[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against >100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval=0.84-0.87; P=1.7 × 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.
Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=1.02–1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2.
Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2.
British Journal of Cancer 02/2014; 110(4-4):1088-100. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.769 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injuries in the liver remain important clinical problems. Free oxygen radicals and nitrosative stress have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis I/R-related liver injury. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of an extract of Zizyphus Jujube (ZJ), which has strong antioxidant effects, on I/R-induced liver injury.
Ischemia (I) was induced in rat livers by clamping the common hepatic artery and portal vein for 40 minutes, after which flow was restored, and the liver was reperfused for 90 minutes. Blood samples were collected prior to I and after reperfusion to assay blood levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), oxygen radical (OH), and nitric oxide (NO). In the pharmacologic intervention group a water extract of the fruit of ZJ was administered orally to rats (100 mg/mL for 7 days) that were subsequently exposed to the I/R liver injury.
The data showed that reperfusion (R) of the liver produced increases in blood concentrations of ALT (41.9+/-8.2 vs 338.0+/-89.6; P<.01; N=7) and LDH (317+/-129 vs 4073+/-950; P<.001; N=7). Oxygen radicals (55.1+/-14.3 vs 262.4+/-60.3; P<.001; N=7) and NO (69.3+/-14.9 vs 121.6+/-27.1; P<.01; N=7) also increased significantly in this R group. In the ZJ intervention group the liver injury, oxidative stress, and nitrosative stress were all significantly attenuated.
These results suggested that I/R-induced liver injury with white blood cell activation, oxidative stress, and nitrosative stress. Pretreatment with an extract of ZJ, which shows high antioxidant effects, significantly attenuated the I/R-induced liver injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a well-known phenomenon to temporarily offset a ventilation/perfusion mismatch. Sustained HPV may lead to pulmonary hypertension. In this protocol, we studied the relationships between the HPV response and oxygen radical release after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) challenge in an isolated perfused lung model.
We used an in situ isolated rat lung preparation. Two hypoxic challenges (5% CO2-95% N2) were administered for 10 minutes each with administration of antioxidants of superoxide dismutase (SOD; 2 mg/kg), catalase (20,000 IU/kg), dimethylthiourea (DMTU; 100 mg/kg), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; 1 mL/kg), or allopurinol (30 mg/kg) between 2 challenges. We measured pulmonary arterial pressure changes before, during, and after H/R challenge. We measured blood concentration changes in hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide (NO) before and after H/R. mRNA expressions of SOD and catalase in lung tissue were measured after the experiments.
Hypoxia induced pulmonary vasoconstriction by increasing pulmonary arterial pressure and consecutive hypoxic challenges did not show tachyphylaxis. Blood concentrations of hydroxyl radicals and NO increased significantly after H/R challenges. mRNA expressions of SOD and catalase increased significantly, however, neither SOD nor catalase showed attenuated effects on HPV responses. Small molecules of DMTU, DMSO, and allopurinol attenuated the HPV responses.
H/R induced increases in the expressions of SOD and catalase in lung tissues. DMTU, DMSO, and allopurinol antioxidants attenuated the HPV responses by reducing the oxygen radical release.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reperfusion of the ischemic liver results in the generation of oxygen radicals. In this study, we analyzed if the mRNA and protein expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase increased after ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R) of the rat liver.
Ischemia was induced by clamping off the common hepatic artery and portal vein of rats for 40 minutes, which were then reperfused for 90 minutes. Blood samples collected prior to I and after R were analyzed for hydroxyl radical (.OH), nitric oxide (NO), and alanine transferase (ALT). Liver tissues were used to analyze the SOD and catalase mRNA and protein expressions by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.
The results showed that this protocol resulted in elevation of the blood ALT, NO, and .OH levels (P<.001). mRNA (P<.01) and protein expressions (P<.05) of SOD and catalase were all increased. Pretreatment with antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine, attenuated the liver injury.
These results indicate that reperfusion of the ischemic liver induced antioxidant enzymes expressions so that oxygen radicals are scavenged. Oxygen radical scavenger could further attenuate the I/R-induced liver injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the cardiovascular injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) of the liver by measuring changes in blood levels of cardiac troponin I (cTNI), an index of cardiovascular injury, as well as levels of selected indicators of an inflammatory response.
Ischemia was induced in the rat liver by clamping the common hepatic artery and portal vein for 40 minutes, after which flow was restored, and the liver reperfused for 90 minutes. Blood samples were collected prior to ischemia and after reperfusion. cTNI as well as levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), hydroxyl radical (.OH), nitric oxide (NO), and alanine transferase (ALT) were measured.
I/R of the liver induced a significant increase in ALT (P<.001). Increased cTNI levels (P<.05) were associated with inflammatory responses, such as elevated levels of TNFalpha (P<.001), . OH (P<.001), and NO (P<.001). After administration of 3-aminobenzamide, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, liver and heart injuries were significantly attenuated (P<.05).
I/R-induced liver injury was associated with cardiovascular injury, perhaps resulting from inflammatory responses triggered by elevated levels of reactive radical species of nitric oxide, superoxide, and peroxynitrite, by which PARP was activated. 3-Aminobenzamide, significantly attenuated I/R-induced liver and heart injuries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate pancreatic juice translocation after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA).
Ischemia was induced by clamping the rat SMA for 40 minutes, after which flow was restored and the SMA reperfused for 300 minutes. The blood levels of amylase and lipase were measured to reflect the dislocation of pancreatic juice. Organ injury parameters, such as the blood concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, and creatinine and the lung weight/body weight ratio were measured as well as inflammatory parameters such as tumor necrosis factor, hydroxyl radical, and nitric oxide levels.
Organ injury and inflammatory parameters all increased significantly after I/R. Reperfusion of the intestine also induced a significant increase in the levels of pancreatic juice in the blood. After administration of the enzyme inhibitor, gabexate mesilate (FOY; 10 mg/kg), by injection into the duodenum, organ injury was significantly attenuated.
These findings suggested that I/R of the SMA induced multiple organ injuries that appeared to be dependent on the translocation of pancreatic enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the DNA double-strand-break (DSB) checkpoint/repair genes, ATM, BRCA1 and TP53, in sporadic breast cancer requires clarification, since ATM and BRCA1 mutations are rare in sporadic tumours. In an attempt to explain this phenomenon, we postulated that (i) in addition to genetic deletion, abnormal expression of DSB checkpoint/repair proteins might abolish the function of these genes and (ii) there might be a combined effect of individual defective genes during breast cancer pathogenesis. Using a largely homogenous group of 74 specimens of early-onset (< or =35 years of age) infiltrating ductal carcinomas, we examined associations between pathological grade and genetic deletion and/or abnormal protein expression of ATM, BRCA1 and TP53. The results showed that high-grade tumours displayed a high frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at, and/or abnormal expression of, ATM, BRCA1 and TP53. Multigenetic analysis showed abnormalities in BRCA1 to be independently associated with high-grade tumours. ATM and TP53 appeared to play an assistant role, abnormalities in these genes significantly increasing the possibility of poor differentiation in tumours with abnormalities in BRCA1. Furthermore, a higher number of abnormalities (LOH or abnormal expression) in these three genes correlated with poor tumour differentiation. Thus, this study suggests that combined changes in several DSB checkpoint/repair genes belonging to a common functional pathway are associated with breast cancer pathogenesis.
British Journal of Cancer 06/2004; 90(10):1995-2001. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601804 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) allows the expression of recessive mutation in tumor suppressor genes (TSG). Therefore, on the basis of Knudson's 'two-hit' hypothesis for TSG inactivation, the detection of a high LOH frequency in a chromosomal region is considered critical for TSG localization. One of these LOH regions in breast cancer is 16q22.1, which has been suggested to reflect the involvement of E-cadherin (E-cad), a cell-cell adhesion molecule. To confirm the tumorigenic role of E-cad, 81 sporadic invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) of the breast were tested for the 'two hits' required to inactivate this gene. A high frequency (37.3%) of LOH was detected in 67 informative tumors, but no mutation was found. To examine the possibility that transcriptional mechanisms serve as the second hit in tumors with LOH, specific pathways, including genetic variant and hypermethylation at the promoter region and abnormal expression of positive (WT1) and negative (Snail) transcription factors, were identified. Of these, promoter hypermethylation and increased expression of Snail were found to be common (>35%), and to be strongly associated with reduced/negative E-cad expression (P<0.05). However, unexpectedly, a significantly negative association was found between the existence of LOH and promoter hypermethylation (P<0.05), which contradicts the 'two-hit' model. Instead, since they coexisted in a high frequency of tumors, hypermethylation may work in concert with increased Snail to inactivate E-cad expression. Given that E-cad is involved in diverse mechanisms, loss of which is beneficial for tumors to invade but may also trigger apoptosis, this study suggests that maintaining a reversible mechanism, either by controlling the gene at the transcriptional level or by retaining an intact allele subsequent to LOH, might be important for E-cad in IDC and may also be common in TSGs possessing diverse functions. These findings provide clues to explain why certain TSGs identified by LOH cannot fulfil the two-hit hypothesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to incidence rates prevailing in women in Western countries, Chinese women in Taiwan and China are considered to have the lowest incidence of breast cancer in the world. However, in the past 20 years, breast cancer incidence in Chinese women has seen a dramatic increase of 50-100%, which strongly supports the need for breast cancer prevention and screening programs. It is also important to indicate that breast cancer in Chinese women is characterized by younger age at tumor onset. More than 50% of the total breast cancer diagnosed annually is found in premenopausal patients, creating the need to initiate breast cancer screening programs in this population. Initially, the breast cancer screening program depended on breast self-examination. Since Chinese women have relatively small breasts, it was assumed that breast cancer was easier to detect by self-examination. However, this strategy has failed. The dilemma of breast cancer screening can be summarized by the fact that Chinese have a rapidly increasing incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, while the overall incidence is still low. Therefore, since premenopausal women have denser breasts than postmenopausal women, and Chinese women have smaller breasts and a higher percentage of dense breasts, increased mammography screening frequency may be not the sole solution to increase detection in this age group. In our experience in Taiwan, the addition of breast ultrasound may be helpful. Nearly all the nonpalpable cancers detected by mammography in our women are due to microcalcifications, and ultrasound is more sensitive in detecting nonpalpable cancers; Therefore, we suggest that a screening program, based on ultrasound to detect nonpalpable cancers not associated with microcalcifications, along with mammography within a long period, may provide more effective protection for Taiwanese and Chinese women against breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is considered to display a high degree of intratumor heterogeneity, without any obvious morphological and pathological steps to define sequential evolution, and its progression may vary among individual tumors. In an attempt to elucidate these etiological and phenotypic complexities, the present study, based on the fundamental concept that genomic instability is the engine of both tumor progression and tumor heterogeneity, was conducted to test the hypothesis that breast cancer pathogenesis is driven by double-strand break (DSB)-initiated chromosome instability (CIN). The rationale underlying this hypothesis is derived from the clues provided by family breast cancer syndromes, in which susceptibility genes, including p53, ATM, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are involved within the common functional pathway of DSB-related checkpoint/ repair. Because genomic deletion caused by DSB is reflected in the genetic mechanism of loss of heterozygosity (LOH), this genome-wide LOH study was conducted, using 100 tumors and 400 microsatellite markers. To minimize the effect of heterogeneity within tumors, the experimental technique of laser capture microdissection was used to ensure that genetic and phenotypic examinations were based on the same tumor cells. Support for our hypothesis comes from the observations that: (a) the extent of DSB-initiated CIN in tumors significantly increased as tumors progressed to poorer grades or later stages; (b) in the sequential steps toward CIN, the loci of p53 and ATM, the key checkpoint genes against DSB, were lost at the earliest stage; and (c) many loci identified to be important in breast tumorigenesis were the genomic sites possibly harboring the genes involved in DSB-related checkpoint/repair (including RAD51, RAD52, and BRCA1) or CIN (including FA-A, FA-D, and WRN), and a higher number of these loci showing LOH was significantly associated with increased level of DSB-initiated CIN (P < 0.0001). Breast cancers are thus considered to be sequentially progressive with CIN. However, CIN might also cause genetic heterogeneity, which was revealed by the findings that LOH at some markers was observed only in the component of ductal carcinoma in situ but not in the invasive component of the same tumors. In addition, some markers were found to preferentially lose at specific tumor grades, implying their contribution to genetic heterogeneity during tumor development. Therefore, this study suggests that breast cancer progression is clonal with regard to CIN, but different breast cancers would present distinct molecular profiles resulting from genetic heterogeneity caused by CIN.
