[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment failure and relapse may affect many tuberculosis (TB) patients who undergo standard anti-TB therapy. Several independent studies suggested unsuccessful sputum culture conversion at month 2 of treatment (slow response) as risk factor for treatment failure and relapse. However, earlier than month 2 identification of patients with a high risk for poor treatment outcome would offer significant clinical trial and individual patient care benefits. The sensitivity and specificity of serological IgG and IgA responses against four recombinant mycobacterial antigens (ABC transporter PstS3, secreted l-alanine dehydrogenase, culture filtrate protein Tpx and 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target esxa (ESAT-6)) were evaluated separately in a blinded fashion in 21 smear-positive pulmonary TB patient sera taken at diagnosis before commencement of directly observed anti-TB treatment short course comprising 13 slow responder and eight fast responder subjects. We observed a general pattern of higher antibody levels in sera of slow responders. Most pronounced were high levels of anti-alanine dehydrogenase IgG, anti-Tpx IgG, anti-ESAT-6 IgG and anti-ESAT-6 IgA antibodies at diagnosis being associated with slow response with 100% specificity each and 46.2, 53.8, 53.8 or 53.8% sensitivity, respectively, when compared to fast response (P = 0.020, 0.021, 0.040 and 0.011, respectively). Discriminant analysis showed that the combined use of anti-Tpx IgG and anti-ESAT-6 IgA antibody titers before treatment predicted slow responders with 90.5% accuracy. These preliminary results suggest that combinations of serodiagnostic markers measured prior to initiation of treatment may be suitable for the prediction of early treatment response. This approach holds promise and requires further evaluation for its utility in the prediction of treatment failure and relapse, the evaluation of new TB therapeutics, as well as in the care of individual patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSPs), produced in response to stress, are suppressive in disease models. We previously showed that Mycobacterium leprae HSP65 prevented development of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in mice. Our goal in this study was to define the mechanism responsible for the suppressive effects of HSP. In one in vivo approach, BALB/c mice were sensitized to OVA, followed by primary OVA challenges. Several weeks later, HSP65 was administered prior to a single, provocative secondary challenge. In a second in vivo approach, the secondary challenge was replaced by intratracheal instillation of allergen-pulsed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The in vitro effects of HSP65 on BMDCs were examined in coculture experiments with CD4(+) T cells. In vivo, HSP65 prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Additionally, Th1 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were increased. In vitro, HSP65 induced Notch receptor ligand Delta1 expression on BMDCs, and HSP65-treated BMDCs skewed CD4(+) T cells to Th1 cytokine production. Thus, HSP65-induced effects on allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation were associated with increased Delta1 expression on dendritic cells, modulation of dendritic cell function, and CD4(+) Th1 cytokine production.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2012; 189(7):3404-10. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is critical in controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The objectives of this study were to determine whether novel recombinant Mamu MHC constructs would elicit protection against rectal challenge with heterologous simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strain SF162.P4 in rhesus macaques. Mamu class I and II gene products were linked together with HIV gp140, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) p27 and heat-shock protein 70 to dextran. The vaccine was administered to two groups, each consisting of nine macaques, either subcutaneously (SC), or rectally and boosted by SC immunization. The controls were untreated or adjuvant-treated animals. Repetitive rectal challenges with up to ten doses of SHIV SF162.P4 showed a significant decrease in the peak and sequential viral RNA concentrations, and three macaques remained uninfected, in the nine SC-immunized animals, compared with infection in all nine controls. Macaques immunized rectally followed by SC boosters showed a less significant decrease in both sequential and peak viral loads compared with the SC-immunized animals, and all were infected following rectal challenge with SHIV SF162.P4. Plasma and mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies to Mamu class I alleles and HIV gp120, as well as to RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted; CCR5) were increased, and showed significant inverse correlations with the peak viral load. These results suggested that allo-immunization with recombinant MHC constructs linked to HIV-SIV antigens merits further investigation in preventing HIV-1 infection.
Journal of General Virology 04/2012; 93(Pt 7):1506-18. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis accumulates large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) which acts as storage compounds for energy and carbon. The mycobacterial triacylglycerols stored in the form of intracellular lipid droplets are essential for long-term survival of M. tuberculosis during a dormant state. We report here that when the M. tuberculosis mycolytransferase Ag85A is overexpressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155, cell morphology was changed and the cells became grossly enlarged. A massive formation of lipid bodies and a change in lipid pattern was observed simultaneously. We suspected a possible role of Ag85A in the acyl lipid metabolism and discovered that the enzyme possesses acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity in addition to its well-known function as mycolyltransferase. Ag85A mediates the transesterification of diacylglycerol using long-chain acyl-CoA as acyl donors. The K(m) and K(cat) values for palmitoleoyl-coenzyme A were 390 µM and 55.54 min(-1) respectively. A docking model suggests that palmitoleoyl-coenzyme A and 1,2-dipalmitin occupy the same active site as trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate and trehalose 6'-monomycolate. The site-directed Ser126Ala mutation of the active site proved that this residue is involved in the catalytic activity of this enzyme. Although not proven conclusively for dormant stage of M. tuberculosis, our novel finding about the synthesis of TAGs by Ag85A strongly suggests that Ag85A may play a significant role in the formation of lipid storage bodies and thus also in the establishment and maintenance of a persistent tuberculosis infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The M. tuberculosis phosphate-binding transporter lipoproteins PstS1 and PstS3 were good immunogens inducing CD8(+) T-cell activation and both Th1 and Th17 immunity in mice. However, this antigen-specific immunity, even when amplified by administration of the protein with the adjuvant LTK63 or by the DNA priming/protein boosting regimen, was not able to contain M. tuberculosis replication in the lungs of infected mice. The lack of protection might be ascribed with the scarce/absent capacity of PstS1/PstS3 antigens to modulate the IFN-γ response elicited by M. tuberculosis infection during which, however, PstS1-specific IL-17 secreting cells were generated in both unvaccinated and BCG-vaccinated mice. In spite of a lack of protection by PstS1/PstS3 immunizations, our results do show that PstS1 is able to induce IL-17 response upon M. tuberculosis infection which is of interest in the study of anti-M. tuberculosis immunity and as potential immunomodulator in combined vaccines.
Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2011; 2011:690328. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall components induce expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) by monocytic cells and levels of MMP-9 in vivo positively correlate with severity of disease. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 mediates cellular responses to acylated molecules but can also mediate responsiveness to diverse molecular structures, including non-acylated native viral and bacterial proteins. MPT/B-83 is a cell-associated lipoglycoprotein common to M. tuberculosis and M. bovis and an important antigen during infection of cattle. Since MPB83 is acylated and glycosylated, we investigated whether MPB83 would induce MMP-9 expression via interaction with TLR2, and assessed the contribution of the lipid, glycan and polypeptide components to its activity. Acylated peptide derived from MPB83 stimulated MMP-9 expression by human macrophage cells via interaction with both TLR2 and TLR1, but not TLR4. Lesser induction was found with secreted (non-acylated, but glycosylated) MPB83 protein purified from culture of M. bovis. Stimulation of cells with MPB83 induced TNF-α production which acted to upregulate MMP-9 expression. Surprisingly, recombinant MPB83 protein devoid of any post-translational modification also induced MMP-9 expression. Direct interaction of RecMPB83 with TLR2 was demonstrated by surface plasmon-resonance. MPB83 may act as a virulence factor through TLR2 mediated induction of MMP-9.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2010; 400(3):403-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD4+ T cells are believed to play a dominant role in human defenses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis through production of interferon (IFN)-gamma, cytolytic T-cell (CTL) activity, and inhibition of intracellular mycobacterial growth. Most functional studies of CD4+ cells have used bulk T-cells that recognize crude mycobacterial antigens, and the functional capacity of individual human T cells is not well defined. We studied the functional capacity of human CD4+ T-cell clones that recognize a specific mycobacterial peptide. Clone B9 produced high concentrations of IFN-gamma and exhibited potent CTL activity, whereas clone D3 produced IFN-gamma but showed poor CTL activity. The CTL activity of clone B9 was inhibited by SrCl(2) and concanamycin A but not by anti-Fas antibodies. Clone B9 also reduced the mycobacterial burden in dendritic cells by more than 90%, and this antimycobacterial activity was inhibited by SrCl(2) and concanamycin A. We conclude that: (1) individual human peptide-specific CD4+ T-cell clones have differential capacity to produce Th1 cytokines and to lyse M tuberculosis-infected target cells; and (2) both granulysin and perforin contribute to the capacity of human CD4+ T-cells to lyse infected targets and to inhibit intracellular mycobacterial growth.
Human Immunology 07/2008; 69(8):475-83. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binding and activation of human plasminogen (Plg) to generate the proteolytic enzyme plasmin (Plm) have been associated with the invasive potential of certain bacteria. In this work, proteomic analysis together with ligand blotting assays identified several major Plg-binding spots in Mycobacterium tuberculosis soluble extracts (SEs) and culture filtrate proteins. The identity of 15 different proteins was deduced by N-terminal and/or MS and corresponded to DnaK, GroES, GlnA1, Ag85 complex, Mpt51, Mpt64, PrcB, MetK, SahH, Lpd, Icl, Fba, and EF-Tu. Binding of Plg to recombinant M. tuberculosis DnaK, GlnA1, and Ag85B was further confirmed by ELISA and ligand blotting assays. The binding was inhibited by epsilon-aminocaproic acid, indicating that the interaction involved lysine residues. Plg bound to recombinant mycobacterial proteins was activated to Plm by tissue-type Plg activator. In contrast with recombinant proteins, M. tuberculosis SE enhanced several times the Plg activation mediated by the activator. Interestingly, GlnA1 was able to bind the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin. Together these results show that M. tuberculosis posses several Plg receptors suggesting that bound Plg to bacteria surface, can be activated to Plm, endowing bacteria with the ability to break down ECM and basal membranes proteins contributing to tissue injury in tuberculosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant frequently used in histochemistry as a marker of ongoing inflammation. Furthermore, CRP is a powerful biomarker for the prediction of coronary artery disease risk. Heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) and CRP are complement-activating molecules, and the effect of their interactions on the regulation of complement activation was studied. However, during the first experiments, we learned that polyclonal anti-CRP antibodies cross-react with Hsp60. Therefore, the aim of our present study was to analyze the cross-reactivity of anti-CRP antibodies (Ab) with Hsp60 in solid-phase enzyme immune assays, in epitope studies using a series of overlapping synthetic peptides, and in Ouchterlony analyses. We found that three different commercial rabbit polyclonal antibodies and two monoclonal (9C9 and CRP-8) anti-CRP antibodies specifically recognize recombinant human Hsp60 and recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Hsp65, respectively. Hsp60 was found to inhibit the binding of anti-CRP polyclonal Ab to Hsp60. Six epitope regions of Hsp60 were recognized by the anti-CRP antibodies, and one region (amino acids [AA] 218 to 232) was recognized by monoclonal antibodies CRP-8 and 9C9. This epitope region of Hsp60 displays 26.6% amino acid identity to CRP AA region 77 to 90. These data suggest that the B-cell epitopes shared between CRP and Hsp60 give rise to a true mimicry-based cross-reaction and the induction of cross-reactive antibodies. Our study underlines the importance of thorough study design and careful interpretation of results while using polyclonal anti-CRP antibodies for histochemistry, especially at low dilutions. Furthermore, analytical interference with Hsp60 in CRP assays should also be tested.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 05/2007; 14(4):335-41. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the Toll-like receptors used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis membrane and secreted factors are known, the pathways activated by M. tuberculosis heat shock proteins are not. An efficient immune response against the intracellular pathogen M. tuberculosis is critically dependent on rapid detection of the invading pathogen by the innate immune system and coordinated activation of the adaptive immune response. Macrophage phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis is accompanied by activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and secretion of inflammatory mediators that play an important role in granuloma formation and immune protection during M. tuberculosis infection. The interaction between M. tuberculosis and the various Toll-like receptors is complex, and it appears that distinct mycobacterial components may interact with different members of the Toll-like receptor family. Here we show that recombinant, purified, mycobacterial heat shock proteins 65 and 70 induce NF-kappaB activity in a dose-dependent manner in human endothelial cells. Furthermore, we show that whereas mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 signals exclusively through Toll-like receptor 4, heat shock protein 70 also signals through Toll-like receptor 2. Mycobacterial heat shock protein 65-induced NF-kappaB activation was MyD88-, TIRAP-, TRIF-, and TRAM-dependent and required the presence of MD-2. A better understanding of the recognition of mycobacterial heat shock proteins and their role in the host immune response to the pathogen may open the way to a better understanding of the immunological processes induced by this important human pathogen and the host-pathogen interactions and may help in the rational design of more effective vaccines or vaccine adjuvants.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2005; 280(22):20961-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)-immunotherapy has a well-documented and successful clinical history in the treatment of bladder cancer. However, regularly observed side effects, a certain degree of nonresponders and restriction to superficial cancers remain a major obstacle. Therefore, alternative treatment strategies are intensively being explored. We report a novel approach of using a well defined immunostimulatory component of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the treatment of bladder cancer. The phosphate transport protein PstS1 which represents the phosphate binding component of a mycobacterial phosphate uptake system is known to be a potent immunostimulatory antigen of M. tuberculosis. This preclinical study was designed to test the potential of recombinant PstS1 to serve as a non-viable and defined immunotherapeutic agent for intravesical bladder cancer therapy.
Mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from human peripheral blood and stimulated with PstS1 for seven days. The activation of PBMCs was determined by chromium release assay, IFN-gamma ELISA and measurement of lymphocyte proliferation. The potential of PstS1 to activate monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC) was determined by flow cytometric analysis of the marker molecules CD83 and CD86 as well as the release of the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-12. Survival of presensitized and intravesically treated, tumor-bearing mice was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curve and log rank test. Local and systemic immune response in PstS1-immunotherapy was investigated by anti-PstS1-specific ELISA, splenocyte proliferation assay and immunohistochemistry.
Our in vitro experiments showed that PstS1 is able to stimulate cytotoxicity, IFN-gamma release and proliferation of PBMCs. Further investigations showed the potential of PstS1 to activate monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC). In vivo studies in an orthotopic murine bladder cancer model demonstrated the therapeutic potential of intravesically applied PstS1. Immunohistochemical analysis and splenocyte restimulation assay revealed that local and systemic immune responses were triggered by intravesical PstS1-immunotherapy.
Our results demonstrate profound in vitro activation of human immune cells by recombinant PstS1. In addition, intravesical PstS1 immunotherapy induced strong local and systemic immune responses together with substantial anti-tumor activity in a preclinical mouse model. Thus, we have identified recombinant PstS1 antigen as a potent immunotherapeutic drug for cancer therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In view of the role of δ+ T cells in mucosal protection against infection, the proportion of δ T cells was examined in cells eluted from lymphoid and mucosal tissues of macaques immunized with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gp120 and p27 in alum and challenged with live SIV by the rectal mucosal route. This revealed a significant increase in δ T cells eluted from the rectal mucosa (p < 0.01) and the related iliac lymph nodes (p < 0.0001) in protected as compared with infected macaques. Preferential homing of PKH-26-labeled δ+ T cells from the primed iliac lymph nodes to the rectal and cervico-vaginal mucosa was demonstrated after targeted iliac lymph node as compared with i. m. immunization. Investigations of the mechanism of protection revealed that δ+ T cells can generate antiviral factors, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 and MIP-1β which can prevent SIV infection by binding to the CCR5 coreceptors. Up-regulation of δ+ T cells was demonstrated by immunization of macaques with heat shock protein (HSP)70 linked to peptides and with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This was confirmed by in vitro studies showing that GM-CSF can up-regulate δ+ T cells from macaques immunized with HSP-linked peptides but not those from naive animals. We suggest that a novel strategy of immunization with HSP70 linked to antigen may generate both cognate immunity to the antigen and innate immunity by virtue of up-regulation of δ+ T cells. These cells generate antiviral factors and the three β-chemokines that prevent binding and transmission of SIV or M-tropic HIV by the CCR5 coreceptor.
European Journal of Immunology 11/2000; 30(8):2245 - 2256. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In view of the role of gammadelta(+) T cells in mucosal protection against infection, the proportion of gamma delta T cells was examined in cells eluted from lymphoid and mucosal tissues of macaques immunized with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gp120 and p27 in alum and challenged with live SIV by the rectal mucosal route. This revealed a significant increase in gammadelta T cells eluted from the rectal mucosa (p < 0.01) and the related iliac lymph nodes (p < 0.0001) in protected as compared with infected macaques. Preferential homing of PKH-26-labeled gammadelta(+) T cells from the primed iliac lymph nodes to the rectal and cervico-vaginal mucosa was demonstrated after targeted iliac lymph node as compared with i. m. immunization. Investigations of the mechanism of protection revealed that gammadelta(+) T cells can generate antiviral factors, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta which can prevent SIV infection by binding to the CCR5 coreceptors. Up-regulation of gammadelta(+) T cells was demonstrated by immunization of macaques with heat shock protein (HSP)70 linked to peptides and with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This was confirmed by in vitro studies showing that GM-CSF can up-regulate gammadelta(+) T cells from macaques immunized with HSP-linked peptides but not those from naive animals. We suggest that a novel strategy of immunization with HSP70 linked to antigen may generate both cognate immunity to the antigen and innate immunity by virtue of up-regulation of gammadelta(+) T cells. These cells generate antiviral factors and the three beta-chemokines that prevent binding and transmission of SIV or M-tropic HIV by the CCR5 coreceptor.
European Journal of Immunology 08/2000; 30(8):2245-56. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cells mediate protection against tuberculosis, but little is known about their role during chemotherapy of patients with active disease. Here we examined the cytokine profile of CD4 T cells before and after four months of chemotherapy in six initial skin test anergic cases. Purified protein derivative (PPD) and 16-kDa antigen-reactive CD4 T-cell clones prior to therapy resided mostly in disease-associated body fluids and were of the Th0 (interferon (IFN)-gamma + interleukin (IL)-4) secreting profile. In contrast, the majority of postchemotherapy CD4 T-cell clones originated from blood and were of the IFN-gamma secreting Th1 type. However, the recognition of several peptides derived from the 16-kDa antigen was not significantly different between the Th1 and Th0 clones. We conclude that chemotherapy shifts CD4 T cells from the affected body fluids to the blood circulation, accompanied by a change from Th0 to Th1 cytokine profile.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 08/2000; 52(1):96-102. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSP) are widely distributed and highly immunogenic molecules. A novel property reported here is that stimulation with HSP70 of CD8-enriched T cells derived from naive non-human primates caused a dose-dependent increase in concentrations of the beta-chemokines RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha or MIP-1beta. However, the concentrations of these beta-chemokines were greatly increased when the CD8 T cells derived from HSP70-immunized non-human primates were stimulated with HSP70. HSP linked to peptides or proteins combined generation of beta-chemokines with an adjuvant function by enhancing specific T cell proliferative responses and IgG and IgA antibodies. The beta-chemokine and adjuvant functions were also elicited by topical mucosal administration of HSP linked to an antigen. We postulate that microbial HSP can stimulate beta-chemokine production which may be responsible for innate adjuvanticity, as was found in cells eluted from normal rectal mucosal tissue, and constitutes a significant component of the mucosal-associated lymphoid system. Furthermore, stimulation of innate immunity may drive adaptive immunity and account for the protective effects of HSP against tumors and viruses.
European Journal of Immunology 03/2000; 30(2):594-603. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The repertoire of CD4+ T-lymphocytes was investigated in six patients affected by tuberculosis, who had a negative PPD skin test at diagnosis. Polyclonal CD4+ T-cell lines from the peripheral blood failed to proliferate to PPD and to the 16- or 38-kDa proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while CD4+ T-cell lines from the site of disease responded to PPD, and to the 16- and 38-kDa proteins, and derived epitopes in vitro. The repertoire of CD4+ T-cells accumulating at the site of disease was found to be widely heterogeneous as demonstrated by the finding that at least seven different peptides from the 16- and 38-kDa proteins were recognized by every patient. These results indicate that CD4+ T-cells localized at the site of disease in tuberculosis recognize a vast array of M. tuberculosis epitopes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The specificity of CD4 T lymphocytes was investigated in 6 patients affected by tuberculosis who had negative tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) skin tests at diagnosis. Polyclonal CD4 T cell lines from the peripheral blood failed to proliferate to PPD and to the 16- or 38-kDa proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while CD4 cell lines from the disease site responded to PPD and to the 16- and 38-kDa proteins and derived epitopes in vitro. Four months after chemotherapy, the patients became responsive to PPD. The proliferative response to PPD and to the 16- or 38-kDa proteins and their derived peptides decreased in CD4 T cell lines from the disease site and increased in lines from the peripheral blood. These results indicate that CD4 T cells recognizing a vast array of M. tuberculosis epitopes are compartmentalized at the site of disease in anergic patients but appear in peripheral blood after chemotherapy.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/1999; 180(1):225-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor