[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differentiation of preadipocyte, also called adipogenesis, leads to the phenotype of mature adipocyte. Excessive adipogenesis, however, is largely linked to the development of obesity. Herein we investigated a library of 53 novel chemicals, generated from a number of polyphenolic natural compounds, on adipogenesis. Strikingly, among the chemicals tested, KMU-3, a derivative of gallic acid, strongly suppressed lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. On mechanistic levels, KMU-3 inhibited expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) during adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, KMU-3 reduced expressions of adipokines, including retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), leptin, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) during adipocyte differentiation. Of further note, KMU-3 rapidly blocked the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) during the early stage of adipogenesis. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition studies revealed that AG490, a JAK-2/STAT-3 inhibitor suppressed adipogenesis and STAT-3 phosphorylation, implying that early blockage of STAT-3 activity is crucial for the KMU-3-mediated anti-adipogenesis. These findings demonstrate firstly that KMU-3 inhibits adipogenesis by down-regulating STAT-3, PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and FAS. This work shows that KMU-3 is an inhibitor of adipogenesis and thus may have therapeutic potential against obesity.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109344. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meridianin C, a marine alkaloid, is a potent protein kinase inhibitor and has anti-cancer activity. We have recently developed a series of meridianin C derivatives (compound 7a–7j) and reported their pim kinases’ inhibitory and anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia cells. Here we investigated the effect of these meridianin C derivatives on adipogenesis. Strikingly, among the derivatives tested, compound 7b most strongly inhibited lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. However, meridianin C treatment was largely cytotoxic to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. On mechanistic levels, compound 7b reduced not only the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) but also the phosphorylation levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and STAT-5 during adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, compound 7b repressed leptin, but not adiponectin, expression during adipocyte differentiation. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a meridianin C derivative inhibits adipogenesis by down-regulating expressions and/or phosphorylations of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, STAT-3 and STAT-5.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported the potential of a novel Cdk inhibitor, 2-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1λ6-isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]acetamide (BAI) as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. In this study, we investigated mechanisms by which BAI modulates FTI-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. BAI synergizes with FTI to activate DEVDase, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and degradation of various anti-apoptotic proteins in Caki cells. BAI plus LB42708-induced apoptosis was inhibited by pretreatment with pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, but not by overexpression of CrmA. The ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) did not reduce BAI plus LB4270-induced apoptosis. Co-treatment of BAI and LB42708 reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ∆Ψm) in a time-dependent manner, and induced release of AIF and cytochrome c from mitochondria in Caki cells. Furthermore, BAL plus LB42708 induced downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins [c-FLIP (L), c-FLIP (s), Bcl-2, XIAP, and Mcl-1 (L)]. Especially, we found that BAI plus LB42708-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated by overexpression of Bcl-2 and partially blocked by overexpression of c-FLIP (L). Taken together, our results show that the activity of BAI plus LB42708 modulate multiple components in apoptotic response of human renal Caki cells, and indicate a potential as combinational therapeutic agents for preventing cancer such as renal carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pim kinases play a key role in the regulation of signaling pathways including proliferation, migration, and metabolism and are a potential target for cancer therapy. A series of 5-benzylidenethiazolidine-2,4-diones were synthesized as pim kinase inhibitors. The structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the analogues in inhibiting in vitro pim kinase activity as well as the proliferation of leukemia cell lines were examined. SAR studies indicated that a hydroxyl group at the 2-position of the benzene ring of 5-benzylidenethiazolidine-2,4-dione plays an important role in the inhibitory activity against all three pim kinases and replacement with a pyrazinyl group at the 5-position of the benzene ring of 5-benzylidenethiazolidine-2,4-dione improved activity significantly. The compounds exerted anti-proliferative activity against the three leukemia cell lines we tested. The most potent compound, 5i, had an EC50 value of 0.8 μM in the MV4-11 cell line. The result of kinase profiling indicated that compound 5i was highly selective for pim-kinases.
CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN 06/2014; · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel series of meridianin C derivatives substituted at C-5 position were prepared. These derivatives were tested for their kinase inhibitory potencies against all three family members of the pim kinases (Pim-1, Pim-2 and Pim-3). In addition, their antiproliferative activity towards three human leukemia cell lines as MV4-11, Jurkat clone E6-1 and K562 has been evaluated. Structure activity relationships at C-3 and C-5 positions of indole were performed to better understand the mechanism behind the enhanced potency. Compound 7f, the most active compound of the series showed a single-digit nanomolar IC50 with selectivity towards Pim-1 kinase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the 11th leading cancer by incidence worldwide. Surgery and radiotherapy have been the major treatment for patients with HNSCC while chemotherapy has become an important treatment option for locally advanced HNSCC. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HNSCC impelled the development of targeted therapeutic agents. The development and combinations of targeted therapies in different cellular pathways may be needed to fulfill the unmet needs of current HNSCC chemotherapy.
A series of N3-acyl-N5-aryl-3,5-diaminoindazoles were synthesized and their anti-proliferative activity were evaluated against human cancer cell lines, Caki, A549, AMC-HN1, AMC-HN3, AMC-HN4, AMC-HN6, and SNU449. The cellular selectivity of compound was obtained by the modification of substituent at N5-aryl group of 3,5-diaminoindazole. Compound 9a and 9b showed more than 7-fold selectivity for AMC-HN4 and AMC-HN3, respectively.
N3-acyl-N5-aryl-3,5-diaminoindazole analogues can be used as hits in the development of anticancer drug for HNSCC.
DARU-JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF PHARMACY 01/2014; 22(1):4. · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of amide derivatives of 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid was synthesized in two steps. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by using four different in vitro models such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity and FTC and TBA anti-lipid peroxidation activity. Most of compounds were more powerful radical scavengers than vitamin C and were comparable to Trolox. It was found that there were no direct correlations between radical scavenging and anti-peroxidation activities. The inhibitory activity of compound on lipid peroxidation showed remarkable dependency on both the number of phenolic hydroxyl group and the length of methylene linker in N-arylalkyl group of amide. Compound 14, a conjugate of 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dopamine, was found as powerful antioxidant as propyl gallate in all four antioxidant assays.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 07/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary need more study to be established. Therefore, in this study, the effects of rosemary on the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and cytokine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. A methanol extract of rosemary and its hexane fraction reduced NO generation with an IC(50) of 2.75 and 2.83μg/ml, respectively. Also, the methanol extract and the hexane fraction inhibited LPS-induced MAPKs and NF-kB activation associated with the inhibition of iNOS or COX-2 expression. LPS-induced production of PGE(2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were blocked by rosemary. Rosemary extract and its hexane fraction are important for the prevention of phosphorylation of MAPKs, thereby blocking NF-kB activation, which in turn leads to decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2, thus preventing inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study. This study investigated effects of the rosemary components, carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CAR), on cell migration. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by Western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively, in RAW 264.7 macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC migration was assessed by a Matrigel migration assay. Active compounds of rosemary extracts were also analyzed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MMP-9 and MCP-1 activities were markedly diminished with methanol extract (RM), n-hexane fraction (RH), and CA in RAW 264.7 cells. RM, RH, CA, and CAR suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced VSMC migration by inhibiting MMP-9 expression. Chromatograms of RM- and RH-containing CA and CAR revealed higher CA contents of RM (9.4%, 93.85 μg/mg dry wt.) and, especially, RH (18.4%, 184.00 μg/mg dry wt.), which were appreciably elevated compared with the similar CAR content in RM and RH (3.7%, 37.30 μg/mg dry wt.; and 2.5%, 25.05 μg/mg dry wt., respectively). Rosemary, especially its CA component, has potential antiatherosclerosis effects related to cell migration.
Journal of medicinal food 09/2012; 15(10):879-86. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IR3535 derivative (LJH158), in which the ethyl ester of IR3535 was converted to methyl ester, was synthesized and studied as a new mosquito repellent. The repellent efficacy of LJH158 was compared with that of DEET against Aedes albopictus, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes togoi. Also, the aromatic repellent tests were conducted with mixtures of repellents and the essential oils of cinnamon, which were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction. In addition, the safety issues of LJH158 were monitored using single oral dose safety methods and eye irritation, and skin irritation tests. The results of repellent efficacy in both biting and aromatic tests and safety tests demonstrate that LJH158 has high potential to be used as a new repellent or in combination with other repellents.
Entomological Research 01/2012; 42(6). · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its products, including PGE2, are key inflammatory mediators. In this study, we have assessed the pharmacological characteristics of BAI, a 3-aminoindazole derivative and a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, for regulation of COX-2 expression induced by interleukin (IL)-1β in A549 human airway cells. Treatment with BAI strongly inhibited IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 at both the protein and mRNA levels. Results of luciferase experiments also revealed that BAI treatment reduced IL-1β-induced COX-2 promoter activity. Distinctly, treatment with BAI did not affect IL-1β-induced phospho-rylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase-1/2 (JNK-1/2) and proteolysis of IκB-α, an inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, but inhibited IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of histone H1, a target for phosphorylation by CDKs. siRNA transfection experiments demonstrated that knockdown of CDK2 and CDK4 led to a slight reduction of IL-1β-induced histone H1 phosphorylation but had no effect on IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression. Interestingly, additional cell culture experiments showed the ability of BAI to repress the PMA-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells and serum-dependent COX-2 expression in NCI-H292 cells, a human laryngeal cell line. Collectively, these results demonstrate firstly that BAI downregulates IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression through transcriptional repression, which appears to be independent of CDK2, CDK4, MAPKs and NF-κB, in A549 cells. It is suggested that BAI may be a potential candidate for treatment of the airway inflammatory diseases where COX-2 overexpression is problematic.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 12/2011; 29(3):454-60. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of new 2-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)phenol derivatives were synthesized as potential antitumor compounds. Substitution with pyrrolidine-3,4-diol at the 4-position of phenol provided potent inhibitory activity against CDK1 and CDK2. X-ray crystal structural studies were performed to account for the effect of the substituent on both the enzymatic and cell growth inhibitory activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BAI (a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, 2-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1lambda(6)-isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl] acetamide) is known to have anti-proliferative activity, but the mechanism responsible for it remains unclear. We here investigated the functional effect of BAI on airway inflammation and its action mechanism. BAI down-regulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human lung epithelial A549 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha: (TNF-alpha), resulting in the suppression of leukocyte adhesion to lung epithelial A549 cells. In addition, BAI inhibited TNF-alpha-induced expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) protein and mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. BAI inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Furthermore, BAI potently inhibits the TNF-alpha-induced increase in ROS generation in A549 cells, suggesting that inhibition of ROS generation is maybe involved in the BAI-mediated inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 down-regulation to A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that BAI inhibits cell adhesion through inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions, at least in part, by inhibition of ROS generation and down-regulation of NF-kappaB activity.
International immunopharmacology 02/2010; 10(5):572-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and the growth of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in head and neck cancer cells treated by a novel CDK inhibitor, 2-[1,1'-biphenyl]- 4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1lambda(6)-isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl] acetamide (BAI).
Cell growth was measured by XTT assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were determined using flow cytometry. GeneFishing PCR was utilized to identify DEGs. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot.
Exposure to BAI of 2 different head and neck cancer cell lines, AMC-HN4 and AMC-HN6, induced apoptosis in association with growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, caspase-3 activation and cytochrome c release. Significantly, data from GeneFishing PCR experiments demonstrated 10 DEGs in AMC-HN6 cells treated with BAI. Some of these DEGs turned out to encode proteins with functions related to key cellular processes.
These results indicate that BAI has strong anticancer activities on head and neck cancer cells, and the DEGs induced by BAI may become involved in BAI-induced cancer cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The screening of the chemical library for the anti-proliferative activity of the chemical library provided 2,5-diaminobenzamide as the initial hit. The confirmation and the optimization of hit were performed by synthesis followed by the evaluation of growth inhibitory activity against human cancer cell lines. The most active growth inhibitor showed IC(50) of 1.0 microM. The compound 7 increased not only sub-G1 population but also number of cells which are stained with Annexin V-FITC and 7-AAD, suggesting that compound 7 induced cell death is apoptosis.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 07/2009; 32(6):803-12. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel series of 3,5-diaminoindazoles were prepared and found to be CDK inhibitors. Potent inhibitors against CDK1 and CDK2 were obtained by introduction of 1lambda(6)-isothiazolidine-1,1-dioxide at 5-position of indazole. Anti-proliferative activities of compounds were evaluated using EJ, HCT116, SW620, and A549 cancer cell lines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel series of 3-hydroxychromones were prepared and found to be CDK inhibitors. Isothiazolidine 1,1-dioxide analogues showed potent CDK1 and CDK2 inhibitory activities and inhibited proliferation of EJ, HCT116, SW620, and MDAMB468 cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1,3,5,5-Tetrasubstituted 2,4-imidazolinedione (hydantoin) derivatives were evaluated as Ftase inhibitors. Potent Ftase inhibitors without thiol or peptide were obtained in three steps.