Jan van der Ende

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (197)766.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aggression (e.g., assaulting others, bullying, oppositionality; AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (e.g., lying, stealing, vandalism; RB) appear to constitute meaningfully distinct dimensions of antisocial behavior. Despite these differences, it is equally clear that AGG and RB are moderately-to-strongly intercorrelated with one another. To date, however, we have little insight into the sampling and methodologic characteristics that might moderate the association between AGG and RB. The current study sought to evaluate several such moderators (i.e., age, sex, informant, and society) in a sample of 27,861 parent–adolescent dyads from 25 societies. AGG and RB were assessed with the well-known Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001). Results revealed small effects of informant and adolescent sex, such that the association between AGG and RB was stronger for parents’ reports than for adolescents’ self-reports, and for boys than for girls. The association also varied by society. Unexpectedly, the specific operationalization of ‘aggression’ emerged as a particularly strong moderator, such that the association was stronger for a general measure of AGG than for a more focused measure of physical aggression per se. Such findings inform our understanding of similarities and differences between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial problems.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85:86-92. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.036 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Child and adolescent brain development are typically accompanied by marked improvements in a wide range of cognitive abilities. However, limited information is available surrounding the role of white matter in shaping cognitive abilities in children. The current study examined associations between white matter microstructure and cognitive performance in a large sample (n = 778) of 6-to-10 year-old children. Results show white matter microstructure is related to non-verbal intelligence and to visuospatial ability, independent of age. Specificity was demonstrated, as white matter associations with visuospatial ability were independent of general intellectual ability. Associations between white matter integrity and cognition were similar in boys and girls. In summary, results demonstrate white matter structure-function associations are present in children, independent of age and broader cognitive abilities. The presence of such associations in the general population is informative for studies examining child psychopathology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.014 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of age and their association with aggressive behaviour, attention problems and rule-breaking behaviour in a different setting, as reported by the teacher. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, parent-reported measures of aggressive behaviour were obtained using the CBCL when children were 1.5, 3, and 6 years of age (n = 4,781). Teacher-reported problem behaviour at school was assessed at age 6.5, using the TRF questionnaire (n = 2,756). Growth mixture modelling yielded three aggression trajectories, with high increasing (3.0%), intermediate (21.3%), and low decreasing (75.7%) aggression levels. Children in trajectories with higher and increasing levels of aggression showed more teacher-reported aggressive behaviour, attention problems and rule breaking behaviour. However, parent-reported aggression at age six predicted problem behaviour at school to the same extent as did the aggression trajectories, suggesting that the incremental value of trajectories is not always self-evident.
    International Journal of Behavioral Development 04/2015; 39(3). DOI:10.1177/0165025414562239 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the stability of internalizing and externalizing problems from age 1.5 to 6 years, while taking into account developmental changes in the presentation of problems. The study comprised a population-based cohort of 7,206 children (50.4 % boys). At ages 1.5, 3, and 6 years, mothers reported on problem behavior using the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). At each age we performed latent profile analysis on the CBCL/1.5-5 scales. Latent transition analysis (LTA) was applied to study the stability of problem behavior. Profiles of problem behavior varied across ages. At each age, 82-87 % of the children did not have problems whereas approximately 2 % showed a profile of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. This profile was more severe (with higher scores) at 6 years than at earlier ages. A predominantly internalizing profile only emerged at 6 years, while a profile with externalizing problems and emotional reactivity was present at each age. LTA showed that, based on profiles at 1.5 and 3 years, it was difficult to predict the type of profile at 6 years. Children with a profile of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems early in life were most likely to show problem behavior at 6 years. This study shows that the presentation of problem behavior changes across the preschool period and that heterotypic continuity of problems is very common among preschoolers. Children with co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems were most likely to show persisting problems. The use of evidence-based treatment for these young children may prevent psychiatric problems across the life course.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-9993-y · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study determined the impact of impairment criteria on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity of child DSM-IV disorders. The validity of these impairment criteria was tested against different measures of mental health care referral and utilization. We interviewed parents of 1,154 children aged 5-8 years in-depth using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to establish DSM-IV diagnosis. These children were randomly selected or oversampled based on Child Behavior Checklist ratings from a large population-based study (N = 6,172). Referral data were extracted from the psychiatric interview as well as from a follow-up questionnaire. The results showed an overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders of 31.1 % when impairment was not considered. This rate declined to 22.9 % when mild impairment was required and declined even further, to 10.3 %, for more severe levels of impairment. Similarly, the overall comorbidity rate declined from 8.5 to 6.7 and 2.7 % when mild and severe impairment were required, respectively. Virtually all children who attained symptom thresholds for a specific disorder, and had been referred to a mental health care professional because of the associated symptoms, also had mild impairment. The requirement of severe impairment criteria significantly increased diagnostic thresholds, but for most disorders, this definition captured only half of the clinically referred cases. In conclusion, prevalence was highly dependent upon the criteria used to define impairment. If severe impairment is made a diagnostic requirement, many children with psychiatric symptoms and mild impairment seeking mental health care will be undiagnosed and possibly untreated.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00787-015-0684-6 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher–child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both the individual and classroom levels among 414 children with emotional and behavioral disorders placed in special education. Two models were specified. In the first model, children's classroom adjustment was regressed on social relationships and teacher characteristics. In the second model, reversed links were examined by regressing teacher characteristics on social relationships and children's adjustment. Results of model 1 showed that, at the individual level, better social and emotional adjustment of children was predicted by higher levels of teacher–child closeness and better behavioral adjustment was predicted by both positive teacher–child and peer interactions. At the classroom level, positive social relationships were predicted by higher levels of teacher competence, which in turn were associated with lower classroom levels of social problems. Higher levels of teacher wellbeing were directly associated with classroom adaptive and maladaptive child outcomes. Results of model 2 showed that, at the individual and classroom levels, only the emotional and behavioral problems of children predicted social classroom relationships. At the classroom level, teacher competence was best predicted by positive teacher–child relationships and teacher wellbeing was best predicted by classroom levels of prosocial behavior. We discuss the importance of positive teacher–child and peer interactions for children placed in special education and suggest ways of improving classroom processes by targeting teacher competence.
    Journal of School Psychology 02/2015; 53(1):87-103. DOI:10.1016/j.jsp.2014.11.005 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined multiple determinants of discrepancies between mother and child reports of problem behavior. In 5,414 6-year-olds, child problem behavior was assessed by self-report using the Berkeley Puppet Interview and by maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Patterns in mother-child reports were modeled using latent profile analysis. Four profiles, differing in problem level, and the direction and magnitude of mother-child discrepancies, were identified: one profile representing agreement (46 %), another representing slight discrepancies (30 %), and two representing higher problem levels and more discrepancies. In the latter two profiles either children (11 %) or mothers (13 %) reported more problems. Compared to the first profile, the second was predominantly characterized by a positive family environment, the third by child cognitive difficulties, and the fourth by harsh discipline and poor family functioning. Knowledge about specific child/family characteristics that contribute to mother-child discrepancies can help to interpret informants' reports and to make diagnostic decisions.
    Child Psychiatry and Human Development 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10578-014-0531-x · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Summary Background: It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary diagnoses of clinical anxiety disorders (AD) from each other, and from a general population reference group (GP). Methods: The study sample consisted of 152 AD children (comparing separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and specific phobia), aged 8-to 12-years, and 200 same-aged reference children. HPA-axis functioning was measured by a diurnal cortisol profile. ANS functioning was measured by continuous measures of skin conductance level in rest and during a mental arithmetic task and high frequency heart rate variability in rest. PA was assessed by a questionnaire.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 01/2015; 51:135-150. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.09.002 · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate emotional and behavioral problems among Indonesian patients with disorders of sex development (DSD) who recently came under clinical management. As diagnostic procedures and treatment had been delayed, patients progressively developed ambiguous bodies, difficult to conceal from outsiders.
    Journal of Psychosomatic Research 12/2014; 79(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.12.007 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The screening accuracy of the parent and teacher-reported Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was compared with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) classification according to (1) the Developmental, Dimensional, and Diagnostic Interview (3Di), (2) the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), (3) both the 3Di and ADOS, in 186 children referred to six mental health centers. The parent report showed excellent correspondence to an ASD classification according to the 3Di and both the 3Di and ADOS. The teacher report added significantly to the screening accuracy over and above the parent report when compared with the ADOS classification. Findings support the screening utility of the parent-reported SRS among clinically referred children and indicate that different informants may provide unique information relevant for ASD assessment.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 11/2014; 45(6). DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2323-3 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cross-national differences could affect the likelihood of endorsement of DSM cannabis abuse and dependence criteria. The present study examines whether cannabis abuse and dependence criteria function differently across U.S. and Dutch cannabis users. Method: Data on lifetime endorsement of DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence criteria were utilized from U.S. cannabis users who participated in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and from Dutch cannabis users who participated in the Zuid-Holland study. In total, 1,568 cannabis users participated in the NESARC sample, and 359 cannabis users participated in the Zuid-Holland sample. The DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence criteria as well as cannabis withdrawal were determined using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Results: Using Restricted Factor Analysis with Latent Moderated Structures, the cannabis abuse/dependence criteria legal problems (β = -0.43), failed quit attempts (β = -1.09), use despite problems (β = -0.32), and withdrawal (β = -0.53) showed measurement bias, and were more likely to be endorsed by U.S. than by Dutch cannabis users. Also, men were more likely than women to endorse the criteria hazardous use (β = -0.27), legal problems (β = -0.49) and tolerance (β = -0.20). Findings on failed quit attempts and withdrawal were replicated in matched subsamples, while results on legal problems (country and gender) were partly replicated. Conclusions: Several CUD criteria showed measurement bias across two countries and between males and females. Therefore, differences between countries and gender in prevalence rates of CUD should be regarded with caution.
    Substance Use &amp Misuse 11/2014; DOI:10.3109/10826084.2014.952445 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parental feeding practices are associated with children's body mass index (BMI). It has been generally assumed that parental feeding determines children's eating behaviors and weight gain, but feeding practices could equally be a parent's response to child weight.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2014; 100(5):1329-36. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.088922 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children's behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream education cannot be generalized to special education. The present study investigated the developmental links between disobedience and positive as well as negative relationships with teachers and peers among boys in restrictive special educational settings. At three assessment waves across one school year, teacher-reports of teacher-child closeness and conflict, and peer-reports of peer acceptance, rejection and disobedience were collected among 340 boys (mean age = 10.1 years, SD = 1.58, range = 5-13) with psychiatric disorders receiving special education. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were fitted to explore the nature of these developmental links. The impact of boys' age was examined using multiple group analyses. Findings supported the importance of teacher-child conflict, but not closeness, and positive and negative peer relationships for the development of boys' disobedience, with a stronger effect of negative than positive relationships. However, teacher-child and peer relationships were not longitudinally related and the effect of boys' age was minimal. This study extends prior research by suggesting that, despite differences in educational setting and severity of behavior problems between children in mainstream and special education, reducing negative classroom interactional patterns is most important in preventing the development of problematic classroom behavior in boys with severe social-emotional and behavioral difficulties.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10802-014-9935-0 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104793. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104793 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the moderating influence of parental variables on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) or a Fontan circulation after participation in standardized exercise training. A multicenter randomized controlled trail in which 56 patients, aged 10-15, were randomly allocated (stratified by age, gender, and congenital heart disease) to a 12-week period with either: (a) 3 times per week standardized exercise training or (b) care-as-usual (randomization ratio 2:1). Adolescents and their parents filled in online questionnaires at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. In this randomized controlled trail, primary analyses involved influence of parental mental health and parental social support for exercise on changes in the TNO/AZL Child Quality of Life Questionnaire Child Form at follow-up. Secondary analyses concerned comparing levels of parental characteristics with normative data. Compared with controls, adolescents in the exercise group reported a decrease in social functioning when their parents had more anxiety/insomnia or severe depression themselves. Adolescents also reported a decrease in social functioning when their parents showed poorer overall mental health themselves. Parents reported comparable or even better mental health compared with normative data. The effect of a standardized exercise program on HRQoL changes in adolescents with ToF or a Fontan circulation is moderated by parental mental health, more specifically by parental anxiety/insomnia and severe depression. The trial registration number of this article is NTR2731 ( www.trialregister.nl ).
    Pediatric Cardiology 07/2014; 36(1). DOI:10.1007/s00246-014-0961-z · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a disruption in the flow of thought, which is inferred from disorganisation of spoken language. FTD in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) might be a precursor of psychotic disorders or a manifestation of ASD symptom severity. The current longitudinal study is a seven-year follow-up of 91 individuals aged 5-12 years with ASD. We tested (1) whether childhood FTD predicted prodromal symptoms of psychosis in adolescence and (2) whether childhood FTD was associated with greater ASD symptom severity in adolescence. ASD symptom severity was assessed in childhood (T1) and 7 years later (T2), using the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS). At T1, the Kiddie-Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale (KFTDS) was used to measure symptoms of FTD. At T2, the prodromal questionnaire (PQ) was used to assess prodromal symptoms of psychosis. FTD at T1 did not predict prodromal symptoms of psychosis at T2 in children with ASD. FTD symptoms at T1, namely illogical thinking, predicted ASD symptom severity at T2 and this effect remained significant after controlling for T1 ASD symptom severity. In children with ASD, illogical thinking predicts severity of ASD symptoms in adolescence, but FTD does not predict prodromal symptoms of psychosis.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 05/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.1007/s00787-014-0552-9 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children meeting the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) suffer from high levels of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. Little is known about the cognitive abilities of these children with CBCL-DP. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence. Parents of 6,131 children from a population-based birth cohort, aged 5 through 7 years, reported problem behavior on the CBCL/1.5-5. The CBCL-DP was derived using latent profile analysis on the CBCL/1.5-5 syndrome scales. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed using the Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2.5-7-Revised. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence using linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for parental intelligence, parental psychiatric symptoms, socio-economic status, and perinatal factors. In a subsample with diagnostic interview data, we tested if the results were independent of the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The results showed that children meeting the CBCL-DP (n = 110, 1.8 %) had a 11.0 point lower nonverbal intelligence level than children without problems and 7.2-7.3 points lower nonverbal intelligence level than children meeting other profiles of problem behavior (all p values <0.001). After adjustment for covariates, children with CBCL-DP scored 8.3 points lower than children without problems (p < 0.001). The presence of ADHD or ASD did not account for the lower nonverbal intelligence in children with CBCL-DP. In conclusion, we found that children with CBCL-DP have a considerable lower nonverbal intelligence score. The CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence may share a common neurodevelopmental etiology.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00787-014-0551-x · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parent-teacher cross-informant agreement, although usually modest, may provide important clinical information. Using data for 27,962 children from 21 societies, we asked the following: (a) Do parents report more problems than teachers, and does this vary by society, age, gender, or type of problem? (b) Does parent-teacher agreement vary across different problem scales or across societies? (c) How well do parents and teachers in different societies agree on problem item ratings? (d) How much do parent-teacher dyads in different societies vary in within-dyad agreement on problem items? (e) How well do parents and teachers in 21 societies agree on whether the child's problem level exceeds a deviance threshold? We used five methods to test agreement for Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) ratings. CBCL scores were higher than TRF scores on most scales, but the informant differences varied in magnitude across the societies studied. Cross-informant correlations for problem scale scores varied moderately across societies studied and were significantly higher for Externalizing than Internalizing problems. Parents and teachers tended to rate the same items as low, medium, or high, but within-dyad item agreement varied widely in every society studied. In all societies studied, both parental noncorroboration of teacher-reported deviance and teacher noncorroboration of parent-reported deviance were common. Our findings underscore the importance of obtaining information from parents and teachers when evaluating and treating children, highlight the need to use multiple methods of quantifying cross-informant agreement, and provide comprehensive baselines for patterns of parent-teacher agreement across 21 societies.
    Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 04/2014; 43(4):627-642. DOI:10.1080/15374416.2014.900719 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has components of both irritability and defiance. It remains unclear whether children with variation in these domains have different adult outcomes. This study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of classes of oppositional defiant behavior. Latent class analysis was performed on the oppositional defiant problems scale of the Child Behavior Checklist in two samples, one in the US (the Achenbach Normative Sample, N = 2029) and one in the Netherlands (the Zuid-Holland Study, N = 2076). A third sample of American children (The Vermont Family Study, N = 399) was examined to determine concurrent validity with DSM diagnoses. Predictive validity over 14 years was assessed using the Zuid-Holland Study. Four classes of oppositional defiant problems were consistent in the two latent class analyses: No Symptoms, All Symptoms, Irritable, and Defiant. Individuals in the No Symptoms Class were rarely diagnosed concurrently with ODD or any future disorder. Individuals in the All Symptoms Class had an increased frequency of concurrent childhood diagnosis of ODD and of violence in adulthood. Subjects in the Irritable Class had low concurrent diagnosis of ODD, but increased odds of adult mood disorders. Individuals in the Defiant Class had low concurrent diagnosis of ODD, but had increased odds of violence as adults. Only children in the All Symptoms class were likely to have a concurrent diagnosis of ODD. Although not diagnosed with ODD, children in the Irritable Class were more likely to have adult mood disorders and children in the Defiant Class were more likely to engage in violent behavior.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 03/2014; 55(10). DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12233 · 5.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Definitions and assessment methods of fussy/picky eating are heterogeneous and remain unclear.We aimed to identify an eating behavior profile reflecting fussy/picky eating in children and to describe characteristics of fussy eaters. Eating behavior was assessed with the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) in 4914 4-year olds in a population-based birth cohort study. Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) was used to identify eating behavior profiles based on CEBQ subscales. We found a "fussy" eating behavior profile (5.6% of children) characterized by high food fussiness, slowness in eating, and satiety responsiveness in combination with low enjoyment of food and food responsiveness. Fussy eaters were more often from families with low household income than non-fussy eaters (42% vs. 31.8% respectively; Chi2(1) = 9.97, p < .01). When they were 14 months old, fussy eaters had a lower intake of vegetables (t [3008] = 2.42, p < .05) and fish (t [169.77] = 2.40, p < .05) but higher intake of savory snacks (t [153.69] = -2.03, p < .05) and sweets (t [3008] = -2.30, p < .05) compared to non-fussy eaters. Also, fussy eaters were more likely to be underweight at 4 years of age (19.3%) than non-fussy eaters (12.3%; Chi2(1) = 7.71, p < .01). A distinct fussy eating behavior profile was identified by LPA, which was related to family and child characteristics, food intake, and BMI. This behavior profile might be used in future research and the development of interventions.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 02/2014; 11(1):14. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-11-14 · 3.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
766.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2015
    • Erasmus MC
      • • Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry / Psychology
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1991–2014
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Queensland
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2012
    • Bryn Mawr College
      • Department of Psychology
      Bryn Mawr, PA, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Murcia
      Murcia, Murcia, Spain
  • 2010
    • University of Vermont
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Burlington, VT, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Het Oogziekenhuis Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003–2007
    • Nederlands Instituut voor onderzoek van de Gezondheidszorg
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2005
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1985–1988
    • University of Groningen
      • • Department of Health Sciences
      • • Department of Psychology
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1986
    • Umeå University
      Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden
    • Odense University Hospital
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark