[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uraemia is associated with a highly increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) has been shown to be involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology and a protective effect of MBL is suggested. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a potential impact of MBL on vascular parameters in uraemic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Several studies have shown an increase in beta cell mass during pregnancy. Somatolactogenic hormones are known to stimulate proliferation of existing beta cells in rodents whereas the mechanism in humans is still unclear. We hypothesize that in addition to somatolactogenic hormones there are other circulating factors involved in beta cell adaptation to pregnancy. This study aimed at screening for potential pregnancy associated circulating beta cell growth factors.SamplesSerum samples from non-pregnant and pregnant women.Methods
The effect of serum from pregnant women on the proliferation of rat beta cells was studied using [3H]thymidine incorporation and EdU proliferation assays. In addition, serum from pregnant and non-pregnant women was fractionated by gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography. The fractionated serum was screened for mitogenic activity in INS-1E cells. Proteins and peptides in mitogenic active serum fractions were identified by amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry.Main outcome measuresPresence of circulating beta cell proliferating factors.ResultsLate gestational pregnancy serum significantly increased proliferation of rat beta cells compared to early pregnancy and non-pregnancy. The mitogenic active serum fractions contained proteins and peptides derived from kininogen-1, fibrinogen-alpha, alpha1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein-A1, placental lactogen, angiotensinogen and serum albumin.Conclusion
Pregnancy serum is able to stimulate proliferation of rat beta cells. We have identified several circulating factors that may contribute to beta cell adaptation to pregnancy. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate their possible role in glucose homeostasis in the mother and her offspring.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 09/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimsTo evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes.MethodsA retrospective cohort study of 142 consecutive pregnancies in 28 women of normal weight, 39 overweight women and 75 obese women with Type 2 diabetes (pre-pregnancy BMI <25, 25–29.9, ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). Gestational weight gain was categorized as excessive (exceeding the US Institute of Medicine recommendations) or as non-excessive (within or below the Institute of Medicine recommendations).ResultsExcessive and non-excessive gestational weight gain were seen in 61 (43%) and 81 women (57%) with a median (range) gestational weight gain of 14.3 (9–32) vs 7.0 (-5–16) kg (P<0.001), respectively. Infants of women with excessive gestational weight gain were characterized by higher birth weight (3712 vs 3258 g; P=0.001), birth weight z-score (1.14 vs -0.01, P=0.001) and prevalence of large-for-gestational-age infants (48 vs 20%; P<0.001). In normal weight, overweight and obese women with non-excessive gestational weight gain, the median weight gain in the first half of pregnancy was 371, 114 and 81 g/week, and in the second half of pregnancy 483, 427 and 439 g/week, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, gestational weight gain was associated with a higher infant birth weight z-score independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, HbA1c and insulin dose at last visit, ethnicity and parity [β=0.1 (95% CI 0.06– 0.14), P<0.001].Conclusions
Infant birth weight was almost 0.5 kg higher in women with Type 2 diabetes and excessive gestational weight gain than in women with Type 2 diabetes and non-excessive weight gain.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF)-related diabetes (CFRD) is correlated with age and has been associated with a decline in body mass index (BMI), pulmonary function, and survival. Over the last two decades, the focus has been on the early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes; therefore, in this study, we evaluated the status of the current clinical condition and survival in our CF population. In addition, we also aimed to investigate the incidence of diabetes among adolescence over time and to identify characteristics associated with early diabetes onset.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The impact of the quality and quantity of carbohydrate intake on glycaemic control and pregnancy outcome was evaluated with focus on pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. For women with type 1 diabetes a gestational weight gain within the lower range of the guidelines of the Institute of Medicine, is generally recommended. A low-glycaemic index diet is considered safe, and has shown, positive effects on the glycaemic control and pregnancy outcomes for both healthy women, those with type 2 diabetic and gestational diabetes (GDM). In general carbohydrate counting does improve glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes. A moderate low carbohydrate diet with a carbohydrate content of 40 % of the calories results in better glycaemic control and comparable obstetric outcomes in Type 2 diabetes and GDM when compared to a diet with a higher carbohydrate content, and is regarded safe in diabetic pregnancy. In type 1 diabetes pregnancy a moderate low carbohydrate diet with 40% carbohydrates has been suggested, however a minimum intake of 175 g carbohydrate daily is recommended. Conclusion: Despite limited evidence the combination of a low-glycaemic index diet with a moderately low carbohydrate intake, using carbohydrate counting can be recommended for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 03/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is characterized by recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia and an inappropriate insulinemic response. Treatment with octreotide (somatostatin analogue) reduces the prevalence of clinical significant hypoglycemia and might be beneficial during pregnancy. To our knowledge this is the first report of a woman with late familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia experiencing pregnancies with and without octreotide treatment.
A 35-year-old Caucasian woman known to suffer from late familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia due to a well-known mutation in the insulin receptor gene has been pregnant 6 times. The patient was treated with injections of Sandostatin LAR® (octreotide) during the first four pregnancies. Her first pregnancy in 1999 was unknown until approximately 25th gestational weeks with fatal intrauterine growth retardation. The following two pregnancies were terminated on parental request after a chorion villus biopsy revealed the mutation causing late familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. During the fourth pregnancy, in which the fetus also had the mutation, serial ultrasound examinations showed a small fetus with appropriate growth. At birth the girl was small for gestational age. She was admitted to the neonatal special care unit due to low blood glucose and intravenous glucose and early feeding was initiated. One day old, her condition deteriorated with signs of an abdominal catastrophe indicating necrotizing enterocolitis. After two laparotomies - both confirming necrotizing enterocolitis - the child died 8 days after birth.In the following two pregnancies Sandostatin LAR® was stopped before pregnancy and the patient was treated only with diet restriction and intensive glucose monitoring. Both pregnancies ended successfully. One child carried the mutation and was small for gestational age at birth while the other child did not carry the mutation and had normal birth weight.
In a woman with late familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia octreotide was given during the first four pregnancies resulting in 2 cases of early termination of pregnancy on parental request and 2 cases of inappropriate fetal growth and unviable outcome. The following two pregnancies treated with diet only had a successful outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among women who have had severe hypoglycaemia the year before pregnancy, 70% with Type 1 diabetes also experience this complication in pregnancy, and particularly in the first half of pregnancy. We evaluated whether the routine use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring from early pregnancy onwards could prevent severe hypoglycaemia in these women.
All 136 consecutive pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes referred to our centre were asked about severe hypoglycaemic events in the year before pregnancy and early in pregnancy at their first antenatal visit. Women with a relevant recent history were informed about their additional high risk of severe hypoglycaemia, their treatment was focused on restricted insulin doses during the first 16 gestational weeks, and they were offered real-time continuous glucose monitoring on top of self-monitored plasma glucose measurements.
Among 28 women with a recent history of severe hypoglycaemia, 12 (43%) used real-time continuous glucose monitoring from a median (range) of 10 (7-13) gestational weeks for a median (range) of 10 (1-32) weeks. Among these 12 women, eight had experienced a total of 34 (range 1-11) severe hypoglycaemic events in the year before pregnancy and nine had experienced 23 (range: 1-10) events early in pregnancy. After initiation of real-time continuous glucose monitoring, two (17%) women experienced one event each. The incidence rates of severe hypoglycaemia were 2.8,17.5 and 0.3 events/patient-year. Among the 16 women in the high risk group not using real-time continuous glucose monitoring, the corresponding figures were 1.6, 5.0 and 0.1 events/patient-year.
Further evaluation is required to determine whether continuous real-time continuous glucose monitoring from early pregnancy onwards in highly selected women may reduce the risk of severe hypoglycaemia. Other elements of focused intervention probably also contribute to the risk reduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes and to describe pregnancy outcomes in these women following the same antihypertensive protocol.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Among 220 women with type 2 diabetes and 445 women with type 1 diabetes giving birth from 2007-2012, 41 women had diabetic nephropathy (albumin-creatinine ratio ≥300 mg/g) or microalbuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio 30-299 mg/g) in early pregnancy. Antihypertensive therapy was initiated if blood pressure ≥135/85 mmHg or albumin-creatinine ratio ≥300 mg/g.RESULTSThe prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 2.3% (5 of 220) in women with type 2 diabetes and 2.5% (11 of 445) in women with type 1 diabetes (P = 1.00). The figures for microalbuminuria were 4.5 (10 of 220) vs. 3.4% (15 of 445) (P = 0.39). Baseline glycemic control was comparable between women with type 2 diabetes (n = 15) and type 1 diabetes (n = 26). Blood pressure at baseline was median 128 (range 100-164)/81 (68-91) vs. 132 (100-176)/80 (63-100) mmHg (not significant) and antihypertensive therapy in type 2 versus type 1 diabetes was used in 0 and 62%, respectively, at baseline, increasing to 33 and 96%, respectively, in late pregnancy. Pregnancy outcome was comparable regardless type of diabetes; gestational age at delivery: 259 days (221-276) vs. 257 (184-271) (P = 0.19); birth weight 3,304 g (1,278-3,914) vs. 2,850 (370-4,180) (P = 0.67).CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in early pregnancy was similar in type 2 and type 1 diabetes. Antihypertensive therapy was used more frequently in type 1 diabetes. Pregnancy outcome was comparable regardless type of diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To explore insulin pump settings in a cohort of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator. Methods: Twenty-seven women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy were included in this study. At 8, 12, 21, 27 and 33 weeks, insulin pump settings and HbA1c were recorded. Results were compared to 96 women with type 1 diabetes on multiple daily injection therapy. Results: Throughout pregnancy, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio decreased at all three main meals. The most pronounced decrease was observed at breakfast, where the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio was reduced, from median 12 (range 4-20) in early pregnancy to 3 (2-10) grams carbohydrate per unit insulin in late pregnancy. Basal insulin delivery increased by approximately 50%, i.e. from 0.8 (0.5-2.2) to 1.2 (0.6-2.5) international units (IU)/hour at 5 a.m., and from 1.0 (0.6-1.5) to 1.3 (0.2-2.3) /hour at 5 p.m. during pregnancy. HbA1c levels during pregnancy, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia, and pregnancy outcomes were similar in the two groups. Conclusions: In women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio declined four-fold from early to late pregnancy, while changes in basal insulin delivery were smaller.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 08/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasing problem world-wide. Lifestyle interventions and/or vitamin D supplementation might help prevent GDM in some women.Methods/design: Pregnant women at risk of GDM (BMI>=29 (kg/m2)) from 9 European countries will be invited to participate and consent obtained before 19+6 weeks of gestation. After giving informed consent, GDM will be excluded (based on IADPSG criteria: fasting glucose<5.1mmol; 1 hour glucose <10.0 mmol; 2 hour glucose <8.5mmol) and women will be randomized to one of the 8 intervention arms using a 2x(2x2) factorial design: ( 1) healthy eating (HE), 2) physical activity (PA), 3) HE+PA, 4) control, 5) HE+PA+vitamin D, 6) HE+PA+placebo, 7) vitamin D alone, 8) placebo alone), pre-stratified for each site. In total, 880 women will be included with 110 women allocated to each arm. Between entry and 35 weeks of gestation, women allocated to a lifestyle intervention will receive 5 face-to-face, and 4 telephone coaching sessions, based on the principles of motivational interviewing. The lifestyle intervention includes a discussion about the risks of GDM, a weight gain target <5kg and either 7 healthy eating 'messages' and/or 5 physical activity 'messages' depending on randomization. Fidelity is monitored by the use of a personal digital assistance (PDA) system. Participants randomized to the vitamin D intervention receive either 1600 IU vitamin D or placebo for daily intake until delivery. Data is collected at baseline measurement, at 24--28 weeks, 35--37 weeks of gestation and after delivery. Primary outcome measures are gestational weight gain, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity, with a range of obstetric secondary outcome measures including birth weight.
DALI is a unique Europe-wide randomised controlled trial, which will gain insight into preventive measures against the development of GDM in overweight and obese women.Trial registration: ISRCTN70595832.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 07/2013; 13(1):142. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the incidence of severe hypoglycaemia in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes can be reduced without deteriorating HbA1c levels or pregnancy outcomes in a routine care setting.
Two cohorts (2004-2006; n=108 and 2009-2011; n=104) were compared. In between the cohorts a focused intervention including education of caregivers and patients in preventing hypoglycaemia was implemented. Women were included at median 8 (range 5-13) weeks. Severe hypoglycaemia (requiring assistance from others) was prospectively reported in structured interviews.
In the first vs. second cohort, severe hypoglycaemia during pregnancy occurred in 45% vs. 23%, p=0.0006, corresponding to incidences of 2.5 vs. 1.6 events/patient-year, p=0.04. Unconsciousness and/or convulsions occurred at 24% vs. 8% of events. Glucagon and/or glucose injections were given at 15% vs. 5% of events. At inclusion HbA1c was comparable between the cohorts while in the second cohort fewer women reported impaired hypoglycaemia awareness (56% vs. 36%, p=0.0006), insulin dose in women on multiple daily injections was lower (0.77IU/kg (0.4-1.7) vs. 0.65 (0.2-1.4), p=0.0006) and more women were on insulin analogues (rapid-acting 44% vs. 97%, p<0.0001; long-acting 6% vs. 76%, p<0.0001) and insulin pumps (5% vs. 23%, p<0.0001). Pregnancy outcomes were similar in the two cohorts.
A 36% reduction in the incidence of severe hypoglycaemia in pregnancy with unchanged HbA1c levels and pregnancy outcomes was observed after implementation of focused intervention against severe hypoglycaemia in a routine care setting. Improved insulin treatment, increased health professional education and fewer women with impaired hypoglycaemia awareness may contribute.
Diabetes research and clinical practice 06/2013; · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:Offspring of women with diabetes during pregnancy have increased risk of glucose intolerance in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.Objective:We aimed to investigate effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia on insulin secretion and - action in adult offspring of mothers with diabetes.Design, setting and participants:A cohort of 587 Caucasian offspring, without known diabetes was followed up at the age of 18-27 years. We included two groups exposed to maternal diabetes in utero: offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (N=167) or type 1 diabetes (N=153). Two reference groups were included: offspring of women with risk factors for GDM, but normo-glycemia during pregnancy (N=139) and offspring from the background population (N=128).Main outcome measures:Indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin release were calculated using insulin and glucose values from a standard oral glucose tolerance test (120 minutes, 75 gram glucose). Pancreatic beta-cell function taking the prevailing insulin sensitivity into account was estimated by disposition indices.Results:Both groups of offspring exposed during pregnancy to either maternal gestational diabetes or type 1 diabetes had reduced insulin sensitivity compared with offspring from the background population (both p < 0.005). We did not find any significant difference in absolute measures of insulin release. However, the disposition index was significantly reduced in both the diabetes-exposed groups (both p < 0.005).Conclusion:Reduced insulin sensitivity as well as impaired pancreatic beta cell function may contribute to the increased risk of glucose intolerance among adult offspring born to women with diabetes during pregnancy.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 06/2013; · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: To explore whether real-time continuous glucose monitoring during labour and delivery supplementary to hourly self-monitored plasma glucose in women with Type 1 diabetes reduces the prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia. METHODS: Women with Type 1 diabetes participating in a randomized controlled trial on the effect of real-time continuous glucose monitoring in pregnancy were included in this study. Twenty-seven of 60 (45%) women in the intervention arm used real-time continuous glucose monitoring during labour and delivery, supplementary to hourly self-monitored plasma glucose. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring glucose data covering the last 8 h prior to delivery were retrospectively evaluated, and maternal hypo- and hyperglycaemia were defined as glucose values ≤ 3.9 mmol/l and > 7.0 mmol/l, respectively. Women in the control arm (n = 59) solely used self-monitored plasma glucose. Neonatal hypoglycaemia was defined as a 2-h plasma glucose < 2.5 mmol/l. RESULTS: In infants of women using real-time continuous glucose monitoring during labour and delivery, 10 (37%) developed neonatal hypoglycaemia vs. 27 (46%) infants in the control arm (P = 0.45). Among 10 infants with and 17 infants without neonatal hypoglycaemia within the real-time continuous glucose monitoring arm, median maternal self-monitored plasma glucose was 6.2 (range 4.2-7.8) vs. 5.6 (3.3-8.5) mmol/l (P = 0.26) during labour and delivery, with maternal hyperglycaemia present in 17 (0-94) vs. 4 (0-46)% of the time (P = 0.02), and birthweight was 4040 (3102-4322) vs. 3500 (1829-4320) g (P = 0.04). Maternal hypoglycaemia up to delivery was relatively rare. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia was comparable between infants of women using real-time continuous glucose monitoring supplementary to self-monitored plasma glucose during labour and delivery and infants of women solely using self-monitored plasma glucose. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To analyse data from a randomised, controlled study of prandial insulin aspart vs. human insulin, both with NPH insulin, in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes for potential factors predicting poor pregnancy outcomes. Research design/methods: Post hoc analysis including 91 subjects randomised prior to pregnancy with known outcome in early pregnancy and 259 subjects randomised prior to pregnancy/during pregnancy of <10 weeks' gestation with known late-pregnancy outcomes. Poor early-pregnancy outcomes included fetal loss <22 gestational weeks and/or congenital malformation (n = 18). Poor late-pregnancy outcomes included: composite endpoint including pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and perinatal death (n = 78); preterm delivery (n = 63); and excessive fetal growth (n = 88). Results: 18 patients experienced a malformed/lost fetus in early pregnancy - none preceded by severe hypoglycaemia. Albuminuria in early pregnancy was a significant predictor of poor late-pregnancy outcome (composite endpoint; p = 0.012). In the third trimester, elevated HbA1c, ≥1 plasma glucose (PG) measurement >11 mmol/L (198 mg/dL) and %PG values outside 3.9-7.0 mmol/L (70-126 mg/dL) were significant predictors of poor late-pregnancy outcomes (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: Elevated HbA1c, high glucose spikes and out-of-range %PG in the third trimester, and albuminuria in early pregnancy, are associated with poor late-pregnancy outcomes.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 05/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir (IDet) with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH), both with insulin aspart, in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. The perinatal and obstetric pregnancy outcomes are presented. Methods: Subjects were randomized to IDet (n = 152) or NPH (n = 158) ≤12 months before pregnancy or at 8-12 gestational weeks. Results: For IDet and NPH, there were 128 and 136 live births, 11 and nine early fetal losses and two and one perinatal deaths, respectively. Gestational age at delivery was greater for children from the IDet arm than the NPH arm (treatment difference: 0.49 weeks [95% CI 0.11;0.88], p = .012, linear regression). Sixteen children had a malformation (IDet: n = 8/142, 5.6%; NPH: n = 8/145, 5.5%). The incidence of adverse events was similar between treatments. Conclusion: IDet is as well tolerated as NPH as regards perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and no safety issues were identified.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 04/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The establishment of universal diagnostic guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus has been a long way coming. The lack of consensus and uniformity in procedures for diagnosing this disease has been a problem ever since its existence was recognized. The USA, European countries and Australia have each developed their own guidelines through the years, all based either on the maternal risk of subsequent diabetes, on arbitrary statistics, or on studies conducted on non-pregnant women. None of these guidelines have been based on risk for perinatal complications. Recently, the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study demonstrated that maternal hyperglycemia is associated with perinatal risk in a linear way with no obvious threshold. The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) has translated these results into clinical practice by proposing new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus, based, for the first time, on perinatal outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 04/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: In 1989 the St. Vincent's declaration set a five-year target for approximating outcomes of pregnancies in women with diabetes to those of the background population. We investigated and quantified the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) to evaluate if the goals of the 1989 St. Vincent declaration have been obtained concerning fetal and neonatal complications. Methods: 12 population-based studies published within the last 10 years with in total 14,099 women with T1DM and 4,035,373 women from the background population were identified. The prevalence of four fetal and neonatal complications was compared. Results: In women with T1DM vs. the background population, congenital malformations occurred in 5.0% (2.2-9.0) (weighted mean and range) vs. 2.1% (1.5-2.9), relative risk (RR)=2.4, perinatal mortality in 2.7% (2.0-6.6) vs. 0.72% (0.48-0.9), RR=3.7, preterm delivery in 25.2% (13.0-41.7) vs. 6.0% (4.7-7.1), RR=4.2 and delivery of large for gestational infants in 54.2% (45.1-62.5) vs. 10.0%, RR=4.5. Early pregnancy HbA1c was positively association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was up to five times increased in women with T1DM compared with the general population. The goals of the St. Vincent's declaration have not been achieved.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 04/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor