[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody molecules are able to recognize any antigen with high affinity and specificity. To get insight into the molecular diversity at the source of this functional diversity, we compiled and analyzed a non-redundant aligned collection of 227 structures of antibody antigen complexes. Free energy of binding of all the residue side chains was quantified by computational alanine scanning, allowing the first large-scale quantitative description of antibody paratopes. This demonstrated that as few as 8 residues among 30 key positions are sufficient to explain 80% of the binding free energy in most complexes. At these positions, the residue distribution is not only different from that of other surface residues but also dependent on the role played by the side chain in the interaction, residues participating in the binding energy being mainly aromatic residues, and Gly or Ser otherwise. To question the generality of these binding characteristics, we isolated an antibody fragment by phage display using a biased synthetic repertoire with only two diversified complementarity-determining regions and solved its structure in complex with its antigen. Despite this restricted diversity, the structure demonstrated that all complementarity-determining regions were involved in the interaction with the antigen and that the rules derived from the natural antibody repertoire apply to this synthetic binder, thus demonstrating the robustness and universality of our results. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actual use of the active form of vitamin D (calcitriol or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) to treat hyperproliferative disorders is hampered by calcemic effects, hence the continuous development of chemically modified analogues with dissociated profiles. Structurally distinct nonsecosteroidal analogues have been developed to mimic calcitriol activity profiles with low calcium serum levels. Here, we report the crystallographic study of vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR) ligand binding domain in complexes with six nonsecosteroidal analogues harboring two or three phenyl rings. These compounds induce a stimulated transcription in the nanomolar range, similar to calcitriol. Examination of the protein-ligand interactions reveals the mode of binding of these nonsecosteroidal compounds and highlights the role of the various chemical modifications of the ligands to VDR binding and activity, notably (de)solvation effects. The structures with the tris-aromatic ligands exhibit a rearrangement of a novel region of the VDR ligand binding pocket, helix H6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) commonly binds to the 3'-UTR poly(A) tail of every mRNA, but it also binds to the 5'-UTR of PABP mRNA for autoregulation of its expression. In the sequence of the latter binding site, the contiguous A residues are segmented discretely by the insertion of short pyrimidine oligonucleotides as linkers, so that (A)(6-8) segments are repeated six times. This differs from the poly(A)-tail sequence, which has a higher binding affinity for PABP. In order to examine whether the A-rich repeats have a functional structure, several RNA/DNA analogues were subjected to crystallization. It was found that some of them could be crystallized. Single crystals thus obtained diffracted to 4.1 Å resolution. The fact that the repeated sequences can be crystallized suggests the possibility that the autoregulatory sequence in PABP mRNA has a specific structure which impedes the binding of PABP. When PABP is excessively produced, it could bind to this sequence by releasing the structure in order to interfere with initiation-complex formation for suppression of PABP translation. Otherwise, PABP at low concentration preferentially binds to the poly(A) tail of PABP mRNA.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 02/2012; 68(Pt 2):185-9. DOI:10.1107/S1744309111052110 · 0.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii α-type carbonic anhydrase (Cr-αCA1) is a dimeric enzyme that catalyses the interconversion of carbon dioxide and carbonic acid. The precursor form of Cr-αCA1 undergoes post-translational cleavage and N-glycosylation. Comparison of the genomic sequences of precursor Cr-αCA1 and other αCAs shows that Cr-αCA1 contains a different N-terminal sequence and two insertion sequences. A 35-residue peptide in one of the insertion sequences is deleted from the precursor during maturation. The crystal structure of the mature form of Cr-αCA1 has been determined at 1.88 Å resolution. Each subunit is cleaved into the long and short peptides, but they are linked together by a disulfide bond. The two subunits are linked by a disulfide bond. N-Glycosylations occur at three asparagine residues and the attached N-glycans protrude into solvent regions. The subunits consist of a core β-sheet structure composed of nine β-strands. At the centre of the β-sheet is the catalytic site, which contains a Zn atom bound to three histidine residues. The amino-acid residues around the Zn atom are highly conserved in other monomeric and dimeric αCAs. The short peptide runs near the active site and forms a hydrogen bond to the zinc-coordinated residue in the long chain, suggesting an important role for the short peptide in Cr-αCA1 activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An improved synthetic route to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) des-side chain analogues 2 a and 2 b with substituents at C18 is reported, along with their biological activity. These analogues display significant antiproliferative effects toward MCF-7 breast cancer cells and prodifferentiation activity toward SW480-ADH colon cancer cells; they are also characterized by a greatly decreased calcemic profile. The crystal structure of the human vitamin D receptor (hVDR) complexed to one of these analogues, 20(17→18)-abeo-1α,25-dihydroxy-22-homo-21-norvitamin D(3) (2 a) reveals that the side chain introduced at position C18 adopts the same orientation in the ligand binding pocket as the side chain of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 1α,25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin-D3 (1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3), a natural metabolite of the seco-steroid vitamin D3, exerts its biological activity through binding to its cognate vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR), a ligand dependent transcription regulator. In vivo action of 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 is tissue-specific and exhibits lowest calcemic effect compared to that induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. To further unveil the structural mechanism and structure-activity relationships of 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 and its receptor complex, we characterized some of its in vitro biological properties and solved its crystal structure complexed with human VDR ligand-binding domain (LBD).
In the present study, we report the more effective synthesis with fewer steps that provides higher yield of the 3-epimer of the 1α,25(OH)2D3. We solved the crystal structure of its complex with the human VDR-LBD and found that this natural metabolite displays specific adaptation of the ligand-binding pocket, as the 3-epimer maintains the number of hydrogen bonds by an alternative water-mediated interaction to compensate the abolished interaction with Ser278. In addition, the biological activity of the 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 in primary human keratinocytes and biochemical properties are comparable to 1α,25(OH)2D3.
The physiological role of this pathway as the specific biological action of the 3-epimer remains unclear. However, its high metabolic stability together with its significant biologic activity makes this natural metabolite an interesting ligand for clinical applications. Our new findings contribute to a better understanding at molecular level how natural metabolites of 1α,25(OH)2D3 lead to significant activity in biological systems and we conclude that the C3-epimerization pathway produces an active metabolite with similar biochemical and biological properties to those of the 1α,25(OH)2D3.
PLoS ONE 03/2011; 6(3):e18124. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0018124 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and Retinoid X nuclear receptors (RXRs) are ligand-dependent transcriptional modulators that execute their biological action through the generation of functional heterodimers. RXR acts as an obligate dimer partner in many signalling pathways, gene regulation by rexinoids depending on the liganded state of the specific heterodimeric partner. To address the question of the effect of rexinoid antagonists on RAR/RXR function, we solved the crystal structure of the heterodimer formed by the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the RARα bound to its natural agonist ligand (all-trans retinoic acid, atRA) and RXRα bound to a rexinoid antagonist (LG100754). We observed that RARα exhibits the canonical agonist conformation and RXRα an antagonist one with the C-terminal H12 flipping out to the solvent. Examination of the protein-LG100754 interactions reveals that its propoxy group sterically prevents the H12 associating with the LBD, without affecting the dimerization or the active conformation of RAR. Although LG100754 has been reported to act as a 'phantom ligand' activating RAR in a cellular context, our structural data and biochemical assays demonstrate that LG100754 mediates its effect as a full RXR antagonist. Finally we show that the 'phantom ligand effect' of the LG100754 is due to a direct binding of the ligand to RAR that stabilizes coactivator interactions thus accounting for the observed transcriptional activation of RAR/RXR.
PLoS ONE 11/2010; 5(11):e15119. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0015119 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are ubiquitously distributed and are grouped into three structurally independent classes (alphaCA, betaCA and gammaCA). Most alphaCA enzymes are monomeric, but alphaCA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a dimer that is uniquely stabilized by disulfide bonds. In addition, during maturation an internal peptide of 35 residues is removed and three asparagine residues are glycosylated. In order to obtain insight into the effects of these structural features on CA function, wild-type C. reinhardtii alphaCA1 has been crystallized in space group P6(5), with unit-cell parameters a=b=134.3, c=120.2 A. The crystal diffracted to 1.88 A resolution and a preliminary solution of its crystal structure has been obtained by the MAD method.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 09/2010; 66(Pt 9):1082-5. DOI:10.1107/S174430911002823X · 0.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vitamin D nuclear receptor is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that controls multiple biological responses such as cell proliferation, immune responses, and bone mineralization. Numerous 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) analogues, which exhibit low calcemic side effects and/or antitumoral properties, have been synthesized. We recently showed that the synthetic analogue (20S,23S)-epoxymethano-1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (2a) acts as a 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) superagonist and exhibits both antiproliferative and prodifferentiating properties in vitro. Using this information and on the basis of the crystal structures of human VDR ligand binding domain (hVDR LBD) bound to 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), 2 alpha-methyl-1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), or 2a, we designed a novel analogue, 2 alpha-methyl-(20S,23S)-epoxymethano-1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (4a), in order to increase its transactivation potency. Here, we solved the crystal structures of the hVDR LBD in complex with the 4a (C23S) and its epimer 4b (C23R) and determined their correlation with specific biological outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In protein synthesis, threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) must recognize threonine (Thr) from the 20 kinds of amino acids and the cognate tRNA(Thr) from different tRNAs in order to generate Thr-tRNA(Thr). In general, an organism possesses one kind of gene corresponding to ThrRS. However, it has been recently found that some organisms have two different genes for ThrRS in the genome, suggesting that their proteins ThrRS-1 and ThrRS-2 function separately and complement each other in the threonylation of tRNA(Thr), one for catalysis and the other for trans-editing of misacylated Ser-tRNA(Thr). In order to clarify their three-dimensional structures, we performed X-ray analyses of two putatively assigned ThrRSs from Aeropyrum pernix (ApThrRS-1 and ApThrRS-2). These proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and crystallized. The crystal structure of ApThrRS-1 has been successfully determined at 2.3 A resolution. ApThrRS-1 is a dimeric enzyme composed of two identical subunits, each containing two domains for the catalytic reaction and for anticodon binding. The essential editing domain is completely missing as expected. These structural features reveal that ThrRS-1 catalyzes only the aminoacylation of the cognate tRNA, suggesting the necessity of the second enzyme ThrRS-2 for trans-editing. Since the N-terminal sequence of ApThrRS-2 is similar to the sequence of the editing domain of ThrRS from Pyrococcus abyssi, ApThrRS-2 has been expected to catalyze deaminoacylation of a misacylated serine moiety at the CCA terminus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C/Si switch: Twofold sila-substitution (C/Si exchange) in the RXR-selective retinoids 4 a (SR11237) and 5 a leads to 4 b (disila-SR11237) and 5 b, respectively. Chemistry and biology of the C/Si pairs are reported.SR11237 (BMS649, 4 a) is a pan-RXR-selective retinoid agonist. Its silicon analogue, disila-SR11237 (4 b; twofold C/Si exchange), was prepared in a multistep synthesis by starting from 1,2-bis(ethynyldimethylsilyl)ethane. In addition, the related C/Si analogues 5 a and 5 b, with an indane (disila-indane) instead of a tetraline (disila-tetraline) skeleton, were synthesized. The C/Si pairs 4 a/4 b and 5 a/5 b were studied for their interaction with retinoid receptors and were demonstrated to be highly potent RXR-selective ("rexinoid") agonists. Interestingly, twofold C/Si exchange in the indane moiety of 5 a resulted in a 10-fold increase in biological activity of the corresponding silicon-containing rexinoid 5 b, possibly resulting from an increased receptor affinity or a divergent allosteric effect on co-regulator-binding surfaces. The crystal structures of the ternary complexes formed by 5 a and 5 b, respectively, with the ligand-binding domain of hRXRalpha and a peptide of the co-activator TIF2/GRIP1 revealed additional interactions of the disila analogue 5 b with the H7 and H11 residues, supporting the first option of increased binding affinity. This is the first demonstration of an increase in binding affinity of a ligand to a nuclear receptor by C/Si replacement, thereby adding this C/Si switch strategy to the repertoire of nuclear receptor ligand design.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inside cover picture shows a carbon-based (left) and the analogous silicon-based (right) derivative of the highly potent pan-RXR-selective retinoid agonist SR11237. Switching from carbon to silicon increased the biological activity by a factor of ten. To further understand this effect, both agonists were co-crystallized with the ligand-binding domain of hRXRalpha (superposition of the two crystal structures shown). For more details, see the Full Paper by R. Tacke et al. on p. 1143 ff.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from Alcaligenes faecalis catalyzes the reversible conversion between D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. The enzyme was crystallized in the presence of the substrate D-3-hydroxybutyrate and the cofactor NAD(+) at the optimum pH for the catalytic reaction. The structure, which was solved by X-ray crystallography, is isomorphous to that of the complex with the substrate analogue acetate. The product as well as the substrate molecule are accommodated well in the catalytic site. Their binding geometries suggest that the reversible reactions occur by shuttle movements of a hydrogen negative ion from the C3 atom of the substrate to the C4 atom of NAD(+) and from the C4 atom of NADH to the C3 atom of the product. The reaction might be further coupled to the withdrawal of a proton from the hydroxyl group of the substrate by the ionized Tyr155 residue. These structural features strongly support the previously proposed reaction mechanism of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, which was based on the acetate-bound complex structure.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 05/2009; 65(Pt 4):331-5. DOI:10.1107/S1744309109008537 · 0.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) plays an essential role in protein synthesis by catalyzing the aminoacylation of tRNA(Thr) and editing misacylation. ThrRS generally contains an N-terminal editing domain, a catalytic domain and an anticodon-binding domain. The sequences of the editing domain in ThrRSs from archaea differ from those in bacteria and eukaryotes. Furthermore, several creanarchaea including Aeropyrum pernix K1 and Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 contain two genes encoding either the catalytic or the editing domain of ThrRS. To reveal the structural basis for this evolutionary divergence, the two types of ThrRS from the crenarchaea A. pernix and S. tokodaii have been overexpressed in Eschericha coli, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected and the structure of a selenomethionine-labelled A. pernix type-1 ThrRS crystal has been solved using the MAD method.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 11/2008; 64(Pt 10):903-10. DOI:10.1107/S1744309108026924 · 0.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Side chain fluorination is often used to make analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] resistant to degradation by 24-hydroxylase. The fluorinated nonsteroidal analogs CD578, WU515, and WY1113 have an increased prodifferentiating action on SW480-ADH colon cancer cells, which correlated with stronger induction of vitamin D receptor (VDR)-coactivator interactions and stronger repression of beta-catenin/TCF activity. Cocrystallization of analog CD578 with the zebrafish (z)VDR and an SRC-1 coactivator peptide showed that the fluorine atoms of CD578 make additional contacts with Val444 and Phe448 of activation helix 12 (H12) of the zVDR and with Leu440 of the H11-H12 loop. Consequently, the SRC-1 peptide makes more contacts with the VDR-CD578 complex than with the VDR-1,25(OH)2D3 complex. These data show that fluorination not only affects degradation of an analog but can also have direct effects on H12 stabilization.