ABSTRACT: This study investigated gp120-binding antibody and neutralizing activity, at the gingival- and cervical-mucosal levels, in response to a bivalent gp120 candidate vaccine.
Women who met the study's inclusion criteria for documented high-risk behaviors participated in a nested substudy of the multicenter phase 3 trial of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-vaccine efficacy, VAX004. Gingival, cervicovaginal lavage, and plasma specimens were collected at 6-month intervals for 3 years. Binding-antibody and neutralizing-activity assays quantified the presence of anti-HIV activity in mucosal specimens.
Vaccine recipients were more likely than placebo recipients to have IgG binding antibodies in all 3 compartments tested and to have only IgA binding antibody in plasma (P<.0001). The relationship between vaccine and cervicovaginal IgG achieved significance (odds ratio [OR], 6.6 [P=.01]) but was weakened by the presence of cervicovaginal leukocytes. There was no relationship between immunization and the presence of neutralizing activity, in either bivariate or multivariate modeling (OR, 6.0 [P=.29]).
Vaccination is associated with the presence of both gp120-binding IgG in all compartments and plasma IgA but not with neutralizing activity. There is a role for the measurement of mucosal immunity in response to candidate vaccines and, in particular, for a determination of HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2007; 196(11):1637-44. · 6.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of an HIV vaccine on mucosal innate factor expression. Serum, gingival fluid, and genital mucosal secretions were collected from high-risk women and men enrolled in an HIV-1 efficacy vaccine trial and from low-risk women and men. Samples were tested by standard ELISA for lactoferrin, myeloid-related protein-8/14, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. No consistent significant changes in innate factor levels were found in serum or secretions from vaccinees compared to placebo recipients or from high-risk compared to low-risk individuals. Because of the importance of innate immunity in host defense, evaluation of the mucosal innate immune system should be included in future HIV prevention trials.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 06/2007; 23(5):748-54. · 2.25 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with complications of pregnancy and increased susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual transmission.
The ability of genital mucosal fluids from women with BV and of microbial flora associated with BV to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha secretion and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 mRNA expression was assessed.
Primary peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and THP-1 monocytic cells secreted TNF- alpha in response to cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples from women with BV. Mycoplasma hominis and Gardnerella vaginalis also stimulated TNF- alpha secretion. Strikingly, CVL samples from women with BV induced up to 60-fold increases in TLR4 mRNA expression, compared with CVL samples from women without BV and with bacteria not associated with BV. Anti-TNF- alpha antibody blocked increases in TLR4 mRNA expression induced by CVL samples from women with BV, indicating that TNF- alpha plays a critical role in induction of TLR4. Both TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression were approximately 60-fold higher in cells isolated from the lumen of the genital tract than in cervical mucosal tissue, but lumen TLR mRNA levels did not change significantly after BV treatment.
These experiments show that genital mucosal fluids and certain bacteria from women with BV stimulate TNF- alpha secretion and TLR4 mRNA expression, suggesting mechanisms whereby BV affects pregnancy and HIV transmission.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2005; 191(11):1913-21. · 6.41 Impact Factor