[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging bacterial pathogen that causes nosocomial pneumonia and other infections. Although it is recognized as an increasing threat to immunocompromised patients, the mechanism of host defense against A. baumannii infection remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the potential role of macrophages in host defense against A. baumannii infection using in vitro macrophage culture and the mouse model of intranasal (i.n.) infection. Large numbers of A. baumannii were taken up by alveolar macrophages in vivo as early as 4 h after i.n. inoculation. By 24 h, the infection induced significant recruitment and activation (enhanced expression of CD80, CD86 and MHC-II) of macrophages into bronchoalveolar spaces. In vitro cell culture studies showed that A. baumannii were phagocytosed by J774A.1 (J774) macrophage-like cells within 10 minutes of co-incubation, and this uptake was microfilament- and microtubule-dependent. Moreover, the viability of phagocytosed bacteria dropped significantly between 24 and 48 h after co-incubation. Infection of J774 cells by A. baumannii resulted in the production of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and moderate amounts of nitric oxide (NO). Prior treatment of J774 cells with NO inhibitors significantly suppressed their bactericidal efficacy (P<0.05). Most importantly, in vivo depletion of alveolar macrophages significantly enhanced the susceptibility of mice to i.n. A. baumannii challenge (P<0.01). These results indicate that macrophages may play an important role in early host defense against A. baumannii infection through the efficient phagocytosis and killing of A. baumannii to limit initial pathogen replication and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines for the rapid recruitment of other innate immune cells such as neutrophils.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e40019. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in establishing protective adaptive immunity in intracellular bacterial infections, but the cells influencing DC function in vivo remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of NK cells in modulating the function of DC using a murine Chlamydia infection model. We found that the NK cell-depleted mice showed exacerbated disease after respiratory tract Chlamydia muridarum infection, which was correlated with altered T cell cytokine profile. Furthermore, DC from C. muridarum-infected NK-depleted mice (NK(-)DC) exhibited a less mature phenotype compared with that of DC from the infected mice without NK depletion (NK(+)DC). NK(-)DC produced significantly lower levels of both IL-12 and IL-10 than those of NK(+)DC. Moreover, NK(-)DC showed reduced ability to direct primary and established Ag-specific Th1 CD4(+) T cell responses in DC-T coculture systems. More importantly, adoptive transfer of NK(-)DC, in contrast to NK(+)DC, failed to induce type 1 protective immunity in recipients after challenge infection. Finally, NK cells showed strong direct enhancing effect on IL-12 production by DC in an NK-DC coculture system, which was partially reduced by blocking NKG2D receptors signaling and virtually abolished by neutralizing IFN-γ activity. The data demonstrate a critical role of NK cells in modulating DC function in an intracellular bacterial infection.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2011; 187(1):401-11. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inducible co-stimulator ligand (ICOSL) is a rather newly defined co-stimulatory molecule, which, through interaction with ICOS expressed on T cells, plays an important role in T-cell activation, differentiation and function. T(h)2-type immune responses are critical for the development and maintenance of allergic responses including asthma. Using knockout (KO) mice, we have assessed the role of ICOSL in allergic airway inflammation and responsiveness using a standard mouse asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge. Our data show that OVA-treated ICOSL KO mice exhibit significantly less lung eosinophilic infiltration, histopathology, mucus production and virtually no airway hyperresponsiveness in contrast to wild-type (Wt) counterparts. Serum antibody analysis showed that antigen-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgE titers in ICOSL KO mice were significantly lower than those of Wt controls. Also, CD4(+) T cells isolated from ICOSL KO mice produced less T(h)2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) but more T(h)1 (IFN-γ) and IL-17 than their Wt controls. Taken together, we conclude that ICOSL plays an important role in predisposing individuals to allergic airway hyperresponsiveness by enhancing IgE antibody class switching and T(h)2 cytokine production and diminishing the T(h)17 response and airway eosinophilia.
International Immunology 03/2011; 23(4):239-49. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic asthma is a dysregulation of the immune system which leads to the development of Th2 responses to innocuous antigens (allergens). Some infections and microbial components can re-direct the immune response toward the Th1 response, or induce regulatory T cells to suppress the Th2 response, thereby inhibiting the development of allergic asthma. Since Acinetobacter baumannii infection can modulate lung cellular and cytokine responses, we studied the effect of A. baumannii in modulating airway eosinophilia in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were treated with live A. baumannii or phosphate buffered saline (PBS), then intranasally challenged with OVA. Compared to PBS, A. baumannii treatment significantly reduced pulmonary Th2 cytokine and chemokine responses to OVA challenge. More importantly, the airway inflammation in A. baumannii-treated mice was strongly suppressed, as seen by the significant reduction of the proportion and the total number of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, A. baumannii-treated mice diminished lung mucus overproduction and pathology. However, A. baumannii treatment did not significantly alter systemic immune responses to OVA. Serum OVA-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a levels were comparable between A. baumannii- and PBS-treated mice, and tracheobronchial lymph node cells from both treatment groups produced similar levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in response to in vitro OVA stimulation. Moreover, it appears that TLR-4 and IFN-γ were not directly involved in the A. baumannii-induced suppression of airway eosinophilia. Our results suggest that A. baumannii inhibits allergic airway inflammation by direct suppression of local pulmonary Th2 cytokine responses to the allergen.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22004. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutralization of carboxylic acid is an important means to avoid sialic acid dissociation when sialylated glycans are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). In this paper, we describe a simple and rapid method to modify the sialic acids of sialylated glycans in the presence of methylamine and (7-azabenzotriazol-1-yloxy) trispyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate (PyAOP). After methylamidation, sialylated glycans can be analyzed by MALDI-MS without loss of the sialic acid moiety. The electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and MALDI-MS analysis of both 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose derivatives indicated that the quantitative conversion of sialic acids was achieved, regardless of their linkage types. This derivatization strategy was further validated with the N-glycans released from three standard glycoproteins (fetuin, human acid glycoprotein, and bovine acid glycoprotein) containing different types of complex glycans. Most importantly, this derivatization method enabled the successful characterization of N-glycans of sera from different species (human, mouse, and rat) by MALDI-MS. Because of the mild reaction conditions, the modification in sialic acid residues can be retained. This improvement makes it possible to detect sialylated glycans containing O-acetylated sialic acid moieties using MALDI-MS in positive-ion mode.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection can inhibit de novo and established allergen-induced asthma-like responses. The aim of this study was to examine the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in BCG infection-mediated inhibition of established allergy to a common environmental allergen--ragweed. The results showed that adoptive transfer of DCs from BCG-infected mice (DC[BCG]), in contrast to DCs from naive mice (DC[naive]), significantly inhibited established allergic airway eosinophilia and mucus overproduction. The inhibitory effect was correlated with alterations of allergen-driven cytokine and chemokine production as well as VCAM-1 expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis showed higher surface expression of CD8alpha and costimulatory markers in DC(BCG) than in DC(naive). Moreover, DC(BCG) produced significantly higher levels of IL-10 and IL-12 and expressed higher levels of TLRs than did DC(naive). Furthermore, blockade of IL-10 or IL-12 significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of DC(BCG) on established allergic airway inflammation and Th2 cytokine responses. These findings suggest that DCs play a crucial role in infection-mediated inhibition of established allergic responses, and IL-10 and IL-12 production by these DCs may be a major mechanism for the inhibition.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2010; 184(12):7288-96. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3',5'-Cyclic diguanylic acid (cdiGMP) is emerging as a universal bacterial second messenger in regulating bacterial growth on surfaces. It has been recently shown that cdiGMP stimulates innate immunity and enhances antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. We herein report that intranasal (i.n.) administration with cdiGMP induces an acute but transient inflammatory response and activation of dendritic cells in the lungs. Moreover, i.n. immunization of mice with pneumococcal surface adhesion A (PsaA) in conjunction with cdiGMP elicited strong antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA antibody responses at multiple mucosal surfaces. More importantly, the immunized mice showed significantly reduced nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization. These results, for the first time, provide direct evidence for the induction of protection against mucosal bacterial infections by cdiGMP as an adjuvant.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2009; 387(3):581-4. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of both community-associated and nosocomial pneumonia, which have become increasingly difficult to treat because of the rapid development of resistance to multiple antibiotics. Despite its clinical importance, the pathogenesis of and host defense against respiratory A. baumannii infection remains largely unknown. To examine host factors that could contribute to the defense, we compared the susceptibilities of A/J and C57BL/6 mice to intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with A. baumannii. We found that A/J mice were significantly more susceptible to infection with higher mortality (P<0.05) and tissue bacterial burdens (P<0.01) as well as greater histopathology in the lung and spleen than C57BL/6 mice. More importantly, the high susceptibility of A/J mice was associated with a reduced local proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine (particularly IL-1beta, MIP-2 and TNF-alpha) responses and a significant delay and reduction in the early influx of neutrophils in the lung (P<0.05). Intranasal administration of neutrophil-inducing chemokine MIP-2 to A/J mice enhanced pulmonary neutrophil influx and partially restored host resistance to A. baumannii to a level comparable to the more resistant C57BL/6 mice. Our results imply that the early recruitment of neutrophils into the lung is critical for initiating an efficient host defense against respiratory A. baumannii infection.
Microbes and Infection 07/2009; 11(12):946-55. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been long proposed that exposure to environmental factors early in life may have an educating effect on the development of immune regulatory functions. However, experimental studies on this issue are limited and the related molecular and cellular basis remains unclear. Here we report that neonatal exposure to killed bacteria (Chlamydia muridarum, originally called Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn)) changed the pattern of the hosts' immune responses to a model allergen (OVA) in adulthood. This was associated with altered phenotype and function of DC. We found that DC from adult mice treated neonatally with UV-killed MoPn exhibited distinct patterns of surface marker and TLR expression and cytokine production from control mice (DC from adult mice neonatally treated with vehicle, (Sham-DC)). More importantly, DC from adult mice treated neonatally with UV-killed MoPn induced significantly lower type-2 antigen-specific T-cell responses than Sham-DC shown in DC:T co-culture experiments in vitro and in adoptive transfer experiments in vivo. In addition, depletion of T cells in vivo largely abolished the phenotypic and functional alterations of DC caused by bacterial exposure, suggesting the involvement of T cell in this process. Our study demonstrates a central role of DC in linking the early-life exposure to microbial products and the balanced development of immune regulatory functions and the involvement of T cells in imprinting of the DC function.
European Journal of Immunology 02/2009; 39(2):469-80. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging bacterial pathogen that rapidly develops multiple-drug resistance and is responsible for many nosocomial pulmonary infections. This study investigated the role of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase (phox) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) in the host defense against respiratory infection with A. baumannii in mouse models of intranasal A. baumannii infection. gp91(phox-/-) mice showed higher susceptibility to A. baumannii infection than wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, with significantly greater bacterial counts in their lungs (1,000-fold) (P < 0.005) and spleens (10-fold) (P < 0.05). Moreover, all of the gp91(phox-/-) mice succumbed to infection within 48 h. In contrast, only a moderate increase in bacterial burdens was detected in the lungs of NOS2(-/-) mice, and all NOS2(-/-) mice survived infection. Compared to WT mice, the pulmonary influx of inflammatory cells and serum and local inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses were not obviously impaired at 4 h and were significantly higher at 24 h (P < 0.05) in gp91(phox-/-) mice, but NADPH-deficient neutrophils were unable to control bacterial replication and extrapulmonary dissemination. Thus, NADPH phagocyte oxidase appears to play a crucial role in the neutrophil-mediated host defense against A. baumannii.
Infection and immunity 12/2008; 77(3):1015-21. · 4.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously showed an important role of natural killer T cells (NKT) in skewing the adaptive T cell immunity to Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn), an intracellular bacterial lung infection, but the mechanism remains unclear.
To investigate the underlying mechanism by which NKT modulate T cell responses in chlamydial pneumonia.
We examined the effect of NKT activation in modulating DC function, especially in generating protective immunity against Cpn infection using combination of NKT knockout (KO) mice and specific NKT activation approaches.
We found that NKT activation in vivo after Cpn infection induces phenotypic and functional changes in dendritic cells (DC). DC from NKT-deficient mice showed reduced CD40 expression and IL-12 production, whereas enhancing NKT activation using alpha-GalCer increased CD40 expression and IL-12 production. Co-culture of DC with NKT enhanced bioactive IL-12p70 production by DC in a CD40L-, IFN-gamma-, and cell-cell contact-dependent manner. Further, co-culture of T cells with DC isolated from infected wild-type (WT) and NKT-deficient mice induced type-1 and type-2 responses, respectively, while DC from alpha-GalCer-treated, infected mice led to enhanced type-1 responses. Moreover, upon adoptive transfer, DC from infected WT mice induced strong type-1 immunity, whereas those from knockout mice induced type-2 responses and increased disease severity upon challenge infection.
Our results provide direct evidence of the critical role of NKT activation in the functional modulation of DC for the development of protective immunity in a clinically relevant respiratory infection.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2008; 178(7):745-56. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I IFNs (IFNIs) have pleiotropic functions in regulating host innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens. To elucidate the role of IFNIs in host resistance to chlamydial infection in vivo, we compared IFN-alpha/beta receptor knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) and wild-type control mice in susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (Chlamydia muridarum) lung infection. We found that the IFNAR(-/-) mice were significantly more resistant to C. muridarum infection showing less bacterial burden and bodyweight loss, and milder pathological changes. However, IFN-gamma response, which is believed to be critical in host defense against chlamydial infection, was similar between the wild-type and IFNAR(-/-) mice. More importantly, TUNEL analysis showed less macrophage apoptosis in IFNAR(-/-) mice, which was consistent with lower expressions of IFNI-induced apoptotic factors, TRAIL, Daxx, and PKR. Furthermore, depletion of lung macrophages with dichloromethylene diphosphonate-liposome significantly increased the susceptibility of the IFNAR(-/-) mice to C. muridarum, confirming the importance of macrophages. Overall, the data indicate that IFNIs play a promoting role in C. muridarum lung infection, largely through increase of local macrophage apoptosis.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2008; 181(3):2092-102. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that exposure to certain microbes and their products, particularly during neonatal and early childhood periods, may shift the immune response towards a T-helper cell (Th) 1 phenotype and thereby prevent the development of and/or alleviate the clinical symptoms of allergic airway diseases.
We evaluated the ability of the live vaccine strain (LVS) of Francisella tularensis to suppress airway eosinophilia and pulmonary pathology in a murine model of allergic airway disease.
C57BL/6 mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on days 1 and 14, and challenged intranasally (i.n.) with OVA on day 21 or thereafter. Some sensitized mice were i.n. treated with live LVS or its cell-free sonicate extract (CFSE) before i.n. OVA challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, regional lymph node cells, lung tissues and serum samples were collected 3-7 days after the i.n. challenge.
Intranasal and, to a lesser degree, intradermal immunization of OVA-sensitized mice with LVS suppressed the development of airway eosinophilia and associated pulmonary pathology induced by i.n. OVA challenge. Moreover, CFSE prepared from LVS showed a similar inhibitory effect whereas neither LPS nor DNA purified from F. tularensis LVS had such an effect. The inhibition was associated with the reduction in mRNA expression and protein levels of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in the lungs and the enhanced production of OVA-induced IFN-gamma by local draining lymph node cells, but not with the serum levels of OVA-specific IgG1 or IgE.
F. tularensis LVS is capable of suppressing allergic airway inflammation probably through a Th1-mediated suppression of an ongoing Th2 response mechanism, and raises the possibility of exploring LVS and its components as potential therapeutic modalities for human allergic asthma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To experimentally examine the hygiene hypothesis, here we studied the effect of chlamydial infection on the development of allergic responses induced by OVA and the involvement of NK cells in this process using a mouse model of airway inflammation. We found that prior Chlamydia muridarum infection can inhibit airway eosinophilic inflammation and mucus production induced by allergen sensitization and challenge. The inhibition was correlated with an alteration of allergen-driven cytokine-producing patterns of T cells. We demonstrated that NK cells were activated following chlamydial infection, showing both cell expansion and cytokine secretion. The in vivo depletion of NK cells using anti-NK Ab before OVA sensitization and challenge partially abolished the inhibitory effect of chlamydial infection, which was associated with a partial restoration of Th2 cytokine production. In contrast, the adoptive transfer of NK cells that were isolated from infected mice showed a significant inhibitory effect on allergic responses, similar to that observed in natural infection. The data suggest that the innate immune cells such as NK cells may play an important role in infection-mediated inhibition of allergic responses.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2008; 180(7):4621-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of NKT cells in immunity to Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia muridarum infections using a combination of knockout mice and specific cellular activation approaches. The NKT-deficient mice showed exacerbated susceptibility to C. pneumoniae infection, but more resistance to C. muridarum infection. Activation of NKT reduced C. pneumoniae in vivo growth, but enhanced C. muridarum infection. Cellular analysis of invariant NKT cells revealed distinct cytokine patterns following C. pneumoniae and C. muridarum infections, i.e., predominant IFN-gamma in the former, while predominant IL-4 in the latter. The cytokine patterns of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells matched those of NKT cells. Our data provide in vivo evidence for a functionally diverse role of NKT cells in immune response to two intracellular bacterial pathogens. These results suggest that distinct NKT subsets are induced by even biologically closely related pathogens, thus leading to differential adaptive immune response and infection outcomes.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2007; 178(2):1048-58. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study has shown that the adoptive transfer of dendritic cells (DCs) freshly isolated from Chlamydia-infected mice (iIDCs), unlike those from control naive mice (iNDCs), can inhibit systemic and cutaneous eosinophilia induced by OVA exposure. In the present study, we examined the mechanism by which iIDC inhibits allergen-specific Th2 cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The study revealed that iIDCs exhibited higher surface expression of CD8alpha and the ICOS ligand (ICOS-L), as well as higher IL-10 and IL-12 production than iNDCs. In vitro DC:CD4(+) T cell coculture experiments showed that iIDCs could inhibit allergen-specific Th2 cell differentiation and that the inhibitory effect could be abolished by the blockage of IL-10 or IL-12 activity. More interestingly, the coblockade of IL-10 and the ICOS-L showed synergistic effect in enhancing allergen-driven Th2 cytokine production. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of iIDCs, but not iNDCs, to OVA sensitized mice significantly inhibited airway eosinophilia and mucus overproduction following intranasal challenge with OVA. Overall, the data demonstrate a critical role played by ICOS-L-expressing and IL-10-producing DCs from Chlamydia-infected mice in the infection-mediated inhibition of allergic responses.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2006; 176(9):5232-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous work has shown that C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice have differential susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (C. muridarum) lung infection. C3H/HeN (H-2(k)) mice were found to be highly susceptible to C. muridarum infection with higher mortality and more severe morbidity compared to C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice. To examine the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes on host resistance to chlamydial lung infection, we compared MHC congenic mice, B6.H2k [C57BL/6 background, C3H MHC (H-2(k))] and C3H.H2b [C3H/HeN background, C57BL/6 MHC (H-2(b))] and their corresponding wild type C57BL/6 mice and C3H/HeN mice, respectively, in susceptibility to C. muridarum infection. We found that B6.H2k, C3H.H2b and C3H/HeN mice are more susceptible to chlamydial lung infection compared to the wild type C57BL/6 mice by showing more serious body weight loss, higher in vivo chlamydial growth and more severe pathologic changes. Congenic B6.H2k mice showed significantly lower levels of IL-12 and IFN-gamma production compared to C57BL/6 as well as C3H/HeN and C3H.H2b mice. One the other hand, although congenic C3H.H2b mice displayed similar cytokine response to C57BL/6 mice, they were highly susceptible to C. muridarum infection. Overall, the results suggest that protection against chlamydial lung infection is both MHC and non-MHC gene dependent, and that the interaction between MHC and non-MHC elements may contribute to host resistance to chlamydial infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that chlamydial infection is accompanied by significant infiltration of neutrophils at the site of infection. However, the role of neutrophils in host defence against chlamydial infection is not clearly understood. Using genetically different inbred mouse strains and CXCR-2 gene knockout (KO) mice, we examined the mechanism for neutrophil recruitment and the role of neutrophils during chlamydial lung infection. Our data showed that C3H mice exhibited significantly higher and more persistent neutrophil infiltration in the lung than did C57BL/6 mice following Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis infection. The massive neutrophil infiltration in C3H mice was paralleled by high-level expression of CXCR-2 and its ligands, CXC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein 2, cytokine-induced neutrophil attractant (KC) and lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine), and proinflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6) in the lung. Although much greater infiltration of neutrophils was observed in C3H mice than in C57BL/6 mice, the former mice had more severe disease and higher in vivo chlamydial growth than the latter. Moreover, CXCR-2 KO mice, which revealed a dramatic reduction in neutrophil activity, showed comparable chlamydial infection to wild-type mice. These results suggest that neutrophils are not efficient for controlling chlamydial lung infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study has shown that Chlamydia lung infection can inhibit local eosinophilic inflammation induced by allergen sensitization and challenge, which is correlated with altered cytokine production. In the present study, we examined the role played by dendritic cells (DC) in chlamydial infection-mediated modulation of allergic responses. The results showed that DC freshly isolated from Chlamydia-infected mice (iIDC), unlike those from naive control mice (iNDC), could efficiently modulate immune responses to ovalbumin in vitro and in vivo. Co-culture of freshly isolated DC with naive CD4 cells from T cell receptor transgenic mice (DO11.10) showed that iIDC directed Th1-dominant, while iNDC directed Th2-dominant, allergen-specific CD4 T cell responses. Moreover, adoptive transfer of iIDC, but not iNDC, could inhibit systemic and local eosinophilia induced by allergen exposure. The reduction of eosinophilia was associated with a decrease in IL-5 receptor expression on bone marrow cells and the production of IL-5 and IL-13 by T lymphocytes. Analysis of the DC showed that iIDC expressed significantly higher levels of mRNA for Toll-like receptor 9 and produced more IL-12 compared to iNDC. The data demonstrate a critical role played by DC in infection-mediated inhibition of allergic responses.
European Journal of Immunology 05/2004; 34(4):981-9. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-helper-1-like cytokine response and cell-mediated immunity have been shown to be critical in host resistance to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Using a murine pneumonia model, we compared the susceptibility of C3H/HeN (C3H) and C57BL/6 mice to C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) infection. C3H mice exhibited significantly higher mortality, greater organism growth and much more severe pathological changes in the lung compared with C57BL/6 mice. However, the pattern of adaptive immune responses including organism-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity, antibody responses and cytokine [interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-4, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor alpha] production by spleen and local draining lymph node cells in these two strains of mice appeared comparable during the process of infection. Interestingly, MoPn growth in the cultured ex vivo macrophages from C3H mice was found to be significantly less inhibited by the exogenous IFN-gamma present in the culture compared to C57BL/6 mice. The lower inhibition of MoPn growth in C3H mice was associated with significantly lower nitric oxide production by the infected macrophages following IFN-gamma stimulation. The data suggest that the cellular events downstream of cytokine production in chlamydia host cells may be important in determining the different susceptibility of hosts to chlamydial infection.