMI) showed that RF was a strong predictor of mortality independent of WMI. For patients with LVEF of at least 50%, HR for RF was 2.0 (CI:1.1-3.4; p=0.02) and interaction between LVEF and RF was not significant.
In a heterogeneous population hospitalised for symptomatic HF a restrictive transmitral filling pattern, defined as shortened deceleration time, during hospitalisation is an ominous prognostic sign independent of LV systolic function.
European Journal of Heart Failure 07/2008; 10(7):689-95. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on beta-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden, Uruguay, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality, respectively. The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio: 1.11) or any of the fatal combined with nonfatal events (hazard ratio: < or =1.02). Daytime heart rate did not predict mortality (hazard ratio: < or =1.11) or any fatal combined with nonfatal event (hazard ratio: < or =0.96). Nighttime heart rate predicted all of the mortality outcomes (hazard ratio: > or =1.15) but none of the fatal combined with nonfatal events (hazard ratio: < or =1.11). The night:day heart rate ratio predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.14) and noncardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio: 1.12) and all of the fatal combined with nonfatal events (hazard ratio: > or =1.15) with the exception of stroke (hazard ratio: 1.06). Sensitivity analyses, in which we stratified by risk factors or from which we excluded 1 cohort at a time or the events occurring within 2 years of enrollment, showed consistent results. In the general population, heart rate predicts total and noncardiovascular mortality. With the exception of the night:day heart rate ratio, heart rate did not add to the risk stratification for fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular events. Thus, heart rate adds little to the prediction of cardiovascular risk.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of the ambulatory blood pressure (BP) during night and day and of the night-to-day BP ratio (NDR). We studied 7458 participants (mean age 56.8 years; 45.8% women) enrolled in the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome. Using Cox models, we calculated hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for cohort and cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 983 deaths and 943 cardiovascular events occurred. Nighttime BP predicted mortality outcomes (HR, 1.18-1.24; P<0.01) independent of daytime BP. Conversely, daytime systolic (HR, 0.84; P<0.01) and diastolic BP (HR, 0.88; P<0.05) predicted only noncardiovascular mortality after adjustment for nighttime BP. Both daytime BP and nighttime BP consistently predicted all cardiovascular events (HR, 1.11-1.33; P<0.05) and stroke (HR, 1.21-1.47; P<0.01). Daytime BP lost its prognostic significance for cardiovascular events in patients on antihypertensive treatment. Adjusted for the 24-h BP, NDR predicted mortality (P<0.05), but not fatal combined with nonfatal events. Participants with systolic NDR of at least 1 compared with participants with normal NDR (> or = 0.80 to <0.90) were older, at higher risk of death, but died at higher age. The predictive accuracy of the daytime and nighttime BP and the NDR depended on the disease outcome under study. The increased mortality in patients with higher NDR probably indicates reverse causality. Our findings support recording the ambulatory BP during the whole day.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is positively associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), negatively associated with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) and inconsequently related to urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) they are all associated with cardiovascular events. Therefore, we wanted to determine the influence of MetS on the predictive values of UACR, hsCRP and Nt-proBNP. On the basis of the definition of MetS by the International Diabetes Federation, a Danish population sample of 1983 apparently healthy subjects was divided into three groups: 530 subjects without any elements of MetS, 1093 subjects with some elements of MetS and 360 subjects with MetS. During the following 9.5 years the composite end point of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke (composite cardiovascular end point, CEP) occurred in 204 subjects. In Cox-regression analyses adjusting for age, gender and smoking, all three cardiovascular risk markers predicted CEP independently of MetS. Despite no significant interaction with MetS, high log(hsCRP) was associated with CEP primarily in subjects without any elements of MetS (hazard ratio (HR)=4.5 (1.5-14.0), P<0.01), log(Nt-proBNP) primarily in subjects with some elements of MetS (HR=3.0 (1.6-5.6), P<0.01), and logUACR independently of elements of MetS. Pre-specified gender-adjusted (men/women) cutoff values of hsCRP > or = 6.0/7.3 mg l(-1) predicted CEP in subjects without elements of MetS with positive and predictive values of 11.5 and 98%, respectively. UACR > or = 0.73/1.06 mg mmol(-1) predicted CEP in subjects with MetS with positive and predictive values of 23.5 and 93%, respectively. In apparently healthy subjects, high hsCRP was associated with CEP primarily in subjects without MetS, high Nt-proBNP in subjects with elements of MetS and UACR independently of MetS.
Journal of Human Hypertension 06/2008; 22(9):634-40. · 2.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upper limits of normal ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) have been a matter of debate in recent years. Current diagnostic thresholds for ABP rely mainly on statistical parameters derived from reference populations. Recent findings from the International Database of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) provide outcome-driven thresholds for ABP. Rounded systolic/diastolic thresholds for optimal ABP were found to be 115/75 mm Hg for 24 hours, 120/80 mm Hg for daytime, and 100/65 mm Hg for nighttime. The corresponding rounded thresholds for normal ABP were 125/75 mm Hg, 130/85 mm Hg, and 110/70 mm Hg, respectively, and those for ambulatory hypertension were 130/80 mm Hg, 140/85 mm Hg, and 120/70 mm Hg. However, in clinical practice, any diagnostic threshold for blood pressure needs to be assessed in the context of the patient's overall risk profile. The IDACO database is therefore being updated with additional population cohorts to enable the construction of multifactorial risk score charts, which also include ABP.
Journal of Clinical Hypertension 06/2008; 10(5):377-81. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risk stratification after myocardial infarction (MI) remains expensive and disappointing. We designed a prognostic indicator using demographic information to select patients at risk of dying after MI.
We combined individual patient data from the placebo arms of EMIAT, CAMIAT, TRACE and DIAMOND-MI with LVEF <or=40% or ventricular arrhythmias (i.e. >10 ventricular premature beats/hour or a run of ventricular tachycardia). Risk factors for mortality beginning at day 45 post-MI up to 2 years were examined using Cox regression analysis. Risk scores were derived from the equation of a Cox regression model containing only significant variables. The prognostic index was the sum of the individual contribution from the risk factors. 2707 patients were pooled (age: 66 (23-92) years, 78.8% M) with 480 deaths at 2-years (44% arrhythmic and 35.6% non-arrhythmic cardiac deaths). Variables predicting mortality were age, sex, previous MI or angina, hypertension, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, NYHA functional class and non-Q wave infarct on electrocardiogram. Distinct survival curves were obtained for 3 risk groups based on the median and inter-quartile range for the prognostic index. In the high-risk group, up to 40% of patients died (all-cause mortality), 19.1% died of arrhythmic and 18.2% died of non-arrhythmic cardiac causes at 2-years.
In post-MI patients with LVEF <or=40% or frequent ventricular premature beats, the additional use of a simple prognostic indicator based on demographic information was able to provide clinically meaningful risk stratification on patients that were at high risk of dying and may be used to identify patients for prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy.
International journal of cardiology 05/2008; 126(1):101-7. · 7.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study evolvement in pharmacotherapy of atrial fibrillation from 1995 to 2004.
All Danish patients were discharged following first-time atrial fibrillation and their pharmacotherapy was identified by individual-level-linkage of nationwide registers of hospitalization and drug dispensing from pharmacies. A total of 108 791 patients survived 30 days after discharge and were included. In 1995-1996, 7.4% of the patients received beta-blockers, increasing to 44.3% in 2003-2004. The corresponding figures for amiodarone were 2.9 and 5.4%. In contrast, use of nondihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers, digoxin, sotalol, and class 1C antiarrhythmics decreased from 20.6, 63.9, 21.3, and 4.0% in 1995-1996 to 12.6, 43.8, 4.2, and 1.3% in 2003-2004, respectively. Notably, patients receiving anticoagulants increased from 29.8 to 43.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed females to be associated with more use of digoxin, but less use of amiodarone and oral anticoagulants than males. Patients above 80 years received less pharmacotherapy, apart from digoxin treatment that was more commonly used in elderly.
Pharmacotherapy of atrial fibrillation has changed towards increased beta-blocker use with a coincident decrease in the use of other rate-limiting drugs and sotalol. Treatment with amiodarone or class 1C antiarrhythmics remained very low. Oral anticoagulant therapy increased considerably, but women and elderly were apparently undertreated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies reveal major differences in the estimated cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus, including uncertainty about the risk in young patients. Therefore, large studies of well-defined populations are needed.
All residents in Denmark > or = 30 years of age were followed up for 5 years (1997 to 2002) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Diabetes patients receiving glucose-lowering medications and nondiabetics with and without a prior myocardial infarction were compared. At baseline, 71 801 (2.2%) had diabetes mellitus and 79 575 (2.4%) had a prior myocardial infarction. Regardless of age, age-adjusted Cox proportional-hazard ratios for cardiovascular death were 2.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.35 to 2.49) in men with diabetes mellitus without a prior myocardial infarction and 2.44 (95% CI, 2.39 to 2.49) in nondiabetic men with a prior myocardial infarction (P=0.60), with nondiabetics without a prior myocardial infarction as the reference. Results for women were 2.45 (95% CI, 2.38 to 2.51) and 2.62 (95% CI, 2.55 to 2.69) (P=0.001), respectively. For the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death, the hazard ratios in men with diabetes only were 2.32 (95% CI, 2.27 to 2.38) and 2.48 (95% CI, 2.43 to 2.54) in those with a prior myocardial infarction only (P=0.001). Results for women were 2.48 (95% CI, 2.43 to 2.54) and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.65 to 2.78) (P=0.001), respectively. Risks were similar for both diabetes types. Analyses with adjustments for comorbidity, socioeconomic status, and prophylactic medical treatment showed similar results, and propensity score-based matched-pair analyses supported these findings.
Patients requiring glucose-lowering therapy who were > or = 30 years of age exhibited a cardiovascular risk comparable to nondiabetics with a prior myocardial infarction, regardless of sex and diabetes type. Therefore, requirement for glucose-lowering therapy should prompt intensive prophylactic treatment for cardiovascular diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the nationwide pattern of use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the Danish population.
All Danish citizens aged 10 or above 1 January 1997 were included in the study. The national prescription registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for NSAIDs by the cohort until 2005. By individual-level-linkage of nationwide registries, information was acquired concerning hospitalizations, comorbidity, concomitant pharmacotherapy and socioeconomic factors.
The population consisted of 4,614,807 individuals, of which 2,663,706 (57.8%) claimed at least one prescription for NSAID from 1997 to 2005. Ibuprofen and diclofenac were the most frequently used non-selective NSAIDs, whereas rofecoxib and celecoxib were the most frequently used selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. The usage was similar across all age groups. Female sex and increasing age was associated with increased use of NSAID. Factors predicting extensive NSAID use were: rheumatic disease (odds ratio (OR) = 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.69-1.90), gout agents (allopurinol) (OR = 2.54, CI: 2.44-2.64) and other pain medication (OR = 3.27, CI: 3.23-3.31). NSAIDs were most often prescribed for use for one distinct treatment interval and for a short period (overall inter-quartile range [IQR]: 9-66 days). High doses were used in a relatively large proportion of the population (8.9% for etodolac to 19.5% for celecoxib) and 54,373 (2.0%) claimed prescriptions for more than one NSAID at the same time.
NSAIDs were commonly used in the Danish population. Since NSAIDs have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, further research on the overall risk associated with these drugs on a national scale is needed.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 04/2008; 17(8):822-33. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of vernakalant hydrochloride (RSD1235), a novel compound, for the conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF).
Patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive vernakalant or placebo and were stratified by AF duration of 3 hours to 7 days (short duration) and 8 to 45 days (long duration). A first infusion of placebo or vernakalant (3 mg/kg) was given for 10 minutes, followed by a second infusion of placebo or vernakalant (2 mg/kg) 15 minutes later if AF was not terminated. The primary end point was conversion of AF to sinus rhythm for at least 1 minute within 90 minutes of the start of drug infusion in the short-duration AF group. A total of 336 patients were randomized and received treatment (short duration, n=220; long duration, n=116). Of the 145 vernakalant patients, 75 (51.7%) in the short-duration AF group converted to sinus rhythm (median time, 11 minutes) compared with 3 of the 75 placebo patients (4.0%; P<0.001). Overall, in the short- and long-duration AF groups, 83 of the 221 vernakalant patients (37.6%) experienced termination of AF compared with 3 of the 115 placebo patients (2.6%; P<0.001). Transient dysgeusia and sneezing were the most common side effects in vernakalant-treated patients. Four vernakalant-related serious adverse events (hypotension [2 events], complete atrioventricular block, and cardiogenic shock) occurred in 3 patients.
Vernakalant demonstrated rapid conversion of short-duration AF and was well tolerated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the influence of obesity on prognosis in high-risk patients with myocardial infarction (MI) or heart failure (HF).
Individual data of 21 570 consecutively hospitalized patients from five Danish registries were pooled together. After a follow-up of 10.4 years, all-cause mortality using multivariate model and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Compared with normal weight [body mass index (BMI) 18.5-24.9 kg/m2], obesity class II (BMI >or= 35 kg/m2) was associated with increased risk of death in patients with MI but not HF [HR = 1.23 (1.06-1.44), P = 0.006 and HR = 1.13 (0.95-1.36), P = 0.95] (P-value for interaction = 0.004). Obesity class I (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m2) was not associated with increased risk of death in MI or HF [HR = 0.99 (0.92-1.08) and 1.00 (0.90-1.11), P > 0.1]. Pre-obesity (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) was associated with decreased death risk in MI but not HF [HR = 0.91 (0.87-0.96), P = 0.0006 and 1.04 (0.97-1.12), P = 0.34] (P-value for interaction = 0.007). Underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) patients were in increased death risk regardless of MI or HF [HR = 1.54 (1.35-1.75) and 1.37 (1.18-1.59), P < 0.001].
In patients with MI but not HF, the relationship between BMI and mortality is U-shaped with highest mortality in underweight and obese class II, but lowest in the other BMI classes.
European Heart Journal 03/2008; 29(5):594-601. · 14.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Specific criteria have been established to define the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in cardiovascular clinical trials, but there is not a consistent definition for heart failure. Heart failure events appear to occur at a rate that is similar to stroke and MI in trials of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, and coronary heart disease, yet a consistent approach to defining heart failure events has not yet been realized. The wide range of definitions used in clinical trials makes it difficult to interpret new data in the context of existing literature. This inconsistency has led to challenges in determining the incidence of heart failure in cardiovascular studies and the effects of interventions on these endpoints. This paper examines issues related to defining heart failure events in cardiovascular clinical trials and presents a definition to formally address this issue.
European Heart Journal 03/2008; 29(3):413-21. · 14.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: What is already known about this subject: Treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor benefits many patients with cardiovascular disease. ACE inhibitors are generally assumed to be equally effective, but this has never been fully verified in clinical trials. What this study adds: Studying the association among ACE inhibitors after myocardial infarction demonstrated similarity in clinical outcome and supports a dosage-response relationship. Therefore, for long-term benefits for patients who need treatment with an ACE inhibitor, a focus of treatment at the recommended dosage is most important and not which ACE inhibitor is used.
Therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is common after myocardial infarction (MI). Given the lack of randomized trials comparing different ACE inhibitors, the association among ACE inhibitors after MI in risk for mortality and reinfarction was studied.
Patients hospitalized with first-time MI (n = 16,068) between 1995 and 2002, who survived at least 30 days after discharge and claimed at least one prescription of ACE inhibitor, were identified using nationwide administrative registries in Denmark.
Adjusted Cox regression analysis demonstrated no differences in risk for all-cause mortality, but patients using captopril had higher risk of reinfarction (hazard ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05, 1.34). However, following adjustment for differences in used dosages, all ACE inhibitors had similar clinical efficacy. Risk of all-cause mortality: trandolapril (reference) 1.00, ramipril 0.97 (0.89, 1.05), enalapril 1.04 (0.95, 1.150), captopril 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), perindopril 0.98 (0.84, 1.15) and other ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) 1.06 (0.94, 1.19). Reinfarction: trandolapril (reference) 1.00, ramipril 0.98 (0.89, 1.08), enalapril 1.04 (0.92, 1.17), captopril 1.05 (0.89, 1.25), perindopril 0.96 (0.81, 1.14) and other ACE inhibitors or ARB 0.99 (0.86, 1.14). Furthermore, the association between ARBs and clinical events was similar to ACE inhibitors (trandolapril reference): all-cause mortality 0.99 (0.84, 1.16) and recurrent MI 0.99 (0.83, 1.19).
Our results suggest a class effect among ACE inhibitors when used in comparable dosages. Focus on treatment at the recommended dosage is therefore most important, and not which ACE inhibitor is used.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2008; 65(2):217-23. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postprandial hyperglycemia, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. We studied the effect of oral glucose load on insulin and glucose fluctuations, and on postprandial endothelial function in healthy individuals in order to better understand and cope with the postprandial state in insulin resistant individuals.
We assessed post-oral glucose load endothelial function (flow mediated dilation), plasma insulin, and blood glucose in 9 healthy subjects.
The largest increases in delta FMD values (fasting FMD value subtracted from postprandial FMD value) occurred at 3 hours after both glucose or placebo load, respectively: 4.80 +/- 1.41 (P = .009) and 2.34 +/- 1.47 (P = .15). Glucose and insulin concentrations achieved maximum peaks at one hour post-glucose load.
Oral glucose load does not induce endothelial dysfunction in healthy individuals with mean insulin and glucose values of 5.6 mmol/L and 27.2 mmol/L, respectively, 2 hours after glucose load.
Experimental Diabetes Research 02/2008; 2008:672021. · 1.89 Impact Factor