Eleanor E Harris

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States

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Publications (47)183.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Targeted intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI) has been described for patients with early-stage breast cancer. The randomized phase III TARGiT trial demonstrated similar recurrence rates to WBI and a lower overall toxicity profi le on short-term follow-up. We report on our early North American surgical experience using the Intrabeam radiotherapy delivery system and review the current literature. Prospectively gathered estrogen receptor-positive, clinically node-negative patients with invasive breast cancer < 3 cm receiving IORT using the Intrabeam system were reviewed. IORT-related effects and early postoperative outcome were assessed. A literature review was also performed. Forty-two patients (median age 71 years) underwent lumpectomy, sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, and concurrent IORT from January 2011 to July 2011. Ninety-one percent of patients had invasive ductal histology with a median tumor size of 1.0 cm. This review highlights the patient selection criteria, describes commercially available accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) treatment options, and discusses outcomes for the variety of APBI techniques currently utilized in clinical practice as well as an istitutional review of our early surgical experience using the Intrabeam radiotherapy delivery system. While a variety of APBI techniques are currently available for clinical use, our early North American operative experience with IORT shows it is well tolerated with low morbidity. Delivery of IORT adds moderate operative time and may require creating subcutaneous tissue fl aps. The addition of WBI may be necessary in situations for positive residual margins or microscopic nodal disease in patients who do not undergo additional surgery.
    Cancer control: journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center 10/2012; 19(4):295-308. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive nodes is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine whether the size of nodal metastases in this subset could predict who would benefit from PMRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed 250 breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive nodes after mastectomy treated with contemporary surgery and systemic therapy at our institution. Of these patients, 204 did not receive PMRT and 46 did receive PMRT. Local and regional recurrence risks were stratified by the size of the largest nodal metastasis measured as less than or equal to 5 mm or greater than 5 mm. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 65.6 months. In the whole group, regional recurrences occurred in 2% of patients in whom the largest nodal metastasis measured 5 mm or less vs 6% for those with metastases measuring greater than 5 mm. For non-irradiated patients only, regional recurrence rates were 2% and 9%, respectively. Those with a maximal nodal size greater than 5 mm had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of regional recurrence (P=.013). The 5-year cumulative incidence of a regional recurrence in the non-irradiated group was 2.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7%-7.2%) for maximal metastasis size of 5 mm or less, 6.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-17.3%) for metastasis size greater than 5 mm, and 16% (95% CI, 3.4%-36.8%) for metastasis size greater than 10 mm. The impact of the maximal nodal size on regional recurrences became insignificant in the multivariable model. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes undergoing mastectomy without radiation, nodal metastasis greater than 5 mm was associated with regional recurrence after mastectomy, but its effect was modified by other factors (such as tumor stage). The size of the largest nodal metastasis may be useful to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from radiation therapy after mastectomy.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 08/2012; 85(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.05.050 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study examined the impact of re-excision and residual disease on local recurrence after breast conservation treatment for patients with negative margins. Patients with residual disease on re-excision had a higher local recurrence rate than other patients. However, with reasonably low local recurrence rates in all subgroups, neither re-excision nor residual disease on re-excision are contraindications for breast conservation treatment. To evaluate the impact of re-excision and the presence of residual disease on local recurrence for patients who underwent breast conservation treatment (BCT) with negative final resection margins. The records of 902 patients with stage I or II unilateral invasive breast cancer who had BCT were reviewed. The study cohort consisted of patients with negative final resection margins and was divided into 3 subgroups: (a) single excision (n = 332 [37%]), (b) re-excision with no residual disease in the re-excision specimen (n = 440 [49%]), and (c) re-excision with residual disease in the re-excision specimen (n = 130 [14%]). The median follow-up was 6.75 years. At 15 years, the rates of local failure were 10% for patients with a single excision, 10% for patients with a re-excision without residual disease, and 16% for patients with a re-excision with residual disease (P = .033). There were no significant differences between the 3 groups for overall survival, cause-specific survival, relapse-free survival, or freedom from distant metastases (all P ≥ .082). Multivariate analysis demonstrated an increased risk of local failure for patients with residual disease in the re-excision specimen that was borderline statistically significant (hazard ratio, 2.16; P = .061). Despite achieving negative final resection margins, the patients with residual disease in the re-excision specimen had a higher rate of local recurrence than patients who underwent single excision or patients without residual disease on re-excision. However, local recurrence was reasonably low in all 3 subgroups, and, therefore, neither re-excision nor residual disease represent contraindications for BCT.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 12/2011; 11(6):400-5. DOI:10.1016/j.clbc.2011.08.003 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adjuvant breast radiation therapy after breast conservation surgery is recommended as it yields significant reduction in the risk of local recurrence, and confers a potential overall survival benefit. Although the standard breast radiation regimen has historically been delivered over 5-7 weeks; more novel, shorter courses of breast radiation are currently being employed, offering the advantage of more convenience and less time-commitment. Herein, we review the recent literature substantiating these abbreviated radiation treatment approaches and the methods of delivery thereof. In addition, we discuss imaged guided techniques currently being utilized to further refine the delivery of adjuvant breast radiation therapy.
    10/2011; 2011:321304. DOI:10.4061/2011/321304
  • Fuel and Energy Abstracts 10/2011; 81(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.06.460
  • Fuel and Energy Abstracts 10/2011; 81(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.06.1731
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    ABSTRACT: National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for female breast cancer treatment and surveillance are well established, but similar guidelines on male breast cancers are less recognized. As an NCCN institution, our objective was to examine practice patterns and follow-up for male breast cancer compared to established guidelines for female patients. After Institutional Review Board approval, a prospective breast database from 1990 to 2009 was queried for male patients. Medical records were examined for clinico-pathological factors and follow-up. The 5-year survival rates with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and Greenwood formula. Of the 19,084 patients in the database, 73 (0.4%) were male patients; 62 had complete data. One patient had bilateral synchronous breast cancer. The median age was 68.8 years (range 29-85 years). The mean/median invasive tumor size was 2.2/1.6 cm (range 0.0-10.0 cm). All cases had mastectomy (29 with axillary node dissection, 23 with sentinel lymph node biopsy only, 11 with sentinel node biopsy followed by completion axillary dissection). Lymph node involvement occurred in 25/63 (39.7%). Based on NCCN guidelines, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiation are indicated in 34 cases, 62 cases, and 14 cases, respectively. Only 20/34 (59%) received chemotherapy, 51/62 (82%) received hormonal therapy, and 10/14 (71%) received post-mastectomy radiation. Median follow-up was 26.2 months (range: 1.6-230.9 months). The 5-year survival estimates for node positive and negative diseases were 68.5% and 87.5%, respectively (p = 0.3). Despite the rarity of male breast cancer, treatment options based on current female breast tumors produce comparable results to female breast cancer. Increased awareness and a national registry for patients could help improve outcomes and tailor treatment recommendations to the male variant.
    The Breast Journal 09/2011; 17(5):503-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1524-4741.2011.01148.x · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • Radiotherapy and Oncology 05/2011; 99. DOI:10.1016/S0167-8140(11)70880-5 · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Medical Physics 01/2011; 38(6):3648-. DOI:10.1118/1.3612648 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To detect the molecular changes of malignancy in histologically normal breast (HNB) tissues, we recently developed a novel 117-gene-malignancy-signature. Here we report validation of our leading malignancy-risk-genes, topoisomerase-2-alpha (TOP2A), minichromosome-maintenance-protein-2 (MCM2) and "budding-uninhibited-by-benzimidazoles-1-homolog-beta" (BUB1B) at the protein level. Using our 117-gene malignancy-signature, we classified 18 fresh-frozen HNB tissues from 18 adult female breast cancer patients into HNB-tissues with low-grade (HNB-LGMA; N = 9) and high-grade molecular abnormality (HNB-HGMA; N = 9). Archival sections of additional HNB tissues from these patients, and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tissues from six other patients were immunostained for these biomarkers. TOP2A/MCM2 expression was assessed as staining index (%) and BUB1B expression as H-scores (0-300). Increasing TOP2A, MCM2, and BUB1B protein expression from HNB-LGMA to HNB-HGMA tissues to IDCs validated our microarray-based molecular classification of HNB tissues by immunohistochemistry. We also demonstrated an increasing expression of TOP2A protein on an independent test set of HNB/benign/reductionmammoplasties, atypical-ductal-hyperplasia with and without synchronous breast cancer, DCIS and IDC tissues using a custom tissue microarray (TMA). In conclusion, TOP2A, MCM2, and BUB1B proteins are potential molecular biomarkers of malignancy in histologically normal and benign breast tissues. Larger-scale clinical validation studies are needed to further evaluate the clinical utility of these molecular biomarkers.
    01/2011; 2011:489064. DOI:10.4061/2011/489064
  • The American surgeon 01/2011; 77(1):E10-2. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • D. Opp, K. Forster, W. Li, E. Harris
    Fuel and Energy Abstracts 11/2010; 78(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.07.1912
  • Fuel and Energy Abstracts 11/2010; 78(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.07.534
  • Fuel and Energy Abstracts 11/2009; 75(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.07.436
  • Cancer Research 02/2009; 69(2 Supplement):4130-0. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.SABCS-4130 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the risk of late cardiac morbidity and mortality in patients with preexisting cardiac disease treated with contemporary radiation techniques for early-stage breast cancer. Medical records were reviewed for 41 patients with early-stage breast cancer and a history of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure (CHF), and/or coronary artery disease before radiation therapy. Data were recorded on baseline cardiac disease and tumor characteristics, cardiac morbidity during and after treatment, and survival status of each patient. Patients were stratified for right- versus left-sided breast cancer and compared. There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) between the right- and left-sided groups (log-rank test; P = .19). The left-sided group had a higher incidence of cardiac deaths (right side, 2 of 26 [9%]; left side, 4 of 15 [27%]; hazard ratio, 4.2; P = .08) 10 years after treatment, including deaths secondary to myocardial infarction, CHF, or coronary artery disease. On the other hand, the right-sided group had a higher proportion of deaths secondary to breast cancer (right, 8 of 26 [31%]; left, 2 of 15 [13%]) and non-breast cancer/noncardiac causes (right, 7 of 26 [27%]; left, 1 of 15 [7%]). Although OS was similar in both groups, radiation was associated with a higher incidence of cardiac death in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Efforts should be made to minimize cardiac exposure and also to promote more vigilant risk factor modification in this group of women.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 11/2008; 8(5):443-8. DOI:10.3816/CBC.2008.n.054 · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 09/2008; 72(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.06.168 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    Eleanor E Harris
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    ABSTRACT: Breast conservation treatment for early-stage breast cancer has been demonstrated to be equivalent to mastectomy in a large number of randomized trials. A number of earlier studies of surgery with or without radiation did not show an improvement in overall survival despite large reductions in local recurrence rates. Numerous randomized trials have demonstrated that postmastectomy radiation to the chest wall and regional nodes in high-risk early-stage patients provides improvements in local-regional control and overall survival. This article reviews the medical literature pertaining to long-term cardiac toxicity in early-stage breast cancer patients treated with either breast conservation or postmastectomy radiation. A decrease in breast cancer deaths associated with postoperative irradiation was offset by an increase in cardiovascular deaths in early studies. Cardiac toxicity of breast irradiation is a late event, manifesting clinically 10 or more years after breast cancer treatment. The excess deaths were directly related to radiation techniques that exposed excessive volumes of the heart, leading to the development of new techniques designed to shield the heart and reduce the risk of cardiac toxicity. This review examines the original and contemporary studies of radiation for postmastectomy and breast conservation treatment for early-stage breast cancer, discusses the long-term cardiac mortality and morbidity data from these studies, and reviews the known risk factors associated with cardiac toxicity after irradiation for breast cancer.
    Cancer control: journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center 05/2008; 15(2):120-9. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p = 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 04/2008; 72(2):508-16. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.12.037 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the relationship of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to outcome after breast-conservation treatment (BCT) with radiation for women with early-stage invasive breast carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ. A total of 756 women with early stage invasive breast carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ underwent BCT including definitive breast irradiation during 1992 to 2001. At the time of initial diagnosis and evaluation, routine breast imaging included conventional mammography. Of the 756 women, 215 women (28%) had also undergone a breast MRI study, and 541 women (72%) had not undergone a breast MRI study. The median follow-up after treatment was 4.6 years (range, 0.1 to 13.5 years). For the women with a breast MRI study compared with the women without a breast MRI study, there were no differences in the 8-year rates of any local failure (3% v 4%, respectively; P = .51) or local-only first failure (3% v 4%, respectively; P = .32). There were also no differences between the two groups for the 8-year rates of overall survival (86% v 87%, respectively; P = .51), cause-specific survival (94% v 95%, respectively; P = .63), freedom from distant metastases (89% v 92%, respectively; P = .16), or contralateral breast cancer (6% v 6%, respectively; P = .39). The use of a breast MRI study at the time of initial diagnosis and evaluation was not associated with an improvement in outcome after BCT with radiation.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2008; 26(3):386-91. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2006.09.5448 · 17.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

984 Citations
183.44 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2012
    • Moffitt Cancer Center
      • Program in Radiation Oncology
      Tampa, Florida, United States
  • 2000–2011
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2002–2007
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States