Michael J Clague

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (104)765.38 Total impact

  • Ewan MacDonald, Sylvie Urbé, Michael J. Clague
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    ABSTRACT: The endosomal deubiquitylase USP8 has profound effects on endosomal morphology and organisation. Previous reports have proposed both positive (EGFR, MET) and negative roles in the down-regulation of receptors (Frizzled, Smoothened). Here we report an additional influence of USP8 on the retromer-dependent shuttling of ci-M6PR between the sorting endosome and biosynthetic pathway. Depletion of USP8 leads to a steady state redistribution of ci-M6PR from the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN) to endosomal compartments. Consequently we observe a defect in sorting of lysosomal enzymes, evidenced by increased levels of unprocessed Cathepsin D, which is secreted into the medium. The normal distribution of receptor can be restored by expression of siRNA-resistant USP8 but not by a catalytically inactive mutant or a truncated form, lacking a MIT domain required for endosomal localisation. We suggest that effects of USP8 depletion may reflect the loss of ESCRT-0 components which associate with retromer components Vps35 and SNX1, whilst failure to efficiently deliver lysosomal enzymes may also contribute to the observed block in receptor tyrosine kinase degradation.
    Traffic 06/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Claire Heride, Sylvie Urbé, Michael J Clague
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    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin, a 76 amino-acid polypeptide, presents a compact three-dimensional structure, utilising a fold that recurs within larger polypeptides and in other protein modifiers, such as NEDD8 and SUMO. Ubiquitylation was initially recognised as a signal for proteasome-mediated degradation. We shall consider here how this view has evolved to appreciate that the dynamic appendage of different types of ubiquitin chains represents a versatile, three-dimensional code, fundamental to the control of many cellular processes.
    Current biology: CB 03/2014; 24(6):R215-20. · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is commonly hyperactivated in cancer. One mechanism by which this occurs is by silencing of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor and major antagonist of the pathway, through genetic, epigenetic or posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we used an unbiased siRNA screen in non-small-cell lung cancer cells to identify deubiquitylases (DUBs) that have an impact on PI3K signaling by regulating the abundance of PTEN. We found that PTEN expression was induced by depleting any of three members of the Josephin family DUBs: ataxin 3 (ATXN3), ataxin 3-like (ATXN3L) and Josephin domain containing 1 (JOSD1). However, this effect is not mediated through altered PTEN protein stability. Instead, depletion of each DUB increases expression of both the PTEN transcript and its competing endogenous RNA, PTENP1. In ATXN3-depleted cells, under conditions of transcriptional inhibition, PTEN and PTENP1 mRNAs rapidly decay, suggesting that ATXN3 acts primarily by repressing their transcription. Importantly, the PTEN induction observed in response to ATXN3 siRNA is sufficient to downregulate Akt phosphorylation and hence PI3K signaling. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been suggested as potential mediators of PTEN transcriptional reactivation in non-small-cell lung cancer. Although PTEN exhibits a very limited response to the broad-spectrum HDACi Vorinostat (SAHA) in A549 cells, we find that combination with ATXN3 depletion enhances PTEN induction in an additive manner. Similarly, these interventions additively decrease cell viability. Thus, ATXN3 provides an autonomous, complementary therapeutic target in cancers with epigenetic downregulation of PTEN.Oncogene advance online publication, 2 December 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.512.
    Oncogene 12/2013; · 7.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitylation is a major posttranslational modification that controls most complex aspects of cell physiology. It is reversed through the action of a large family of deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) that are emerging as attractive therapeutic targets for a number of disease conditions. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the complement of human DUBs, indicating structural motifs, typical cellular copy numbers, and tissue expression profiles. We discuss the means by which specificity is achieved and how DUB activity may be regulated. Generically DUB catalytic activity may be used to 1) maintain free ubiquitin levels, 2) rescue proteins from ubiquitin-mediated degradation, and 3) control the dynamics of ubiquitin-mediated signaling events. Functional roles of individual DUBs from each of five subfamilies in specific cellular processes are highlighted with an emphasis on those linked to pathological conditions where the association is supported by whole organism models. We then specifically consider the role of DUBs associated with protein degradative machineries and the influence of specific DUBs upon expression of receptors and channels at the plasma membrane.
    Physiological Reviews 07/2013; 93(3):1289-315. · 30.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reversible ubiquitylation of proteins contributes to their integrity, abundance and activity. The RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) plays key physiological roles and is dysregulated in a spectrum of disease. It is rapidly turned over and is phosphorylated, polyubiquitylated and degraded en masse during neuronal differentiation and cell cycle progression. Through siRNA screening we identified the deubiquitylase USP15 as a key regulator of cellular REST. Both antagonism of REST polyubiquitylation and rescue of endogenous REST levels are dependent on the deubiquitylase activity of USP15. However, USP15 depletion does not destabilize pre-existing REST, but rather specifically impairs de novo REST synthesis. Indeed, we find that a small fraction of endogenous USP15 is associated with polysomes. In accordance with these findings, USP15 does not antagonize the degradation of phosphorylated REST at mitosis. Instead it is required for the rapid accumulation of newly synthesized REST on mitotic exit, thus playing a key role in its cell cycle oscillations. Importantly, this study reveals a novel role for a DUB in specifically promoting new protein synthesis.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 05/2013; 12(12). · 5.24 Impact Factor
  • Michael J Clague
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    ABSTRACT: Reversible oxidation of amino-acid residues can directly regulate the activity of cellular enzymes. This principle has now been extended to deubiquitinating enzymes, with implications for cell signalling and protein turnover.
    Nature 05/2013; 497(7447):49-50. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The opposing regulators of ubiquitylation status, E3-ligases and deubiquitylases (DUBs), are often found to be associated in complexes. Here we report on a novel interaction between the E3-ligase BRAP (also referred to as IMP), a negative regulator of the MAPK scaffold protein KSR, and two closely related DUBs USP15 and USP4. We map the interaction to the amino-terminal DUSP-UBL domain of USP15 and the coiled coil region of BRAP. USP15 as well as USP4 oppose the auto-ubiquitylation of BRAP, whilst BRAP promotes the ubiquitylation of USP15. Importantly, USP15 but not USP4 depletion destabilizes BRAP by promoting its proteasomal degradation, and BRAP-protein levels can be rescued by reintroducing catalytically active but not inactive mutant USP15. Unexpectedly, USP15 depletion results in a decrease in amplitude of MAPK signalling in response to EGF and PDGF. We provide evidence for a model in which the dominant effect of prolonged USP15 depletion upon signal amplitude is due to a decrease in CRAF levels, whilst allowing for the possibility that USP15 may also function to dampen MAPK signaling through direct stabilization of a negative regulator, the E3-ligase BRAP.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trafficking of activated receptors may dictate the signaling output through the exposure to a changing palette of substrates and effectors. Here, we have used the acute application of a chemical inhibitor of dynamin activity, Dynasore, to inhibit internalization of activated EGF receptors together with quantitative mass spectrometry. This has generated a global snapshot of phosphorylation associated changes, which are contingent upon the endosomal trafficking of the activated EGF receptor. Using a SILAC approach, we have been able to quantitate >500 proteins in pTyr immunoprecipitation experiments and close to 800 individual phosphopeptides through affinity based enrichment strategies. This study provides >2 orders of magnitude increase in the coverage of potential EGF effectors than hitherto assessed in the context of endocytosis. There is a strong positive correlation between EGF responsiveness and sensitivity to Dynasore, with ∼40% of EGF responses being significantly changed by endocytic inhibition. Proteins which are functionally linked to endosomal sorting are strongly influenced by receptor entry, suggesting that the activated receptor can govern its fate by influencing endosomal dynamics. However, the majority of EGF-responsive enzymes which we quantify, do not exhibit this property. Hence, our results provide many examples of key signaling proteins that are impervious to EGFR receptor endocytosis but nevertheless confirm the broad principle of endocytosis influence upon the network response.
    Journal of Proteome Research 09/2012; · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • Michael J Clague, Han Liu, Sylvie Urbé
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    ABSTRACT: The endosomal pathway provides a major platform for ubiquitin-modifying enzymes, which act upon membrane-associated proteins in transit. Ubiquitylated cargo proteins are recognized by ubiquitin-binding domains inherent to key adaptor proteins at the plasma membrane and sorting endosome. A balance between ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation activities may govern the efficiency of recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane versus lysosomal sorting through the multivesicular body pathway. We discuss the current knowledge of the properties of adaptors and ubiquitin-modifying proteins and their effects upon the trafficking and signaling of receptors and ligands associated with pathways fundamental to development.
    Developmental cell 09/2012; 23(3):457-67. · 13.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):445. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):1-100. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process);5,6 thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4). · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):445-544. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    Autophagy 04/2012; 4454(8):445-544. · 12.04 Impact Factor
  • Han Liu, Sylvie Urbé, Michael J Clague
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitylation transduce cellular signals, which culminate in changes in gene transcription. In this article we examine the ways in which selective protein degradation provides an extra dimension to the regulation of such signalling cascades. We discuss (i) how both lysosomal and proteasomal systems are used to attenuate kinase and rho family GTPase signalling, thereby coupling activation with degradation, (ii) signal propagation contingent upon the selective degradation of inhibitory components, exemplified by the degradation of IκB to activate NF-κB signalling, and (iii) tonic suppression of signalling pathways by turnover of the transcription factors β-catenin and p53.
    Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 02/2012; 23(5):509-14. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitination is a reversible modification that influences a broad range of physiological processes. There are approximately 90 deubiquitinases (DUBs) encoded in the human genome, of which 79 are predicted to have catalytic activity. We tagged 66 DUBs with green fluorescent protein and systematically surveyed their subcellular distribution, identifying enzymes specific to the nucleus, plasma membrane, and secretory and endocytic pathways. USP21 is unique in showing clear association with both centrosomes and microtubules. Using an in vitro assay, we show that microtubule binding is direct and identify a novel microtubule-binding motif encompassed within amino acids 59-75 of the N-terminus of USP21. Our functional studies indicate a key role for USP21 in the governance of microtubule- and centrosome-associated physiological processes: Depletion of USP21 in A549 cells compromises the reestablishment of a radial array of microtubules during recovery from cold-induced depolymerization and also reduces the probability of primary cilium formation, whereas USP21 knockdown in PC12 cells inhibits nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth.
    Molecular biology of the cell 02/2012; 23(6):1095-103. · 5.98 Impact Factor
  • Michael J Clague, Judy M Coulson, Sylvie Urbé
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    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitylation is a reversible post-translational modification that has emerged as a key regulator of most complex cellular processes. It may rival phosphorylation in scope and exceed it in complexity. The dynamic nature of ubiquitylation events is important for governing protein stability, maintaining ubiquitin homeostasis and controlling ubiquitin-dependent signalling pathways. The human genome encodes ~80 active deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs, also referred to as deubiquitinases), which exhibit distinct specificity profiles towards the various ubiquitin chain topologies. As a result of their ability to reverse ubiquitylation, these enzymes control a broad range of key cellular processes. In this Commentary we discuss the cellular functions of DUBs, such as their role in governing membrane traffic and protein quality control. We highlight two key signalling pathways--the Wnt and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathways, for which dynamic ubiquitylation has emerged as a key regulator. We also discuss the roles of DUBs in the nucleus, where they govern transcriptional activity and DNA repair pathways.
    Journal of Cell Science 01/2012; 125(Pt 2):277-86. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    Autophagy 01/2012; 4454(8):445-544. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: USP4, 11 and 15 are three closely related paralogues of the ubiquitin specific protease (USP) family of deubiquitinating enzymes. The DUSP domain and the UBL domain in these proteins are juxtaposed which may provide a functional unit conferring specificity. We determined the structures of the USP15 DUSP-UBL double domain unit in monomeric and dimeric states. We then conducted comparative analysis of the structural and physical properties of all three DUSP-UBL units. We identified structural features that dictate different dispositions between constituent domains, which in turn may influence respective binding properties.
    FEBS letters 11/2011; 585(21):3385-90. · 3.54 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
765.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2014
    • University of Liverpool
      • • Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology
      • • School of Biological Sciences
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Michigan
      • Life Sciences Institute
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2009
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      • MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2009
    • IBMS
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1991–2006
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States
  • 1993–1997
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      • Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences I
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
    • French National Cancer Institute
      Billancourt, Île-de-France, France
  • 1992–1993
    • European Molecular Biology Laboratory
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany