Jinho Lee

Keimyung University, Seoul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (18)38.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the 11th leading cancer by incidence worldwide. Surgery and radiotherapy have been the major treatment for patients with HNSCC while chemotherapy has become an important treatment option for locally advanced HNSCC. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HNSCC impelled the development of targeted therapeutic agents. The development and combinations of targeted therapies in different cellular pathways may be needed to fulfill the unmet needs of current HNSCC chemotherapy. A series of N3-acyl-N5-aryl-3,5-diaminoindazoles were synthesized and their anti-proliferative activity were evaluated against human cancer cell lines, Caki, A549, AMC-HN1, AMC-HN3, AMC-HN4, AMC-HN6, and SNU449. The cellular selectivity of compound was obtained by the modification of substituent at N5-aryl group of 3,5-diaminoindazole. Compound 9a and 9b showed more than 7-fold selectivity for AMC-HN4 and AMC-HN3, respectively. N3-acyl-N5-aryl-3,5-diaminoindazole analogues can be used as hits in the development of anticancer drug for HNSCC.
    DARU-JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF PHARMACY 01/2014; 22(1):4. · 0.62 Impact Factor
  • Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A series of amide derivatives of 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid was synthesized in two steps. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by using four different in vitro models such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity and FTC and TBA anti-lipid peroxidation activity. Most of compounds were more powerful radical scavengers than vitamin C and were comparable to Trolox. It was found that there were no direct correlations between radical scavenging and anti-peroxidation activities. The inhibitory activity of compound on lipid peroxidation showed remarkable dependency on both the number of phenolic hydroxyl group and the length of methylene linker in N-arylalkyl group of amide. Compound 14, a conjugate of 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dopamine, was found as powerful antioxidant as propyl gallate in all four antioxidant assays.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 07/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary need more study to be established. Therefore, in this study, the effects of rosemary on the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and cytokine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. A methanol extract of rosemary and its hexane fraction reduced NO generation with an IC(50) of 2.75 and 2.83μg/ml, respectively. Also, the methanol extract and the hexane fraction inhibited LPS-induced MAPKs and NF-kB activation associated with the inhibition of iNOS or COX-2 expression. LPS-induced production of PGE(2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were blocked by rosemary. Rosemary extract and its hexane fraction are important for the prevention of phosphorylation of MAPKs, thereby blocking NF-kB activation, which in turn leads to decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2, thus preventing inflammation.
    Food Chemistry 01/2013; 136(2):1047-54. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study. This study investigated effects of the rosemary components, carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CAR), on cell migration. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by Western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively, in RAW 264.7 macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC migration was assessed by a Matrigel migration assay. Active compounds of rosemary extracts were also analyzed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MMP-9 and MCP-1 activities were markedly diminished with methanol extract (RM), n-hexane fraction (RH), and CA in RAW 264.7 cells. RM, RH, CA, and CAR suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced VSMC migration by inhibiting MMP-9 expression. Chromatograms of RM- and RH-containing CA and CAR revealed higher CA contents of RM (9.4%, 93.85 μg/mg dry wt.) and, especially, RH (18.4%, 184.00 μg/mg dry wt.), which were appreciably elevated compared with the similar CAR content in RM and RH (3.7%, 37.30 μg/mg dry wt.; and 2.5%, 25.05 μg/mg dry wt., respectively). Rosemary, especially its CA component, has potential antiatherosclerosis effects related to cell migration.
    Journal of medicinal food 09/2012; 15(10):879-86. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we have synthesized a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, 2-[1,1'biphenyl]-4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1λ(6) -isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]acetamide (BAI) and reported its anti-cancer activity in head and neck cancer cells. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of BAI on growth of various human cancer cell lines, including A549 (non small cell lung cancer), HCT116 (colon), and Caki (kidney). Profoundly, results of XTT and clonogenic assays demonstrated that BAI at nanomolar concentrations (20-60 nM) inhibited growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, suggesting the anti-cancer potency. We show that BAI induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in these human cancer cells, as measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Interestingly, further biochemical analysis showed that treatment with BAI at 20 nM induced apoptosis in A549 cells in association with activation of caspases, cleavage of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), transcriptional down-regulation of Mcl-1 (L) and XIAP, and inhibition of Akt in A549 cells. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition study revealed that pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor strongly blocked the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Transfection analysis with Akt cDNA encoding constitutively active Akt further addressed the significance of Akt inhibition in the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Notably, disruption of the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor potentiated apoptosis in A549 cells by BAI at a subcytotoxic concentration. These findings collectively suggest that BAI potently inhibits growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, and that the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells is associated with activation of caspases, down-regulation of Mcl-1 (L) and XIAP, and inhibition of Akt. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 08/2012; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its products, including PGE2, are key inflammatory mediators. In this study, we have assessed the pharmacological characteristics of BAI, a 3-aminoindazole derivative and a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, for regulation of COX-2 expression induced by interleukin (IL)-1β in A549 human airway cells. Treatment with BAI strongly inhibited IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 at both the protein and mRNA levels. Results of luciferase experiments also revealed that BAI treatment reduced IL-1β-induced COX-2 promoter activity. Distinctly, treatment with BAI did not affect IL-1β-induced phospho-rylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase-1/2 (JNK-1/2) and proteolysis of IκB-α, an inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, but inhibited IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of histone H1, a target for phosphorylation by CDKs. siRNA transfection experiments demonstrated that knockdown of CDK2 and CDK4 led to a slight reduction of IL-1β-induced histone H1 phosphorylation but had no effect on IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression. Interestingly, additional cell culture experiments showed the ability of BAI to repress the PMA-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells and serum-dependent COX-2 expression in NCI-H292 cells, a human laryngeal cell line. Collectively, these results demonstrate firstly that BAI downregulates IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression through transcriptional repression, which appears to be independent of CDK2, CDK4, MAPKs and NF-κB, in A549 cells. It is suggested that BAI may be a potential candidate for treatment of the airway inflammatory diseases where COX-2 overexpression is problematic.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 12/2011; 29(3):454-60. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of new 2-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)phenol derivatives were synthesized as potential antitumor compounds. Substitution with pyrrolidine-3,4-diol at the 4-position of phenol provided potent inhibitory activity against CDK1 and CDK2. X-ray crystal structural studies were performed to account for the effect of the substituent on both the enzymatic and cell growth inhibitory activities.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 05/2011; 21(14):4203-5. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BAI (a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, 2-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1lambda(6)-isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl] acetamide) is known to have anti-proliferative activity, but the mechanism responsible for it remains unclear. We here investigated the functional effect of BAI on airway inflammation and its action mechanism. BAI down-regulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human lung epithelial A549 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha: (TNF-alpha), resulting in the suppression of leukocyte adhesion to lung epithelial A549 cells. In addition, BAI inhibited TNF-alpha-induced expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) protein and mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. BAI inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Furthermore, BAI potently inhibits the TNF-alpha-induced increase in ROS generation in A549 cells, suggesting that inhibition of ROS generation is maybe involved in the BAI-mediated inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 down-regulation to A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that BAI inhibits cell adhesion through inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions, at least in part, by inhibition of ROS generation and down-regulation of NF-kappaB activity.
    International immunopharmacology 02/2010; 10(5):572-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • ChemInform 01/2010; 33(9).
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and the growth of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in head and neck cancer cells treated by a novel CDK inhibitor, 2-[1,1'-biphenyl]- 4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1lambda(6)-isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl] acetamide (BAI). Cell growth was measured by XTT assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were determined using flow cytometry. GeneFishing PCR was utilized to identify DEGs. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot. Exposure to BAI of 2 different head and neck cancer cell lines, AMC-HN4 and AMC-HN6, induced apoptosis in association with growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, caspase-3 activation and cytochrome c release. Significantly, data from GeneFishing PCR experiments demonstrated 10 DEGs in AMC-HN6 cells treated with BAI. Some of these DEGs turned out to encode proteins with functions related to key cellular processes. These results indicate that BAI has strong anticancer activities on head and neck cancer cells, and the DEGs induced by BAI may become involved in BAI-induced cancer cell death.
    Chemotherapy 09/2009; 55(5):353-62. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The screening of the chemical library for the anti-proliferative activity of the chemical library provided 2,5-diaminobenzamide as the initial hit. The confirmation and the optimization of hit were performed by synthesis followed by the evaluation of growth inhibitory activity against human cancer cell lines. The most active growth inhibitor showed IC(50) of 1.0 microM. The compound 7 increased not only sub-G1 population but also number of cells which are stained with Annexin V-FITC and 7-AAD, suggesting that compound 7 induced cell death is apoptosis.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 07/2009; 32(6):803-12. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel series of 3,5-diaminoindazoles were prepared and found to be CDK inhibitors. Potent inhibitors against CDK1 and CDK2 were obtained by introduction of 1lambda(6)-isothiazolidine-1,1-dioxide at 5-position of indazole. Anti-proliferative activities of compounds were evaluated using EJ, HCT116, SW620, and A549 cancer cell lines.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 05/2008; 18(7):2292-5. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel series of 3-hydroxychromones were prepared and found to be CDK inhibitors. Isothiazolidine 1,1-dioxide analogues showed potent CDK1 and CDK2 inhibitory activities and inhibited proliferation of EJ, HCT116, SW620, and MDAMB468 cancer cells.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 04/2007; 17(5):1284-7. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,3,5,5-Tetrasubstituted 2,4-imidazolinedione (hydantoin) derivatives were evaluated as Ftase inhibitors. Potent Ftase inhibitors without thiol or peptide were obtained in three steps.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 05/2006; 16(7):1954-6. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flavopiridol is one of the first cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors undergoing clinical tests. We found that the combination treatment of flavopiridol (100-500 nM) with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (10 ng/ml) induced a rapid and eminent apoptosis, 20 +/- 5% in 6-h treatment, in a human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line, A549, as determined by the increase of sub-G(1) fraction in flow cytometry. A similar observation was also made in human colon cancer cell lines, HCT-116 and HCT-15, but not in Rat2, a rat fibroblast cell line. In A549 cells, the cytotoxic synergy by the combination treatment involved the activation of caspase-1, caspase-3, and caspase-8 and generated huge chromosomal degradation. The treatment schedules were so important that only the treatments of flavopiridol concomitantly with or followed by TNF-alpha showed the pronounced apoptosis in A549 cells. Prior treatment of TNF-alpha inhibited the apoptosis by the following combination treatment, leading to little cell death. Yet, such inhibition was reversed when 100 microM of 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole, a transcription inhibitor, was present during the TNF-alpha pretreatment, suggesting that the inhibitory pretreatment of TNF-alpha might involve antiapoptotic gene expression at the transcriptional level. TNF-alpha treatment resulted in nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B activation, revealed by NF-kappa B activity reporter assay. In contrast, flavopiridol was found to inhibit the NF-kappa B-dependent gene transcription, which might give an explanation for the synergistic effect of flavopiridol with TNF-alpha. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL; 100 ng/ml) also caused a rapid and strong cytotoxic synergy with flavopiridol. In contrast to TNF-alpha, however, all of the treatment sequences supported the synergy by TRAIL and flavopiridol. The combination of flavopiridol with TNF-alpha or TRAIL may be of use for the development in cancer therapy.
    Cancer Research 03/2003; 63(3):621-6. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of a class of aryl pyrroles as farnesyltransferase inhibitors are described. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a panel of these inhibitors led to identification of 2 (LB42908) as a highly potent (IC(50)=0.9 nM against H-Ras and 2.4 nM against K-Ras) antitumor agent that is currently undergoing preclinical studies.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 01/2002; 11(23):3069-3072. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Design, synthesis and structure–activity relationship of a class of 3-aryl-4-aryloyl-1-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)methylpyrroles as farnesyltransferase inhibitors are described. Compound 7 inhibits farnesyltransferase with an IC50 value of 4.6nM.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters - BIOORG MEDICINAL CHEM LETTER. 01/2001; 11(22):2963-2965.

Publication Stats

70 Citations
38.68 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2013
    • Keimyung University
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Microbiology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea