B Faye

Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Dakar, Dakar, Senegal

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Publications (126)146.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Malaria is major public health problem in Senegal. In some parts of the country, it occurs almost permanently with a seasonal increase during the rainy season. There is evidence to suggest that the prevalence of malaria in Senegal has decreased considerably during the past few years. Recent data from the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) indicates that the number of malaria cases decrease from 1,500,000 in 2006 to 174,339 in 2010. With the decline of malaria morbidity in Senegal, the characterization of the new epidemiological profile of this disease is crucial for public health decision makers. SaTScanTM software using the Kulldorf method of retrospective space-time permutation and the Bernoulli purely spatial model was used to identify malaria clusters using confirmed malaria cases in 74 villages. ArcMAp was used to map malaria hotspots. Logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors for malaria hotspots in Keur Soce health and demographic surveillance site. A total of 1,614 individuals in 440 randomly selected households were enrolled. The overall malaria prevalence was 12%. The malaria prevalence during the study period varied from less than 2% to more than 25% from one village to another. The results showed also that rooms located between 50 m to 100 m away from livestock holding place [adjusted O.R = 0.7, P = 0.044, 95%C.I (1.02 - 7.42)], bed net use [adjusted O.R = 1.2, P = 0.024, 95%C.I(1.02 -1.48)], are good predictors for malaria hotspots in the Keur Soce health and demographic surveillance site. The socio economic status of the household also predicted on hotspots patterns. The less poor household are 30% less likely to be classified as malaria hotspots area compared to the poorest household [adjusted O.R = 0.7, P = 0.014, 95%C.I (0.47 - 0.91)] CONCLUSION: The study investigated risk factors for malaria hotspots in small communities in the Keur Soce site. The result showed considerable variation of malaria prevalence between villages which cannot be detected in aggregated data. The data presented in this paper are the first step to understanding malaria in the Keur Soce site from a micro-geographic perspective.
    Malaria Journal 11/2014; 13(1):453. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: En milieu hospitalier, la maîtrise de la qualité de l’air ambiant des services d’hospitalisation est un élément primordial. En effet les champignons aéroportés constituent un réel danger pour les patients hébergés dans les services à risque d’infections fongiques nosocomiales notamment les immunodéprimés.
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale / Journal of Medical Mycology. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Malarial infection in non immune pregnant women is a major risk factor for pregnancy failure. However in malaria endemic areas, intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) have been adopted to prevent malaria in pregnancy women since 2003 in Senegal. The impact of IPT on the development of immunity is not very well documented. We conducted a prospective study at the Roi-Baudouin maternity hospital of Guediawaye in Senegal to assess IL10, IL12, TNFα and IFNγ cytokines production in pregnant women under IPTp. Cytokines were analyzed in 82 sera at inclusion and delivery. P. falciparum HRP2 antigen was detected in 17% of women included by rapid diagnostic test (RDT). At inclusion the mean of IL10 response was higher in P. falciparum negative women (8 UA) compare to RDT-positive women (7 UA) p=0.069 while in delivery the opposite was found p=0.014. Low production of inflammatory cytokines IL12, IFNΓ and TNFα was noted in both groups. Between inclusion and delivery, a significant increase of IL-10 production was noted while a decrease of IFNΓ and TNFα cytokine was noted. Thus, IL12 and IFNΓ responses may synergistically associate as malaria immune response during pregnancy.
    Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990). 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Onychomycosis are a mycose of nail due to fungi. According to published data, they stands for half of all nail abnormalities. This survey was carried out to determine the frequency and the fungi involved in onychomycosis in Dakar. This study was carried out at the laboratory of parasitology and mycology at Le Dantec Hospital, in Senegal from January 2008 to December 2012 and includes 507 patients. Onychomycosis were mycologically proved in 58.78% (298/507) of patients. Patient's age varies between 02 years to 82 years with a mean of 34.24 years. Women were more infected than men (sex-ratio was 2.38). Onychomycosis due to dermatophyte represented 37.92% (113/298) of patients and were essentially located on toes (60.71%). Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis was the most frequent clinical form. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale were isolated respectively in 53.6% and 26.1% on toes. Yeasts represented 59.06% (176/298) of onychomycosis and were essentially located on fingernails (80.11%). Candida albicans represented 90.86% of isolated yeasts. Molds were isolated in nine cases (3.02%) and predominated in toenails. Among 507 patients with onychopathy, this study identified 298 cases of onychomycosis. T. rubrum was the main dermatophytes and was isolated on toenails whereas on fingernails C. albicans was more often observed.
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale/Journal of Medical Mycology 03/2014; · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from Mauritania. The present study examined and compared the genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates in Mauritania. Plasmodium falciparum isolates blood samples were collected from 113 patients attending health facilities in Nouakchott and Hodh El Gharbi regions. K1, Mad20 and RO33 allelic family of msp-1 gene were determined by nested PCR amplification. K1 family was the predominant allelic type carried alone or in association with Ro33 and Mad20 types (90%; 102/113). Out of the 113 P. falciparum samples, 93(82.3%) harboured more than one parasite genotype. The overall multiplicity of infection was 3.2 genotypes per infection. There was no significant correlation between multiplicity of infection and age of patients. A significant increase of multiplicity of infection was correlated with parasite densities. The polymorphism of P. falciparum populations from Mauritania was high. Infection with multiple P. falciparum clones was observed, as well as a high multiplicity of infection reflecting both the high endemicity level and malaria transmission in Mauritania.
    Malaria Journal 01/2014; 13(1):26. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Onychomycosis are a mycose of nail due to fungi. According to published data, they stands for half of all nail abnormalities. This survey was carried out to determine the frequency and the fungi involved in onychomycosis in Dakar. Material and methods This study was carried out at the laboratory of parasitology and mycology at Le Dantec Hospital, in Senegal from January 2008 to December 2012 and includes 507 patients. Results Onychomycosis were mycologically proved in 58.78% (298/507) of patients. Patient's age varies between 02 years to 82 years with a mean of 34.24 years. Women were more infected than men (sex-ratio was 2.38). Onychomycosis due to dermatophyte represented 37.92% (113/298) of patients and were essentially located on toes (60.71%). Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis was the most frequent clinical form. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale were isolated respectively in 53.6% and 26.1% on toes. Yeasts represented 59.06% (176/298) of onychomycosis and were essentially located on fingernails (80.11%). Candida albicans represented 90.86% of isolated yeasts. Molds were isolated in nine cases (3.02%) and predominated in toenails. Conclusion Among 507 patients with onychopathy, this study identified 298 cases of onychomycosis. T. rubrum was the main dermatophytes and was isolated on toenails whereas on fingernails C. albicans was more often observed.
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale / Journal of Medical Mycology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken to assess whether combining the interventions would be an acceptable approach to malaria control for community health workers (CHWs). Sixty-one interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted nested in a cluster-randomized trial assessing the impact of combining HMM and SMC in a rural area of Senegal. Participants consisted of: (i) members of village associations, (ii) members of families who had access to the interventions as well as members of families who did not access the interventions, (iii) CHWs, and (iv) community leaders, e g, religious guides and village chiefs. The interventions were acceptable to the local population and perceived as good strategy to make health care services available to community members and thus, to reduce the delays in access to anti-malarial treatment as well as expenses related to patients' transfer to the health post. The use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) contributed to improving CHWs diagnostic capacity as well as malaria treatment practices. Study participants notified RDT and drugs stock-out as the major risk for sustainability of the intervention at community level. Combining CCMm and SMC is a well accepted, community-based approach that can contribute to control malaria in areas where malaria transmission is seasonal.
    Malaria Journal 12/2013; 12(1):467. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Then in these countries prompt access to effective antimalarial treatment such as Artemisinin based-Combination Therapies (ACT) proves to be an essential tool for controlling the disease. In Senegal, since 2006 a nationwide scaling up program of ACT is being implemented. In this context it has become relevant to monitor ACT efficacy and provide recommendations for the Senegalese national malaria control program. An open randomized trial was conducted during two malaria transmission seasons (2011 and 2012) to assess the efficacy and safety of three combinations: dihydro-artemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ), artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ). The primary end point of the study was represented by a PCR adjusted adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) at day 28. Secondary end points included: (i) a ACPR at days 35 and 42, (ii) a parasite and fever clearance time, (iii) ACTs safety and tolerability. The 2003 WHO's protocol for antimalarial drug evaluation was used to assess each outcome. Overall, 534 patients were randomized selected to receive, either ASAQ (n = 180), AL (n = 178) or DHAPQ (n = 176). The PCR adjusted ACPR at day 28 was 99.41% for the group ASAQ, while that was 100% in the AL and DHAPQ groups (p = 0.37). The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated at 99.37% in the ASAQ arm versus 100% in AL and DHAPQ arm at day 35 (p = 0.37). At day 42, the ACPR was 99.27% in the ASAQ group versus 100% for both AL and DHAPQ groups, (p = 0.36). No serious adverse event was noted during the study period. Also a similar safety profile was noted in the 3 study groups. In the context of scaling up of ACTs in Senegal, ASAQ, AL and DHAPQ are highly effective and safe antimalarial drugs. However, it's remains important to continue to monitor their efficacy.Trial registration: PACTR 201305000552290.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 12/2013; 13(1):598. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is increasingly recommended for antimalarial treatment in many endemic countries; however, concerns have been raised over its potential under dosing in young children. We investigated the influence of different dosing schedules on DP’s clinical efficacy. Methods and Findings: A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify all studies published between 1960 and February 2013, in which patients were enrolled and treated with DP. Principal investigators were approached and invited to share individual patient data with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN). Data were pooled using a standardised methodology. Univariable and multivariable risk factors for parasite recrudescence were identified using a Cox’s regression model with shared frailty across the study sites. Twenty-four published and two unpublished studies (n = 7,072 patients) were included in the analysis. After correcting for reinfection by parasite genotyping, Kaplan–Meier survival estimates were 97.7% (95% CI 97.3%–98.1%) at day 42 and 97.2% (95% CI 96.7%–97.7%) at day 63. Overall 28.6% (979/3,429) of children aged 1 to 5 years received a total dose of piperaquine below 48 mg/kg (the lower limit recommended by WHO); this risk was 2.3–2.9-fold greater compared to that in the other age groups and was associated with reduced efficacy at day 63 (94.4% [95% CI 92.6%–96.2%], p,0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, the mg/kg dose of piperaquine was found to be a significant predictor for recrudescence, the risk increasing by 13% (95% CI 5.0%–21%) for every 5 mg/kg decrease in dose; p = 0.002. In a multivariable model increasing the target minimum total dose of piperaquine in children aged 1 to 5 years old from 48 mg/kg to 59 mg/kg would halve the risk of treatment failure and cure at least 95% of patients; such an increment was not associated with gastrointestinal toxicity in the ten studies in which this could be assessed. Conclusions: DP demonstrates excellent efficacy in a wide range of transmission settings; however, treatment failure is associated with a lower dose of piperaquine, particularly in young children, suggesting potential for further dose optimisation.
    PLoS Medicine 12/2013; 10(12):e1001564. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Home-based management of malaria (HMM) may improve access to diagnostic testing and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). In the Sahel region, seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is now recommended for the prevention of malaria in children. It is likely that combinations of antimalarial interventions can reduce the malaria burden. This study assessed the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of combining SMC and HMM delivered by community health workers (CHWs). A cluster-randomised trial was carried out during two transmission seasons in eight villages located in the south-eastern part of Senegal. Intervention communities received HMM+SMC while control communities received HMM. Primary end point was the incidence of malaria attacks during the follow up period. Secondary end points included: malaria diagnostic accuracy; access to ACT treatment; SMC coverage; safety and drug tolerability. The adjusted rate ratio for incidence of malaria attacks in intervention and control communities was 0.15, indicating a protective effect of HMM+SMC of 85% (95% CI: 39.9-96.3%, p=0.01). Access to ACT treatment was 96.4% while SMC coverage represented 97.3% (95% CI: 91.3-100%) in 2010, and 88.8% (95% CI: 84.2-93.6%) in 2011. No serious adverse events were recorded. It seems feasible and safe to combine SMC with HMM intervention, while achieving high coverage and effectiveness of both SMC and HMM. (www.pactr.org) PACTR201305000551876.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 12/2013; · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the most important opportunistic infection and a major contributor to early mortality. In sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Senegal, prevalence of cryptococcal meningitis remains high. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology, laboratory profile, therapeutic and outcome of cases diagnosed in Dakar. We analyzed the cryptococcosis cases diagnosed at the department of parasitology-mycology in Fann Teaching Hospital in Dakar from 2004 to 2011. The diagnosis was confirmed by culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and/or by India ink preparation and/or by cryptococcal antigen detection. The diagnosis methods were assessed by using culture as reference. A total of 106 cases of cryptococcal meningitis were diagnosed. The prevalence of cryptococcal meningitis was 7.8 %. The mean age of the patients was 40.17 ± 9.89 years. There were slightly more male (53.8 %) than female (46.2 %) patients; 89.6 % were found to be infected with HIV, and the median CD4+ count was 27/mm(3). Approximately 79.5 % of the patients had <100 CD4+ lymphocytes/mm(3). India ink staining presented sensitivity at 94.11 % and specificity at 100 %. Sensitivity and specificity of cryptococcal antigen detection in cerebrospinal fluid were, respectively, 96.96 and 15.78 %. The most frequently used antifungal drug was fluconazole (86.7 %), and the mortality rate was 62.2 % (66 deaths). Early diagnosis is essential to control cryptococcosis, and countries should prioritize widespread and reliable access to rapid diagnostic cryptococcus antigen assays. But it is important to make available conventional methods (India ink and culture) in the maximum of laboratory in regional health facilities.
    Mycopathologia 12/2013; 176(5-6):443-9. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is a prospective, descriptive and analytic study conducted from July 2011 to September 2011 at the Children National Hospital Albert Royer of Dakar and at the Vélingara Health District. It was focused on children under 15 without reference to HIV status. For each child, a sample of stool was examined by the Ziehl-Neelsen modified staining and by ELISA using the "Cryptosporidium Antigen Detection Microwell ELISA kit" designed to detect Cryptosporidium spp antigens. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in rural and hospital areas and to measure the performance of the ELISA kit that we used. Out of the 375 stool examinations performed with the Ziehl-Neelsen modified staining, 17 had revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp (4.53%). The prevalence in rural areas was 2% while the hospital prevalence was 7.4%, of which 1.8% (1/57) were from urban areas and 9.8% (12/122) from suburban areas. No positive case was observed in children over 10 years. By ELISA, 23 positives cases were reported corresponding to a prevalence of 6.13% (1.8% in children living in urban areas, 13.1% in children from suburban areas and 3%living in rural areas).The correlation of this assay with the Ziehl-Neelsen modified staining, considered as the reference method, found that this assay had a sensitivity of 58.82% and a high specificity reaching 96.37%. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 43.4% while the negative predictive value was 98%. Cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of parasitic infection among children in Senegal. Antigen detection of Cryptosporidium spp by ELISA in stool can be a complementary tool in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis.
    Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Il s’agit d’une étude prospective, descriptive et analytique menée de juillet 2011 à septembre 2011 à l’Hôpital national d’enfants Albert Royer de Dakar et dans le district sanitaire de Vélingara. Elle portait sur des enfants âgés de 0 à 15 ans sans préjugé du statut sérologique. Chaque enfant a bénéficié d’un prélèvement de selle qui a été examinée par la méthode de Ziehl-Neelsen modifiée et d’une recherche d’antigène de Cryptosporidium spp par le kit « Cryptosporidium Antigen Detection Microwell ELISA ». L’objectif de notre étude était de déterminer la prévalence de la cryptosporidiose en milieu rural et en milieu hospitalier et de mesurer les performances du kit ELISA utilisé. Sur les 375 examens de selles réalisés par la méthode de Ziehl-Neelsen modifiée, 17 ont révélé la présence de Cryptosporidium spp, soit une prévalence de 4,53 %. La prévalence en milieu rural était de 2 % tandis que la prévalence hospitalière était de 7,4 %. Par la méthode ELISA, 23 cas positifs ont été observés, soit une prévalence de 6,13 %. En faisant une corrélation de ce test avec la méthode de référence qu’est la technique de Ziehl-Neelsen modifiée, nous avions constaté que ce test avait une sensibilité de 58,82% et une spécificité élevée à 96,37 %. La valeur prédictive positive (VPP) était de 43,4 %, tandis que la valeur prédictive négative était de 98 %. La cryptosporidiose est une cause non négligeable d’infection parasitaire chez les enfants au Sénégal; la détection d’antigènes de Cryptosporidium spp peut être un outil complémentaire dans le diagnostic de la cryptosporidiose.
    Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Dermatophytosis is a disease caused by dermatophytes, filamentous fungi adapted to human and animal keratin, colonizing and infecting human skin. The goal of this study was to identify dermatophytes responsible for dermatophytosis among patients, seeking for care in Dakar. Material and methods This study was carried out at the laboratory of parasitology and mycology at Le Dantec Hospital, in Senegal between June 2007 and December 2011, and included 2026 patients. Among these 2026 patients, 796 patients presented a dermatophytosis, confirmed after direct examination and/or culture in 1044 specimens. Patients' age varied between 3months to 89years with 25.5 years of age average; the infestation index was 39.3%. Patients between 20-29years were more infested with 15.3%, followed by 10-19years (9.1%), 0-9years (8.7%), 30-39years (2.7%), 40-49years (1.5%), 50-59years (1.3%), 60-69years (0.4%), 70-79years (0.2%), and 80-89years (0.1%). Women were more infected (77%) than men 23%. The main species isolated were Trichophyton soudanense (52.78%), Trichophyton rubrum (30.94%), Microsporum canis (4.89%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (4.50%), Microsporum langeronii (3.54%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (1.82%). This study shows that dermatophytes and dermatophytosis are endemic to Senegal.
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale/Journal of Medical Mycology 08/2013; · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) allow for the confirmation of malaria diagnosis. In Senegal, RDTs detecting HRP2 have been adopted in 2008 for malaria diagnosis. However, the sustainability of this strategy requires adequate and regular quality control. PCR on DNA extracted in nitrocellulose band of RDTs enable quality control. A RDT (Malaria Antigen P.f®) and a thick smear were performed on patients with suspected malaria. DNA was extracted from the nitrocellulose band of RDTs to which a non-specific PCR and a specific PCR were applied. The results of the RDT were compared with those obtained from the thick smear and the PCR to measure sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values. For 81·6% of the 273 patients involved, the thick smear was positive. Rapid diagnosis tests were positive for 85·7% of the patients. Non-specific PCR was positive on 87·9% of RDTs. Plasmodium falciparum was found in 99·5% of patients and Plasmodium ovale appeared in only 0·4% of patients. Sensitivity of the Malaria Antigen Pf® RDT in relation to thick smear and to PCR was 98·2% and 97·1% respectively. Quality control with PCR on the nitrocellulose band performed several months after it was used confirms its adequate level of sensitivity. The collection and screening of DNA present in already used RDT is a good means of quality control for this tool. It is also a relevant alternative to the molecular approach in the context of a reduction in the transmission of malaria.
    Pathogens and global health. 07/2013; 107(5):273-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of digestive helminthiasis among patients referred to the laboratory of Parasitology and mycology at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar for examination of stool samples from 2004 to 2009. Of 1 526 direct stool examinations (Ritchie and Baerman techniques) analyzed at the laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology of Le Dantec Hospital from 2004 to 2009, 310 were positive for intestinal helminthiasis, for a prevalence of 20.3%. The main species found were: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, Tænia saginata and Tænia solium. Most patients had a single parasite (90.1%, versus 9% with two and 0.9% with three). Men are infected more often than women, accounting respectively for 58% and 42% of the infections, for a sex ratio of 1.38. Children aged 10 to 15 years had the highest prevalence of infection: 34.5%. The results show that digestive helminthiasis is endemic in Dakar, where it is necessary to implement campaigns of deworming, health education and environmental improvement.
    Medecine et sante tropicales. 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality especially in children. In Senegal, seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) previously referred to as intermittent preventive treatment in children (IPTc) is a new strategy for malaria control in areas of high seasonal transmission. An effectiveness study of SMC, using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ), was conducted in central Senegal from 2008 to 2010 to obtain information about safety, feasibility of delivery, and cost effectiveness of SMC. Here are report the effect of SMC delivery on the prevalence of markers of resistance to SP and AQ. METHODS: This study was conducted in three health districts in Senegal with 54 health posts with a gradual introduction of SMC. Three administrations of the combination AQ + SP were made during the months of September, October and November of each year in children aged less than 10 years living in the area. Children were surveyed in December of each year and samples (filter paper and thick films) were made in 2008, 2009 and 2010. The prevalence of mutations in the pfdhfr, pfdhps, pfmdr1 and pfcrt genes was investigated by sequencing and RTPCR in samples positive by microscopy for Plasmodium falciparum RESULTS: Mutations at codon 540 of pfdhps and codon 164 of pfdhfr were not detected in the study. Among children with parasitaemia at the end of the transmission seasons, the CVIET haplotypes of pfcrt and the 86Y polymorphism of pfmdr1 were more common among those that had received SMC, but the number of infections detected was very low and confidence intervals were wide. The overall prevalence of these mutations was lower in SMC areas than in control areas, reflecting the lower prevalence of parasitaemia in areas where SMC was delivered. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of P. falciparum to SMC drugs should be regularly monitored in areas deploying this intervention. Overall the prevalence of genotypes associated with resistance to either SP or AQ was lower in SMC areas due to the reduced number of parasitaemia individuals.
    Malaria Journal 04/2013; 12(1):137. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2003, Senegal has used sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria in risk groups. However, the large-scale IPT strategy may result in increasing drug resistance. Our study investigated the possible impact of SP-IPT given to infants and children on the prevalence of SP-resistant haplotypes in the Plasmodium falciparum genes Pfdhfr and Pfdhps, comparing sites with and without IPTi/c. Plasmodium falciparum-positive samples (N = 352) were collected from children < 5 years of age during two cross-sectional surveys in 2010 and 2011 living in three health districts (two on IPTi/c and one without IPTi/c intervention) located in the southern part of Senegal. The prevalence of SP resistance-related haplotypes in Pfdhfr and Pfdhps was determined by nested PCR followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of the Pfdhfr double mutant haplotypes (CNRN and CICN) were stable between years at < 10% in the control group (P = 0.69), whereas it rose significantly in the IPTi/c group from 2% in 2010 to 20% in 2011 (P = 0.008). The prevalence of the Pfdhfr triple mutant haplotype (CIRN) increased in both groups, but only significantly in the IPTi/c group from 41% to 65% in 2011 (P = 0.005). Conversely, the Pfdhps 437G mutation decreased in both groups from 44.6% to 28.6% (P = 0.07) and from 66.7% to 47.5% (P = 0.02) between 2010 and 2011 in the control and the IPTi/c groups, respectively. Combined with Pfdhfr, there was a weak trend for decreasing prevalence of quadruple mutants (triple Pfdhfr + Pfdhps 437G) in both groups (P = 0.15 and P = 0.34). During the two cross-sectional surveys some significant changes were observed in the SP resistance-related genes. However, because these changes were observed in the two groups, the IPTi/c strategy does only seem to have limited impact on resistance development and other factors impacted as well. However, continuous monitoring will be needed because of the up scaling of the IPTi/c strategy in Senegal according to recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO).
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 04/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The National Malaria Control Programme in Senegal, introduced since 2006, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT administration) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases. In this framework, an anti-malarial pharmacovigilance plan was developed and implemented in all public health services. This study investigated the occurrence of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) after ACT. METHODS: The study was conducted between January 2007 and December 2009. It was based on spontaneous reports of ADEs in public health facilities. Data on patient demographic characteristics, dispensing facility, adverse signs and symptoms and causality were collected from a total of 123 patients. RESULTS: The age range of these patients was six months to 93 years with a mean of 25.9 years. Of the reported symptoms, 46.7% were related to the abdomen and the digestive system. Symptoms related to the nervous system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, circulatory and respiratory systems and general symptoms and signs were 7%, 9.7%, 3.5% and 31.3%, respectively. Causality results linked 14.3% of symptoms to Falcimon(R) (Artesunate-Amodiaquine) with certainty. Effects were classified as mild and severe in 69.1% and 7.3% of cases respectively while 23.6% were serious. All patients with serious ADEs were hospitalized. One death was reported in a patient who had taken 24 pills at once. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the need to develop and implement pharmacovigilance systems in malaria endemic countries in order to monitor the safety of anti-malarial treatments.
    Malaria Journal 02/2013; 12(1):54. · 3.49 Impact Factor