Cancer Research 08/2000; 60(14):3884-92. · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amplification of chromosome arm 3q is the most consistent aberration in cervical cancer, and is implicated in the progression of dysplastic uterine cervical cells into invasive cancer. The present study employed the 'positional candidate gene' strategy to determine the contribution of PIK3CA, which is located in 3q26.3, in cervical tumorigenesis. PIK3CA is known to be involved in the PI 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway, which plays an important role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis. The results of comparative genomic hybridization show that the 3q26.3 amplification was the most consistent chromosomal aberration in primary tissues of cervical carcinoma, and a positive correlation between an increased copy number of PIK3CA (detected by competitive PCR) and 3q26.3 amplification was found in tumor tissues and in cervical cancer cell lines. In cervical cancer cell lines harboring amplified PIK3CA, the expression of gene product (p110alpha) of PIK3CA was increased, and was subsequently associated with high kinase activity. In addition, transformation phenotypes in these lines, including increased cell growth and decreased apoptosis, were found to be significantly affected by the treatment of specific PI 3-kinase inhibitor, suggesting that increased expression of PIK3CA in cervical cancer may result in promoting cell proliferation and reducing apoptosis. These evidences support that PIK3CA is an oncogene in cervical cancer and PIK3CA amplification may be linked to cervical tumorigenesis. Oncogene (2000).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lead and noise, via different mechanisms, may damage hearing ability, and, in some cases, cause severe and irreversible damage. To explore possible independent and synergistic effects of lead and noise on auditory function, the authors conducted a cross-sectional study in two lead-battery manufacturing factories. Lead and noise were the two most common sources of occupational exposures in the factories. Blood lead level, ambient lead concentration, noise exposure level, and hearing thresholds of 339 lead-battery workers-including clerical and managerial staffs-were measured. The authors obtained demographics and working histories via an interview-based structured questionnaire. A total of 220 lead-battery workers were exposed to high levels of lead and noise; their average blood lead concentration was 56.9 microg/dl, and their average noise exposure level was 86.0 dBALeq. Multivariate analysis, in which possible risk factors of hearing ability were considered, demonstrated a significant correlation between a high, long-term lead exposure index (defined by duration of employment and ambient lead concentration) and decreased hearing ability. In contrast, such a correlation between short-term lead exposure (defined by blood lead level) and hearing ability was not significant. Furthermore, neither noise exposure level alone nor the interaction between noise exposure level and short- or long-term lead exposure was correlated significantly with hearing ability. The present study raises an important, but typically ignored, issue: lead exposure might precipitate a more severe auditory than noise-exposure effect. The preservation of workers' hearing ability requires that preventive measures be taken against noise exposure, which is as essential as measures taken against lead exposure.
Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal 03/2000; 55(2):109-14. DOI:10.1080/00039890009603396
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen has been proposed to trigger breast cancer development via an initiating mechanism involving its metabolite, catechol estrogen (CE). To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a multigenic case-control study to determine whether polymorphisms of the genes responsible for CE formation via estrogen biosynthesis (CYP17) and hydroxylation (CYP1A1) and CE inactivation (COMT) are associated with an elevated risk for breast cancer in Taiwanese women, and whether the association between genotype and risk may be modified by estrogen exposure. One hundred and fifty breast cancer patients and 150 healthy controls were recruited. PCR-based RFLP assays were used to determine the genotypes of estrogen-metabolizing genes. The breast cancer risk associated with individual susceptibility genotypes varied among the three genes and was highest for COMT, followed by CYP1A1 and CYP17. After simultaneous consideration of all three genes and other well-established risk factors of breast cancer, the COMT genotype remained the most significant determinant for breast cancer development and was associated with a 4-fold increase in risk (95% confidence interval, 1.12-19.08). Furthermore, a trend of increasing risk for developing breast cancer was found in women harboring higher numbers of high-risk genotypes (P = 0.006), including the high activity CYP17 (CYP17 A2/A2), high inducibility CYP1A1 (CYP1A1 MspI vt/vt), and low activity COMT (COMT L/L) genotypes. The association of risk with the number of susceptibility genotypes was stronger in women with prolonged estrogen exposure (indicated by a higher number of estrogen exposure years or a higher number of estrogen exposure years between menarche and first full-term pregnancy), women with higher estrogen levels (implied by early menarche), and women with a higher body mass index (> or = 22.5). On the basis of comprehensive profiles of estrogen metabolism, this study supports the possibility that breast cancer can be initiated by estrogen exposure.
Cancer Research 11/1999; 59(19):4870-5. · 9.33 Impact Factor