[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of glomerular function is a useful part of the diagnostic approach in animals suspected of having renal disease. Time-interval and background region of interest (bg ROI) selection are determining factors when calculating the glomerular filtration ratio (GFR) based on percentage uptake of (99m)technetium-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA). Therefore, three different time intervals (60-120 s, 120-180 s, 60-180 s) and three different bg ROIs (C-shape, caudolateral, cranial + caudal) were investigated. In addition, global GFRs based on percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA for the different time-intervals and bg ROIs were compared with the global GFR based on (51)chromium-ethylene diaminic tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) plasma clearance in nine healthy European domestic shorthair cats. Paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Different time intervals seemed to cause significant variation (P <0.01) in absolute GFR values, regardless of the choice of bg ROI. Significant differences (P <0.01) between bg ROIs were only observed in the 120-180s time interval between the C-shape and cranial + caudal bg ROI, and between the caudolateral and cranial + caudal bg ROI. The caudolateral bg ROI in the 60-180 s time interval showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.882) between (99m)Tc-DTPA and (51)Cr-EDTA, although a significant difference (P <0.05) was present between both techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated the influence of technical factors (positioning, background (BG) correction and attenuation correction) on qualitative and quantitative (absolute (AU) and relative (RU) uptake) assessment of feline kidneys with (99m)technetium labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA). Eleven healthy adult cats were included. Influence of BG and depth correction on quantitative assessment was evaluated. Depth correction was based on the geometric mean method (using dorsal and ventral images) and the use of two standards placed over each individual kidney. Visual evaluation showed superiority of dorsal and ventral over lateral positioning due to increased separation of the kidneys permitting region of interest (ROI) placement without overlap. No apparent influence of BG correction was found for RU. However, AU was systematically overestimated without BG correction. Depth correction did not seem to affect RU in most cases, however, in some cats the differences were not negligible. The values for AU without depth correction were lower compared to depth corrected values.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 03/2011; 13(6):387-92.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of visual and semiquantitative [¹⁸F]fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) data for the diagnosis of peri-anastomotic colorectal cancer recurrence, taking into account the time period between surgery and [¹⁸F]FDG PET-CT scanning.
The study population consisted of 70 patients who had prior preoperative radiochemotherapy and surgical resection of the primary tumor and who underwent whole body [¹⁸F]FDG PET-CT scanning for the detection of recurrent disease. Visual and semiquantitative (SUV(max)) analysis of [¹⁸F]FDG uptake at the peri-anastomosis was performed. The final diagnosis was based on pathological proof or clinical and/or imaging follow-up data.
On visual reading, 27 patients exhibited increased [¹⁸F]FDG uptake at the peri-anastomosis. Of these, 11 (41%) patients had a local tumor recurrence and 16 (59%) had no recurrent tumor. Among the 43 patients without increased [¹⁸F]FDG uptake at the peri-anastomosis, none had local tumor recurrence. On semiquantitation, SUV(max) in patients with and without a local recurrence overlapped. However, when the time period between surgery and [¹⁸F]FDG PET-CT scanning was taken into account, overlap of SUV(max) was mainly observed within a postoperative period of ≤12 months; thereafter, a threshold SUV(max) of 3.2 discriminated between benign and malignant lesions in all but one patient.
In our series, visually increased [¹⁸F]FDG uptake at the peri-anastomosis was 100% sensitive but non-specific (73% specificity) for the diagnosis of local tumor recurrence. On the other hand, normal [¹⁸F]FDG uptake at the peri-anastomosis precluded a local tumor recurrence (a negative predictive value of 100%). In addition, semiquantitative (SUV(max)) analysis of [¹⁸F]FDG uptake at the peri-anastomosis may increase specificity (up to 97%), while preserving maximum sensitivity, if the postoperative period is >12 months.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 06/2010; 54(3):327-32. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a useful tool in the evaluation of kidney function in feline medicine. GFR can be determined by measuring the rate of tracer disappearance from the blood, and although these measurements are generally performed by multi-sampling techniques, simplified methods are more convenient in clinical practice. The optimal times for a simplified sampling strategy with two blood samples (2BS) for GFR measurement in cats using plasma (51)chromium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) clearance were investigated. After intravenous administration of (51)Cr-EDTA, seven blood samples were obtained in 46 cats (19 euthyroid and 27 hyperthyroid cats, none with previously diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD)). The plasma clearance was then calculated from the seven point blood kinetics (7BS) and used for comparison to define the optimal sampling strategy by correlating different pairs of time points to the reference method. Mean GFR estimation for the reference method was 3.7+/-2.5 ml/min/kg (mean+/-standard deviation (SD)). Several pairs of sampling times were highly correlated with this reference method (r(2) > or = 0.980), with the best results when the first sample was taken 30 min after tracer injection and the second sample between 198 and 222 min after injection; or with the first sample at 36 min and the second at 234 or 240 min (r(2) for both combinations=0.984). Because of the similarity of GFR values obtained with the 2BS method in comparison to the values obtained with the 7BS reference method, the simplified method may offer an alternative for GFR estimation. Although a wide range of GFR values was found in the included group of cats, the applicability should be confirmed in cats suspected of renal disease and with confirmed CKD. Furthermore, although no indications of age-related effect were found in this study, a possible influence of age should be included in future studies.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 05/2010; 12(8):577-83.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of a pictorial atlas of 123I FP-CIT SPECT images for aid in the visual diagnosis. PATIENTS, MATERIALS, METHODS: Sixty patients, of whom 20 were clinically diagnosed as 'non-parkinsonian' and 40 as having Parkinson's disease or any related disorder, were included in the study. An atlas consisting of 12 123I FP-CIT SPECT images was constructed first. Validity of the atlas was investigated by performing a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with the clinical diagnosis as the gold standard. The remaining 48 SPECT images were visually assessed twice by 5 observers, first with and secondly without consulting the atlas, or vice versa. The added value of the atlas was investigated by comparing the diagnostic accuracy and the interobserver variability for both methods. RESULTS: ROC analysis performed on the atlas yielded an area under the curve of 1 for a threshold discriminating between clinically non-parkinsonian and parkinsonian patients that was situated between image 4 and 5 of the atlas. For the diagnostic accuracy, we found that the area under the ROC curve was systematically higher if observers had access to the atlas compared to when they had not (Wilcoxon's test, p<0.05). Also, the interobserver variability was significantly lower when observers used the atlas when compared to when they did not (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Diagnostic accuracy was significantly higher and interobserver variability significantly lower if observers had access to the atlas compared to when they had not. Hence, having a pictorial atlas available may facilitate the visual assessment of 123I FP-CIT SPECT scans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mean transit time (MTT) within a kidney is given by the integral of the renal activity on a well-corrected renogram between time zero and time t divided by the integral of the plasma activity between zero and t, providing that t is close to infinity. However, as the data acquisition of a renogram is finite, the MTT calculated using this approach might result in the underestimation of the true MTT. To evaluate the degree of this underestimation we conducted a simulation study.
One thousand renograms were created by convoluting various plasma curves obtained from patients with different renal clearance levels with simulated retentions curves having different shapes and mean transit times.
For a 20 min renogram, the calculated MTT started to underestimate the MTT when the MTT was higher than 6 min. The longer the MTT, the greater was the underestimation. Up to a MTT value of 6 min, the error on the MTT estimation is negligible.
As normal cortical transit is less than 2 min, this approach is used for patients to calculate pixel-to-pixel cortical mean transit time and to create a MTT parametric image without deconvolution.
Nuclear Medicine Communications 05/2008; 29(4):345-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney failure is frequently seen in middle-aged and elderly cats. 51Chromium-ethylene diaminic tetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) clearance and single blood sample (SBS) method are used in several species to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
The hypothesis of this study was that 51Cr-EDTA clearance could be determined using an SBS method in normal and hyperthyroid cats.
Forty-six cats were included in this study, with an average age of 9.5 years. Of these cats, 27 had hyperthyroidism; 19 were healthy.
After IV injection of 51Cr-EDTA (average dose: 4.25 MBq), 7 blood samples were obtained between 5 and 240 minutes. Reference clearance was calculated in mL/min and mL/min/kg body weight, using a 2-compartment model. Optimal time for clearance measurement with SBS was then determined by systematically comparing each individual plasma concentration to the reference multisample clearance.
The average reference plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA for all cats was 14.9 mL/min (3.7 mL/min/kg). The clearance in hyperthyroid cats averaged 16.4 mL/min (4.3 mL/min/kg) and in normal cats averaged 10.3 mL/min (2.4 mL/min/kg). The optimal time for the SBS was 48 minutes after injection of tracer 51Cr-EDTA (R2= 0.9414), giving the following converting equation: clearance = (0.0066 x DV48 minutes) - 0.9277 (in mL/min).
In this study, the single sample 51Cr-EDTA clearance method was used to estimate the global GFR in cats. The method identified differences in clearance between normal and hyperthyroid cats. The optimal time for an SBS was 48 minutes.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 02/2008; 22(2):266-72. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The slope-intercept method is widely used for the determination of the plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA. When three or more plasma samples are used, the goodness-of-fit (r2) can be used as a measure of consistency of the samples. This parameter can not be used, however, if only two samples are available.
To evaluate whether the single-sample technique (SBS) can be used to check the consistency of the slope-intercept method using two blood samples (2BS) in children.
Simulated computer models of a mono-exponential curve were created in order to represent three children aged 3, 6 and 10 years, each with a large range of clearances values and three distribution volumes, respectively 20%, 25% and 30% of body weight. Errors were then introduced in the injected dose (errors from -50% to +50%) and on the 120 or 240 min blood sample (errors from -50% to +50%). The effects of these errors on the clearance measurement using 2BS and SBS methods were calculated and compared.
The errors on the injected dose, the 120 min and 240 min plasma samples introduced errors in the same direction and with the same magnitude on both the SBS and 2BS clearance values. For that reason, the comparison between the SBS methods and the 2BS techniques has a low sensitivity in detecting an eventual error. Striking differences between the SBS method and the 2BS technique were only observed when considerable errors on the injected dose or plasma samples were introduced, particularly in case of a reduced clearance. The comparison between the SBS clearances calculated using the 120 min sample to that obtained using the 240 min samples is slightly more sensitive. However, this approach is also slightly less specific. A difference of more than 10 ml . min(-1). 1.73 m(-2) can be observed in the absence of an error.
The use of the SBS for checking the consistency of the 2BS constitutes an insensitive approach to detect an eventual error in the injected dose or in the plasma samples. Obvious different results obtained by SBS and 2BS or between the SBS calculated using the 120 min and the 240 min samples suggest the presence of an error, but comparable results do not exclude erroneous measurement. Moreover, a difference of more than 10 ml . min(-1). 1.73 m(-2) can be observed in the absence of an error in the injected dose or in the plasma samples.
Nuclear Medicine Communications 02/2007; 28(1):49-54. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance values as a function of age were published a number of years ago. These values were based on data from children with a normal left to right ratio and a normal appearance on DMSA scintigraphy, despite the presence of an acute renal infection. At that time, the authors were unaware that hyperfiltration is a common phenomenon in patients with acute renal infection and that their normal values could have been significantly overestimated. The present work therefore aimed to re-appraise these normal values.
In a first step, in order to verify the previous results, the same type of population was selected, namely patients with present or past urinary tract infection but normal images and a normal left to right ratio on DMSA scintigraphy. In a second step, the selection was based on patients who had had no recent urinary tract infection. In both series, a single blood sample method was used for the evaluation of (51)Cr-EDTA clearance.
In the first group of patients, the results obtained were almost identical to those previously published. In the second group of patients, the results were significantly lower: after 2 years of age, the mean GFR value was 104 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (10th and 90th percentiles 81 and 135 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively), compared with 117 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in the first group.
The data of the second group are probably more representative of the true normal GFR values and can be applied to the entire paediatric population.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2007; 33(12):1477-82. · 4.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the value of the single blood sample (SBS) method for estimating 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance has been repeatedly demonstrated, some nuclear medicine physicians are still reluctant to use it because of the lack of quality control parameters.
To present a post-test quality control procedure for the SBS technique in children.
In addition to the SBS clearance calculated using the specific paediatric SBS method, three artificial slope intercept (ASI) method clearances were calculated by assuming the distribution volume as, respectively, 20%, 25% and 30% of body weight. By dividing the injected activity by the distributional volume, the initial plasma concentrations (A0,30%, A0,25% and A0,20%) were calculated. Using these A0 values and the available single sample, ASI clearances were calculated by using the classical slope-intercept method. The working hypothesis of this approach was as follows. In the absence of significant errors, the three ASI clearance values should be close to that of the SBS method. This hypothesis has been tested using both simulated and patients' data.
The results of the simulated study showed that an error in the injected dose produced variable differences between SBS and ASI clearances depending on the clearance values. The effect of an error on the plasma sample also varied as a function of the clearance values. The analysis of patient data revealed that the ASI approach allowed the identification of patients in whom the classical slope-intercept method suggested the presence of a possible error.
A post-test quality control procedure for the SBS GFR measurement is presented. When the SBS clearance shows a difference with the ASI method (> 10 ml . min(-1) per 1.73 m2), the presence of an error is highly probable. A smaller difference, however, does not exclude erroneous data.
Nuclear Medicine Communications 04/2006; 27(3):255-60. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to evaluate two classical formulae allowing the correction for having neglected the first exponential in the slope-intercept method used for the determination of EDTA clearance, namely the Chantler's linear correction formula (CH) and the Bröchner-Mortensen's quadratic correction formula (BM). First, a comparison study was performed with the two correction formulae, in order to predict the behavior of the calculated clearance, for various levels of renal function. Second, using data obtained from 47 adult patients with normal renal function, the results obtained with the two correction formulae have been compared to the reference technique, namely the biexponential fit. The results of the comparison study indicated that for clearance values lower than 120 ml/min, the results obtained using CH were systematically lower than those of BM, whereas for clearance values between 120 and 140 ml/min, the reverse was observed. The differences however, never exceeded 8 ml/min. The results were quite different when the clearance was higher than 140 ml/min, when the difference between CH and BM results increased rapidly, and the BM provided values systematically lower than CH. The clinical study showed that, in the range of normal clearance values, both CH and BM clearances were slightly lower than the results obtained by means of the reference technique. Based on these results, a new specifically designed validation study involving patients with high clearance values is mandatory to determine which of these two correction methods is more accurate, or to devise a better correction formula.
Annals of Nuclear Medicine 03/2006; 20(2):95-8. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review should be regarded as an opinion based on personal experience, clinical and experimental studies, and many discussions with colleagues. It covers the main radionuclide procedures for nephro-urological diseases in children. Glomerular filtration rate can be accurately determined using simplified 2- or 1-blood sample plasma clearance methods. Minor controversies related to the technical aspects of these methods concern principally some correction factors, the quality control, and the normal values in children. However, the main problem is the reluctance of the clinician to apply these methods, despite the accuracy and precision that are higher than with the traditional chemical methods. Interesting indications are early detection of renal impairment, hyperfiltration status, and monitoring of nephrotoxic drugs. Cortical scintigraphy is accepted as a highly sensitive technique for the detection of regional lesions. It accurately reflects the histological changes, and the interobserver reproducibility in reporting is high. Potential technical pitfalls should be recognized, such as the normal variants and the difficulty in differentiating acute lesions from permanent ones or acquired lesions from congenital ones. Although dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy seems to play a minor role in the traditional approach to urinary tract infection, recent studies suggest that this examination might influence the treatment of the acute phase, the indication for chemoprophylaxis and micturating cystography, and the duration of follow-up. New technical developments have been applied recently to the renogram: tracers more appropriate to the young child, early injection of furosemide, late postmicturition and gravity-assisted images and, finally, more objective parameters of renal drainage. Pitfalls mainly are related to the interpretation of drainage on images and curves. Dilated uropathies represent the main indication of the renogram, but the impact of this technique on the management of the child is, in a great number of cases, still a matter of intense controversy. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography are interesting alternatives to the radiograph technique and should be integrated into the process of diagnosis and follow-up of vesicoureteral reflux.
Seminars in Nuclear Medicine 02/2006; 36(1):16-35. · 3.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A drop of split renal function often constitutes a criterion for pyeloplasty in hydronephrosis since it is considered as representing deterioration of the affected kidney. The aim of this work was to determine, in a selected population of patients with a drop of split function of at least 5%, if the evolution of single kidney glomerular filtration rate (SKGFR) was parallel to the one of split renal function.
From a large data basis, we found retrospectively only 29 children (10 below and 19 above two years of age at first examination) having had at least two Tc-99m mertiatide (Tc-99m MAG3) renographic explorations for various urological diseases, with a decrease of split function of at least 5% between the two examinations. Evolution of split function was compared to evolution of SKGFR obtained by means of the combination of Tc-99m MAG3 split function and overall glomerular filtration rate as given by the chromium Cr 51 ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance.
For the group above two years of age, SKGFR increased or remained stable in 63% of the cases, while in the children less than 2 years of age, a decrease of SKGFR was never observed, according to the maturation of overall GFR in this age group. Thus, the decrease of split function was not necessarily associated with a similar decrease of SKGFR.
In patients with unilateral or bilateral urological disorders, deterioration of split renal function does not necessary correspond to a loss of function of the affected kidney. SKGFR often modifies the interpretation of split function.
European Urology 06/2005; 47(5):686-90. · 10.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was twofold: firstly, to determine whether the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) dosage card results in weight-independent effective doses or weight-independent count rates; secondly, to determine whether one dosage card is sufficient for 95 different radiopharmaceuticals, and, if not, how many cards we reasonably need to take into account inter-tracer variability.
Normalisation factors for count rate and effective dose were calculated as a function of body weight, with 70 kg as standard. Calculations were performed, using whole-body absorption fractions and MIRDOSE 3 software, for seven anthropomorphic phantoms and ten radionuclides. An analytic function for both relations was proposed. Normalisation factors for effective dose for 95 radiopharmaceuticals were investigated using cluster analysis.
Normalisation factors for count rate and effective dose can be estimated accurately as a function of body weight W by (W/70)a holding only one parameter, called the a value. The a values for 95 radiopharmaceuticals were classified into three clusters (nA=7, nB=76, nC=12). Cluster A contains tracers for renal studies. Cluster B contains all remaining tracers, except iodine-labelled tracers for thyroid studies and 89Sr for therapy, which belong to cluster C.
Correction factors proposed by the EANM task group mainly correct for effective dose. They are very similar to the factors obtained for cluster A. Using the EANM factors for tracers belonging to clusters B and C results in significantly higher effective doses to children. We suggest using three tracer-dependent dosage cards for which the correction factors have been calculated to obtain weight-independent effective doses.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 06/2005; 32(5):581-8. · 5.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal transit estimation using renography has been employed for decades. A variety of methods have been developed, ranging from simple quantitative to more sophisticated techniques. In this review, the methods are discussed in perspective of their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, the most robust methods for estimation of renal transit are proposed.
Nuclear Medicine Communications 01/2005; 25(12):1223-31. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of non-rigid nine-parameter image registrations based on 153Gd transmission computed tomography (TCT) images as compared with those based on 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) images and to assess whether normalised mutual information (NMI) or count difference (CD) should be used.
TCT and ECD data were acquired in 25 randomly selected patients. Emission images were registered to an ECD template with a CD cost function. The same registration parameters were applied to the transmission images to create a TCT template. All TCT images were registered to the TCT template and the same registration parameters were applied to the ECD images. The procedure was repeated with NMI as cost function. Accuracy of both ECD-based and TCT-based registrations was assessed by comparing the normalisation parameter values and regional activities in the spatially normalised ECD images, using a mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA). Scheffe post hoc tests were performed.
No significant differences were found between ECD/CD, ECD/NMI and TCT/CD, suggesting that ECD registration can be done with either CD or NMI, and that TCT registration using CD is equally as accurate as ECD registration. The accuracy of TCT registration with NMI was lower, with discrepancies occurring in the frontal inferior region and the cerebellum. The analysis of normalisation parameters indicated that z-scaling is underestimated and yz-rotation overestimated with TCT/NMI registration.
We conclude that ECD registrations with CD or NMI are as accurate as TCT registrations with CD and that TCT registrations with NMI should be avoided.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 12/2004; 31(11):1495-9. · 5.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that renal retention function can be estimated by differentiation of the Patlak-Rutland plot.
To evaluate the error resulting from this method.
A total of 5800 renograms were generated by convolving real input functions with artificial retention functions. Ten bi-exponential plasma disappearance curves of Tc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-MAG3) with varying renal clearances served as input functions and 580 retention functions with mean transit time between 3 and 60 min, and variable ratios of minimal to mean transit time served as original retention functions. The retention function was estimated by differentiation of the Patlak-Rutland plot of each renogram. A variant of this retention function was calculated by setting negative values to zero.
Minimal transit time was estimated correctly in all cases but the recovered retention function systematically underestimated the original, and negative values were observed. Mean transit time was underestimated with a difference ranging from -22.05 to -0.06 min. By setting the negative values to zero, a less important underestimation was observed which ranged from -13.37 to 0.00 min. Maximal transit time was underestimated systematically with a difference ranging from -22.05 to 0.00 min. All differences were influenced by mean transit time, renal clearance and ratio of minimal to mean transit time.
Estimation of the renal retention function by differentiation of the Patlak-Rutland plot results in systematic and sometimes important underestimations. By setting the negative values of the recovered retention function equal to zero, important but still partial improvement can be obtained.
Nuclear Medicine Communications 06/2004; 25(5):501-7. · 1.38 Impact Factor