Struan F A Grant

Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia PA, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (111)1418.06 Total impact

  • Hakon Hakonarson, Struan F A Grant
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    ABSTRACT: It is well established that genetic diversity combined with specific environmental exposures contributes to disease susceptibility. However, it has turned out to be challenging to isolate the genes underlying the genetic component conferring susceptibility to most complex disorders. Traditional candidate gene and family-based linkage studies, which dominated gene discovery efforts for many years, were largely unsuccessful in unraveling the genetics of these traits due to the relatively limited information gained. Within the last 5 years, new advances in high-throughput methods have allowed for large volumes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the genome to be genotyped across large and comprehensively phenotyped patient cohorts. Unlike previous approaches, these 'genome-wide association studies' (GWAS) have extensively delivered on the promise of uncovering genetic determinants of complex diseases, with hundreds of novel disease-associated variants being largely replicated by independent groups. This review provides an overview of these recent breakthroughs in the context of the pitfalls and challenges related to designing and carrying out a successful GWAS.
    Annals of medicine 05/2011; 43(6):451-60. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet measures, including their count, sub-type and volume, are important diagnostic and prognostic clinical parameters for several human diseases. To identify novel loci associated with hematological traits, and compare the architecture of these phenotypes between ethnic groups, the CARe Project genotyped 49,094 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ~2,100 candidate genes in DNA of 23,439 Caucasians and 7,112 African Americans from five population-based cohorts. We found strong novel associations between erythrocyte phenotypes and the glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) A-allele in African Americans (rs1050828, P<2.0×10(-13), T-allele associated with lower red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and higher mean corpuscular volume), and between platelet count and a SNP at the tropomyosin-4 (TPM4) locus (rs8109288, P=3.0×10(-7) in Caucasians; P=3.0×10(-7) in African Americans, T-allele associated with lower platelet count). We strongly replicated many genetic associations to blood cell phenotypes previously established in Caucasians. A common variant of the α-globin (HBA2-HBA1) locus was associated with red blood cell traits in African Americans, but not in Caucasians (rs1211375, P<7×10(-8), A-allele associated with lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume). Our results show similarities but also differences in the genetic regulation of hematological traits in European- and African-derived populations, and highlight the role of natural selection in shaping these differences.
    Human Genetics 03/2011; 129(3):307-17. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Height is a classic complex trait with common variants in a growing list of genes known to contribute to the phenotype. Using a genecentric genotyping array targeted toward cardiovascular-related loci, comprising 49,320 SNPs across approximately 2000 loci, we evaluated the association of common and uncommon SNPs with adult height in 114,223 individuals from 47 studies and six ethnicities. A total of 64 loci contained a SNP associated with height at array-wide significance (p < 2.4 × 10(-6)), with 42 loci surpassing the conventional genome-wide significance threshold (p < 5 × 10(-8)). Common variants with minor allele frequencies greater than 5% were observed to be associated with height in 37 previously reported loci. In individuals of European ancestry, uncommon SNPs in IL11 and SMAD3, which would not be genotyped with the use of standard genome-wide genotyping arrays, were strongly associated with height (p < 3 × 10(-11)). Conditional analysis within associated regions revealed five additional variants associated with height independent of lead SNPs within the locus, suggesting allelic heterogeneity. Although underpowered to replicate findings from individuals of European ancestry, the direction of effect of associated variants was largely consistent in African American, South Asian, and Hispanic populations. Overall, we show that dense coverage of genes for uncommon SNPs, coupled with large-scale meta-analysis, can successfully identify additional variants associated with a common complex trait.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2011; 88(1):6-18. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many loci associated with body mass index (BMI), but few studies focused on obesity as a binary trait. Here we report the results of a GWAS and candidate SNP genotyping study of obesity, including extremely obese cases and never overweight controls as well as families segregating extreme obesity and thinness. We first performed a GWAS on 520 cases (BMI>35 kg/m(2)) and 540 control subjects (BMI<25 kg/m(2)), on measures of obesity and obesity-related traits. We subsequently followed up obesity-associated signals by genotyping the top ∼500 SNPs from GWAS in the combined sample of cases, controls and family members totaling 2,256 individuals. For the binary trait of obesity, we found 16 genome-wide significant signals within the FTO gene (strongest signal at rs17817449, P = 2.5 × 10(-12)). We next examined obesity-related quantitative traits (such as total body weight, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio), and detected genome-wide significant signals between waist to hip ratio and NRXN3 (rs11624704, P = 2.67 × 10(-9)), previously associated with body weight and fat distribution. Our study demonstrated how a relatively small sample ascertained through extreme phenotypes can detect genuine associations in a GWAS.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e18939. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is an unexplained and common spinal deformity seen in otherwise healthy children. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood despite intensive investigation. Although genetic underpinnings are clear, replicated susceptibility loci that could provide insight into etiology have not been forthcoming. To address these issues, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ∼327 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 419 AIS families. We found strongest evidence of association with chromosome 3p26.3 SNPs in the proximity of the CHL1 gene (P < 8 × 10(-8) for rs1400180). We genotyped additional chromosome 3p26.3 SNPs and tested replication in two follow-up case-control cohorts, obtaining strongest results when all three cohorts were combined (rs10510181 odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.73, P = 2.58 × 10(-8)), but these were not confirmed in a separate GWAS. CHL1 is of interest, as it encodes an axon guidance protein related to Robo3. Mutations in the Robo3 protein cause horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), a rare disease marked by severe scoliosis. Other top associations in our GWAS were with SNPs in the DSCAM gene encoding an axon guidance protein in the same structural class with Chl1 and Robo3. We additionally found AIS associations with loci in CNTNAP2, supporting a previous study linking this gene with AIS. Cntnap2 is also of functional interest, as it interacts directly with L1 and Robo class proteins and participates in axon pathfinding. Our results suggest the relevance of axon guidance pathways in AIS susceptibility, although these findings require further study, particularly given the apparent genetic heterogeneity in this disease.
    Human Molecular Genetics 01/2011; 20(7):1456-66. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    Matthew A Deardorff, Jesus Sainz, Struan F A Grant
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    ABSTRACT: The hunt for the genetic contributors to complex disease has used a number of strategies, resulting in the identification of variants associated with many of the common diseases affecting society. However most of the genetic variants detected to date are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) and fall far short of explaining the full genetic component of any given disease. An as yet untapped genomic mechanism is somatic gene conversion and deletion, which could be complicit in disease risk but has been challenging to detect in genome-wide datasets. In a recent publication in BMC Medicine by Kenneth Ross, the author uses existing datasets to look at somatic gene conversion and deletion in human disease. Here, we describe how Ross's recent efforts to detect such occurrences could impact the field going forward.
    BMC Medicine 01/2011; 9:13. · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    Jianhua Zhao, Struan F A Grant
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.
    Journal of obesity 01/2011; 2011:845148.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system that accounts for approximately 10% of all paediatric oncology deaths. To identify genetic risk factors for neuroblastoma, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2,251 patients and 6,097 control subjects of European ancestry from four case series. Here we report a significant association within LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) at 11p15.4 (rs110419, combined P = 5.2 × 10(-16), odds ratio of risk allele = 1.34 (95% confidence interval 1.25-1.44)). The signal was enriched in the subset of patients with the most aggressive form of the disease. LMO1 encodes a cysteine-rich transcriptional regulator, and its paralogues (LMO2, LMO3 and LMO4) have each been previously implicated in cancer. In parallel, we analysed genome-wide DNA copy number alterations in 701 primary tumours. We found that the LMO1 locus was aberrant in 12.4% through a duplication event, and that this event was associated with more advanced disease (P < 0.0001) and survival (P = 0.041). The germline single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) risk alleles and somatic copy number gains were associated with increased LMO1 expression in neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumours, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated depletion of LMO1 inhibited growth of neuroblastoma cells with high LMO1 expression, whereas forced expression of LMO1 in neuroblastoma cells with low LMO1 expression enhanced proliferation. These data show that common polymorphisms at the LMO1 locus are strongly associated with susceptibility to developing neuroblastoma, but also may influence the likelihood of further somatic alterations at this locus, leading to malignant progression.
    Nature 01/2011; 469(7329):216-20. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a number of genetic variants robustly associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or osteoporosis. Evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies has shown an association between BMD and BMI, presumably as a consequence of bone loading. We investigated the 23 previously published BMD GWAS-derived loci in the context of childhood obesity by leveraging our existing genome-wide genotyped European American cohort of 1106 obese children (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) and 5997 controls (BMI < 95th percentile). Evidence of association was only observed at one locus, namely Osterix (SP7), with the G allele of rs2016266 being significantly over-represented among childhood obesity cases (P = 2.85 × 10(-3)). When restricting these analyses to each gender, we observed strong association between rs2016266 and childhood obesity in females (477 cases and 2867 controls; P = 3.56 × 10(-4)), which survived adjustment for all tests applied. However, no evidence of association was observed among males. Interestingly, Osterix is the only GWAS locus uncovered to date that has also been previously implicated in the determination of BMD in childhood. In conclusion, these findings indicate that a well established variant at the Osterix locus associated with increased BMD is also associated with childhood obesity primarily in females.
    Obesity 01/2011; 19(6):1311-4. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathway-based association methods have been proposed to be an effective approach in identifying disease genes, when single-marker association tests do not have sufficient power. The analysis of quantitative traits may be benefited from these approaches, by sampling from two extreme tails of the distribution. Here we tested a pathway association approach on a small genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 653 subjects with extremely high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and 784 subjects with low HDL-C levels. We identified 102 genes in the sterol transport and metabolism pathways that collectively associate with HDL-C levels, and replicated these association signals in an independent GWAS. Interestingly, the pathways include 18 genes implicated in previous GWAS on lipid traits, suggesting that genuine HDL-C genes are highly enriched in these pathways. Additionally, multiple biologically relevant loci in the pathways were not detected by previous GWAS, including genes implicated in previous candidate gene association studies (such as LEPR, APOA2, HDLBP, SOAT2), genes that cause Mendelian forms of lipid disorders (such as DHCR24), and genes expressing dyslipidemia phenotypes in knockout mice (such as SOAT1, PON1). Our study suggests that sampling from two extreme tails of a quantitative trait and examining genetic pathways may yield biological insights from smaller samples than are generally required using single-marker analysis in large-scale GWAS. Our results also implicate that functionally related genes work together to regulate complex quantitative traits, and that future large-scale studies may benefit from pathway-association approaches to identify novel pathways regulating HDL-C levels.
    Frontiers in Genetics 01/2011; 2:41.
  • Jianhua Zhao, Struan F A Grant
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    ABSTRACT: Sanger sequencing revolutionized the field of genetics by becoming the standard approach to appraise a given region of the genome at base-level resolution. However, the relatively recent need to sequence entire genomes has driven innovative developments within the market-place to allow for sequencing technology to be faster, cheaper and more accurate. In this review, we will cover these recent developments from both a technical and cost perspective. Firstly, we will place sequencing in a historical context by describing how it first came to the attention of the scientific community. Next, we will address the current high-throughput technologies generally available, including Roche's 454, Illumina's Genome Analyzer, Applied BioSystem's SOLiD, Complete Genomics, Helios, Pacific Biosciences and IonTorrent. These 'next-generation' technologies also allow for applications related to target region deep sequencing, epigenetics(ChIP-seq), transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), megagenomics. Thus, these technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to increase our understanding of the functions and dynamics of the human genome in the near future.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 11/2010; 12(2):293-305. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide analysis identified a genetic variant on 5p14.1 (rs4307059), which is associated with risk for autism spectrum disorder. This study investigated whether rs4307059 also operates as a quantitative trait locus underlying a broader autism phenotype in the general population, focusing specifically on the social communication aspect of the spectrum. Study participants were 7,313 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Single-trait and joint-trait genotype associations were investigated for 29 measures related to language and communication, verbal intelligence, social interaction, and behavioral adjustment, assessed between ages 3 and 12 years. Analyses were performed in one-sided or directed mode and adjusted for multiple testing, trait interrelatedness, and random genotype dropout. Single phenotype analyses showed that an increased load of rs4307059 risk allele is associated with stereotyped conversation and lower pragmatic communication skills, as measured by the Children's Communication Checklist (at a mean age of 9.7 years). In addition a trend toward a higher frequency of identification of special educational needs (at a mean age of 11.8 years) was observed. Variation at rs4307059 was also associated with the phenotypic profile of studied traits. This joint signal was fully explained neither by single-trait associations nor by overall behavioral adjustment problems but suggested a combined effect, which manifested through multiple sub-threshold social, communicative, and cognitive impairments. Our results suggest that common variation at 5p14.1 is associated with social communication spectrum phenotypes in the general population and support the role of rs4307059 as a quantitative trait locus for autism spectrum disorder.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 11/2010; 167(11):1364-72. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) have been strongly implicated in subjects with extreme obesity and coexisting developmental delay. To complement these previous studies, we addressed CNVs in common childhood obesity by examining children with a BMI in the upper 5(th) percentile but excluding any subject greater than three standard deviations from the mean in order to reduce severe cases in the cohort. We performed a whole-genome CNV survey of our cohort of 1080 defined European American (EA) childhood obesity cases and 2500 lean controls (< 50(th) percentile BMI) who were genotyped with 550,000 SNP markers. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent African American (AA) cohort of 1479 childhood obesity cases and 1575 lean controls. We identified 17 CNV loci that were unique to at least three EA cases and were both previously unreported in the public domain and validated via quantitative PCR. Eight of these loci (47.1%) also replicated exclusively in AA cases (six deletions and two duplications). Replicated deletion loci consisted of EDIL3, S1PR5, FOXP2, TBCA, ABCB5, and ZPLD1, whereas replicated duplication loci consisted of KIF2B and ARL15. We also observed evidence for a deletion at the EPHA6-UNQ6114 locus when the AA cohort was investigated as a discovery set. Although these variants may be individually rare, our results indicate that CNVs contribute to the genetic susceptibility of common childhood obesity in subjects of both European and African ancestry.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2010; 87(5):661-6. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is an increasingly common disorder that predisposes to several medical conditions, including type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether large and rare copy-number variations (CNVs) differentiate moderate to extreme obesity from never-overweight control subjects. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, we performed a genome-wide CNV survey on 430 obese case subjects (BMI >35 kg/m(2)) and 379 never-overweight control subjects (BMI <25 kg/m(2)). All subjects were of European ancestry and were genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 arrays with ∼550,000 SNP markers. The CNV calls were generated by PennCNV software. CNVs >1 Mb were found to be overrepresented in case versus control subjects (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5 [95% CI 0.5-5]), and CNVs >2 Mb were present in 1.3% of the case subjects but were absent in control subjects (OR = infinity [95% CI 1.2-infinity]). When focusing on rare deletions that disrupt genes, even more pronounced effect sizes are observed (OR = 2.7 [95% CI 0.5-27.1] for CNVs >1 Mb). Interestingly, obese case subjects who carry these large CNVs have moderately high BMI and do not appear to be extreme cases. Several CNVs disrupt known candidate genes for obesity, such as a 3.3-Mb deletion disrupting NAP1L5 and a 2.1-Mb deletion disrupting UCP1 and IL15. Our results suggest that large CNVs, especially rare deletions, confer risk of obesity in patients with moderate obesity and that genes impacted by large CNVs represent intriguing candidates for obesity that warrant further study.
    Diabetes 10/2010; 59(10):2690-4. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    Cell 08/2010; 142(3):351-3; author reply 353-5. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with onset in late adolescence and unclear etiology characterized by both positive and negative symptoms, as well as cognitive deficits. To identify copy number variations (CNVs) that increase the risk of schizophrenia, we performed a whole-genome CNV analysis on a cohort of 977 schizophrenia cases and 2,000 healthy adults of European ancestry who were genotyped with 1.7 million probes. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent cohort of 758 schizophrenia cases and 1,485 controls. The Gene Ontology synaptic transmission family of genes was notably enriched for CNVs in the cases (P = 1.5 x 10(-7)). Among these, CACNA1B and DOC2A, both calcium-signaling genes responsible for neuronal excitation, were deleted in 16 cases and duplicated in 10 cases, respectively. In addition, RET and RIT2, both ras-related genes important for neural crest development, were significantly affected by CNVs. RET deletion was exclusive to seven cases, and RIT2 deletions were overrepresented common variant CNVs in the schizophrenia cases. Our results suggest that novel variations involving the processes of synaptic transmission contribute to the genetic susceptibility of schizophrenia.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2010; 107(23):10584-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) reported 22 novel type 1 diabetes (T1D)-associated loci identified by meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWASs) with a case-control design. However, the association of 10 of these 22 reported loci was not confirmed in the T1DGC family cohort (P > 0.1). To address concerns about potential bias from population stratification, this study aims to replicate the association in three independent GWAS cohorts, one of which was based on the stratification-proof transmission disequilibrium analysis. Three European-descent population samples were included in this study: 483 cases and both parents, a case-control cohort of 514 cases and 2027 controls, and an additional cohort of 1078 cases and 341 controls from the dbGaP database. Among the 22 SNPs reported by the T1DGC, we had high-quality genotypes for 15; the remaining were imputed. T1D association was replicated in seven loci after Bonferroni correction for 22 independent hypotheses. An additional eight loci had nominal (one-sided) significance of P < 0.1 in the same direction, giving a false discovery rate of 3.35%. The genetic susceptibility conferred by non-HLA loci in our family cohort with one affected offspring was higher than the T1DGC multiplex families. Reciprocally, the frequency of strongly predisposing HLA alleles in the multiplex families was higher. This study replicated T1D association with at least as many of these novel loci as expected from the power of our sample size, thus supporting the validity of the new discoveries.
    Human Molecular Genetics 04/2010; 19(12):2534-8. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify genetic variants associated with birth weight, we meta-analyzed six genome-wide association (GWA) studies (n = 10,623 Europeans from pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up two lead signals in 13 replication studies (n = 27,591). rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 (P = 2 x 10(-35)) and rs9883204 in ADCY5 (P = 7 x 10(-15)) were robustly associated with birth weight. Correlated SNPs in ADCY5 were recently implicated in regulation of glucose levels and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, providing evidence that the well-described association between lower birth weight and subsequent type 2 diabetes has a genetic component, distinct from the proposed role of programming by maternal nutrition. Using data from both SNPs, we found that the 9% of Europeans carrying four birth weight-lowering alleles were, on average, 113 g (95% CI 89-137 g) lighter at birth than the 24% with zero or one alleles (P(trend) = 7 x 10(-30)). The impact on birth weight is similar to that of a mother smoking 4-5 cigarettes per day in the third trimester of pregnancy.
    Nature Genetics 04/2010; 42(5):430-5. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Noncoding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the TCF7L2 gene are confirmed risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism by which they increase risk is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that associated SNPs alter TCF7L2 splicing and that splice forms have altered biological roles. Design: Splice forms and 5' and 3' untranslated regions were characterized in sc adipose, muscle, liver, HepG2 cells, pancreas, and islet. Isoform-specific transcript levels were quantified in sc adipose. Alternative splice forms were characterized in HepG2 liver cells under glucose and insulin conditions and in SGBS cells with differentiation. Major isoforms were characterized by transfection. Setting: The study was conducted at an ambulatory general clinical research center. Patients: Patients included 78 healthy, nondiabetic study subjects characterized for insulin sensitivity and secretion. Results: We identified 32 alternatively spliced transcripts and multiple-length 3' untranslated region transcripts in adipose, muscle, islet, and pancreas. Alternative exons 3a, 12, 13, and 13a were observed in all tissues, whereas exon 13b was islet specific. Transcripts retaining exons 13 and 13a but not total TCF7L2 transcripts were significantly correlated with both obesity measures (P < 0.01) and rs7903146 genotype (P < 0.026) in sc adipose. Insulin (5-10 nm) suppressed all TCF7L2 isoforms in SGBS cells but suppressed exon 13a-containing isoforms most significantly (P < 0.001). The isoform distribution differed throughout SGBS cell differentiation. Isoforms with predicted early stop codons yielded stable proteins of the predicted size, bound beta-catenin, and targeted correctly to the nucleus. Conclusions: Intronic TCF7L2 variants may regulate alternative transcript isoforms, which in turn may have distinct physiologic roles.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 03/2010; 95(3):1450-7. · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • Patrick M A Sleiman, Struan F A Grant
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    ABSTRACT: Observational epidemiology has been instrumental in identifying modifiable causes of common diseases, and, in turn, substantially impacting public health. Spurious associations in observational epidemiologic studies are most commonly caused by confounding due to social, behavioral, or environmental factors and can therefore be difficult to control. They may also be due to reverse causation-in which the phenotypic outcome subsequently influences an environmental exposure such that it is wrongly implicated in its pathogenesis-and selection bias. Randomized controlled trials are effective in dealing with the potential sources of error; however, their use is not always leveraged, for practical or ethical reasons. An alternative method, mendelian randomization, entails the use of genetic variants as proxies for the environmental exposures under investigation. The power of mendelian randomization lies in its ability to avoid the often substantial confounding seen in conventional observational epidemiology. Underpinning mendelian randomization is the principle of the independent assortment of alleles during meiosis, which, importantly in this context, also implies that they are independent of those behavioral and environmental factors that confound epidemiologic studies. By selecting genetic variants that influence exposure patterns or are associated with an intermediate phenotype of the disease, one can effectively re-create a randomized comparison. In the past 4 years, genomewide association studies have yielded the first robust genetic associations with common diseases, which in turn should enable mendelian randomization to be even more informative, despite some limitations outlined in this review.
    Clinical Chemistry 03/2010; 56(5):723-8. · 7.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,418.06 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 2013
    • Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia PA
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      • Division of Allergy and Immunology
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Center for Applied Genomics
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2012
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Center for Human Genetic Research
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2011
    • The University of Western Ontario
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008–2011
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Genetics
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Milwaukee, WI, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • McGill University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2009
    • New Jersey Institute of Technology
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • deCODE genetics, Inc.
      Reikiavik, Capital Region, Iceland