Fumio Yatagai

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chōfu, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (70)114.77 Total impact

  • Fumio Yatagai, Noriaki Ishioka
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    ABSTRACT: Two major factors of space environment are space radiation and microgravity. It is generally considered that a high level of ionizing radiation (IR) in space has an influence on living organisms including humans; therefore, the possible alteration of space-radiation influences by the microgravity environment is of great concern. In fact, examination of such a possibility has been extensively conducted since the early days of space experiments, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity in some experiments but a negative observation in others. Because these complicated results remain not well understood, we propose a solution to this problem. Gene expression analysis is one of the solutions to the problem. In fact, gene expression may be changed by microgravity, and further modification may be possible through IR. This result could reveal an interactive effect of both factors on the cellular responses, which could in turn reveal whether the human-health abnormalities expected under the microgravity environment can be altered by space radiation. We believe that this is a new aspect in the study of the interactive effect of radiation and microgravity. However, further improvements in space experimental technologies are required for future studies.
    Life sciences and space research 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In view of the concern for the health of astronauts that may one day journey to Mars or the Moon, we investigated the effect that space radiation and microgravity might have on DNA damage and repair. We sent frozen human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to the International Space Station where they were maintained under frozen conditions during a 134-day mission (14 November 2008 to 28 March 2009) except for an incubation period of 8 days under 1G or μG conditions in a CO2 incubator. The incubation period started after 100 days during which the cells had been exposed to 54mSv of space radiation. The incubated cells were then refrozen, returned to Earth, and compared to ground control samples for the determination of the influence of microgravity on cell survival and mutation induction. The results for both varied from experiment to experiment, yielding a large SD, but the μG sample results differed significantly from the 1G sample results for each of 2 experiments, with the mean ratio of μG to 1G being 0.55 for the concentration of viable cells and 0.59 for the fraction of thymidine kinase deficient (TK−) mutants. Among the mutants, non-loss of zygosity events (point mutations) were less frequent (31%) after μG incubation than after 1G incubation, which might be explained by the influence of μG on cellular metabolic or physiological function. Additional experiments are needed to clarify the effect of μG interferes on DNA repair.
    Advances in Space Research 02/2012; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the space-radiation effects separately from other space-environmental effects such as microgravity, frozen human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were sent to the "Kibo" module of the International Space Station (ISS), preserved under frozen condition during the mission and finally recovered to Earth (after a total of 134 days flight, 72 mSv). Biological assays were performed on the cells recovered to Earth. We observed a tendency of increase (2.3-fold) in thymidine kinase deficient (TK(-)) mutations over the ground control. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis on the mutants also demonstrated a tendency of increase in proportion of the large deletion (beyond the TK locus) events, 6/41 in the in-flight samples and 1/17 in the ground control. Furthermore, in-flight samples exhibited 48% of the ground-control level in TK(-) mutation frequency upon exposure to a subsequent 2 Gy dose of X-rays, suggesting a tendency of radioadaptation when compared with the ground-control samples. The tendency of radioadaptation was also supported by the post-flight assays on DNA double-strand break repair: a 1.8- and 1.7-fold higher efficiency of in-flight samples compared to ground control via non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination, respectively. These observations suggest that this system can be used as a biodosimeter, because DNA damage generated by space radiation is considered to be accumulated in the cells preserved frozen during the mission, Furthermore, this system is also suggested to be applicable for evaluating various cellular responses to low-dose space radiation, providing a better understanding of biological space-radiation effects as well as estimation of health influences of future space explores.
    Biophysik 03/2011; 50(1):125-34. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this review, we would like to introduce a unique approach for the estimation of radioadaptation. Recently, we proposed a new methodology for evaluating the repair efficiency of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) using a model system. The model system can trace the fate of a single DSB, which is introduced within intron 4 of the TK gene on chromosome 17 in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells by the expression of restriction enzyme I-SceI. This methodology was first applied to examine whether repair of the DSB (at the I-SceI site) can be influenced by low-dose, low-dose rate gamma-ray irradiation. We found that such low-dose IR exposure could enhance the activity of DSB repair through homologous recombination (HR). HR activity was also enhanced due to the pre-IR irradiation under the established conditions for radioadaptation (50 mGy X-ray-6 h-I-SceI treatment). Therefore, radioadaptation might account for the reduced frequency of homozygous loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events observed in our previous experiment (50 mGy X-ray-6 h-2 Gy X-ray). We suggest that the present evaluation of DSB repair using this I-SceI system, may contribute to our overall understanding of radioadaptation.
    Journal of Radiation Research 09/2009; 50(5):407-13. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The biological effects of radiation originate principally in damages to DNA. DNA damages by X rays as well as heavy ions are induced by a combination of direct and indirect actions. The contribution of indirect action in cell killing can be estimated from the maximum degree of protection by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which suppresses indirect action without affecting direct action. Exponentially growing Chinese hamster V79 cells were exposed to high-LET radiations of 20 to 2106 keV/mum in the presence or absence of DMSO and their survival was determined using a colony formation assay. The contribution of indirect action to cell killing decreased with increasing LET. However, the contribution did not reach zero even at very high LETs and was estimated to be 32% at an LET of 2106 keV/mum. Therefore, even though the radiochemically estimated G value of OH radicals was nearly zero at an LET of 1000 keV/mum, indirect action by OH radicals contributed to a substantial fraction of the biological effects of high-LET radiations. The RBE determined at a survival level of 10% increased with LET, reaching a maximum value of 2.88 at 200 keV/mum, and decreased thereafter. When the RBE was estimated separately for direct action (RBE(D)) and indirect action (RBE(I)); both exhibited an LET dependence similar to that of the RBE, peaking at 200 keV/mum. However, the peak value was much higher for RBE(D) (5.99) than RBE(I) (1.89). Thus direct action contributes more to the high RBE of high-LET radiations than indirect action does.
    Radiation Research 03/2009; 171(2):212-8. · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Biological Sciences in Space 01/2009; 23(1):11-16.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the influence of low-dose, low-dose-rate gamma-ray irradiation on DNA double strand break (DSB) repair in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. A single DSB was introduced at intron 4 of the TK+ allele (chromosome 17) by transfection with the I-SceI expression vector pCBASce. We assessed for DSB repair due to non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) by determining the generation of TK-deficient mutants in the TK6 derivative TSCE5 (TK +/-) carrying an I-SceI recognition site. We similarly estimated DSB repair via homologous recombination (HR) at the same site in the derived compound heterozygote (TK-/-) cell line TSCER2 that carries an additional point mutation in exon 5. The NHEJ repair of DSB was barely influenced by pre-irradiation of the cells with 30 mGy gamma-rays at 1.2 mGy h(-1). DSB repair by HR, in contrast, was enhanced by approximately 50% after pre-irradiation of the cells under these conditions. Furthermore, when I-SceI digestion was followed by irradiation at a dose of 8.5 mGy, delivered at a dose rate of only 0.125 mGy h(-1), HR repair efficiency was enhanced by approximately 80%. This experimental approach can be applied to characterize DSB repair in the low-dose region of ionizing radiation.
    Biophysik 07/2008; 47(4):439-44. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the mutagenic radioadaptive response of human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells by pretreating them with a low dose (5 cGy) of X-rays followed by a high (2 Gy) dose 6h later. Pretreatment reduced the 2-Gy-induced mutation frequency (MF) of the thymidine kinase (TK) gene (18.3 x 10(-6)) to 62% of the original level (11.4 x 10(-6)). A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) detection analysis applied to the isolated TK(-) mutants revealed the mutational events as non-LOH (resulting mostly from a point mutation in the TK gene), hemizygous LOH (resulting from a chromosomal deletion), or homozygous LOH (resulting from homologous recombination (HR) between chromosomes). For non-LOH events, pretreatment decreased the frequency to 27% of the original level (from 7.1 x 10(-6) to 1.9 x 10(-6)). cDNAs prepared from the non-LOH mutants revealed that the decrease was due mainly to the repression of base substitutions. The frequency of hemizygous LOH events, however, was not significantly altered by pretreatment. Mapping analysis of chromosome 17 demonstrated that the distribution and the extent of hemizygous LOH events were also not significantly influenced by pretreatment. For homozygous LOH events, pretreatment reduced the frequency to 61% of the original level (from 5.1 x 10(-6) to 3.1 x 10(-6)), reflecting an enhancement in HR repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Our findings suggest that the radioadaptive response in TK6 cells follows mainly from mutations at the base-sequence level, not the chromosome level.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 03/2008; 638(1-2):48-55. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the genetic effects of low-doses and low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (IR), human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were exposed to 30 mGy of gamma-rays at a dose-rate of 1.2 mGy/hr. The frequency of early mutations (EMs) in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene locus was determined to be 1.7 x 10(-6), or 1.9-fold higher than the level seen in unirradated controls. These mutations were analyzed with a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) detection system, a methodology which has been shown to be sensitive to the effects of radiation. Among the 15 EMs observed after IR exposure, 8 were small interstitial-deletion events restricted to the TK gene locus. However, this specific type of event was not found in unirradiated controls. Although these results were observed under the limited conditions, they strongly suggest that the LOH detection system can be used for estimating the genetic effects of a low-dose IR exposure delivered at a low-dose-rate.
    Journal of Radiation Research 02/2007; 48(1):7-11. · 1.45 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Radiation Research - J RADIAT RES. 01/2007; 48(1):7-11.
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    ABSTRACT: This is a review paper to introduce our recent studies on the genetic effects of low-dose and low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (IR). Human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were exposed to γ-rays at a dose-rate of 1.2mGy/h (total 30mGy). The frequency of early mutations (EMs) in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene locus was determined to be 1.7×10−6, or 1.9-fold higher than the level seen in unirradated controls [Umebayashi, Y., Honma, M., Suzuki, M., Suzuki, H., Shimazu, T., Ishioka, N., Iwaki, M., Yatagai, F., Mutation induction in cultured human cells after low-dose and low-dose-rate γ-ray irradiation: detection by LOH analysis. J. Radiat. Res., 48, 7–11, 2007]. These mutants were then analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events. Small interstitial-deletion events were restricted to the TK gene locus and were not observed in EMs in unirradated controls, but they comprised about half of the EMs (8/15) after IR exposure. Because of the low level of exposure to IR, this specific type of event cannot be considered to be the direct result of an IR-induced DNA double strand break (DSB).To better understand the effects of low-level IR exposure, the repair efficiency of site-specific chromosomal DSBs was also examined. The pre γ-irradiation under the same condition did not largely influence the efficiency of DSB repair via end-joining, but enhanced such efficiency via homologous recombination to an about 40% higher level (unpublished data). All these results suggest that DNA repair and mutagenesis can be indirectly influenced by low-dose/dose-rate IR.
    Advances in Space Research 01/2007; 40(4):470-473. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes current technological seeds and backgrounds for development of advanced analyzer components, and proposed developement approaches for prototypes of advanced analyzers. Integrated advanced analyzing system is also proposed for practical applications.
    12/2006: pages 343-344;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of mutation induction on the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus in normal human fibroblast-like cells irradiated with accelerated neon-ion beams. The cells were irradiated with neon-ion beams at various LETs ranging from 63 to 335 keV/microm. Neon-ion beams were accelerated by the Riken Ring Cyclotron at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Japan. Mutation induction at the HPRT locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine-resistant clones. The mutation spectrum of the deletion pattern of exons of mutants was analyzed using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The dose-response curves increased steeply up to 0.5 Gy and leveled off or decreased between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, compared to the response to (137)Cs gamma-rays. The mutation frequency increased up to 105 keV/microm and then there was a downward trend with increasing LET values. The deletion pattern of exons was non-specific. About 75-100% of the mutants produced using LETs ranging from 63 to 335 keV/mum showed all or partial deletions of exons, while among gamma-ray-induced mutants 30% showed no deletions, 30% partial deletions and 40% complete deletions. These results suggested that the dose-response curves of neon-ion-induced mutations were dependent upon LET values, but the deletion pattern of DNA was not.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 03/2006; 594(1-2):86-92. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To detect the genetic influence of space environmental radiation at the chromosome level we proposed an application of loss of heterozygosity LOH analysis system for the mutations induced in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells Surprisingly we succeeded the mutation detection in the frozen dells which were exposed to a low-dose 10 cGy of carbon-ion beam irradiation Mutation assays were performed within a few days or after about one month preservation at --80 r C following irradiation The results showed an increase in mutation frequency at the thymidine kinase TK gene locus 1 6-fold 2 5 X 10 -6 to 3 9 X 10 -6 and 2 1-fold 2 5 X 10 -6 to 5 3 X 10 -6 respectively Although the relative distributions of mutation classes were not changed by the radiation exposure in either assay an interesting characteristic was detected using this LOH analysis system two TK locus markers and eleven microsatellite loci spanning chromosome 17 The radiation-specific patterns of interstitial deletions were observed in the hemizygous LOH mutants which were considered as a result of end-joining repair of carbon ion-induced DNA double-strand breaks These results clearly demonstrate that this analysis can be used for the detection of low-dose ionizing radiation effects in the frozen cells In addition we performed so called adaptive response experiments in which TK6 cells were pre-irradiated with low-dose 2 5 sim 10 cGy of X-ray and then exposed to challenging dose 2Gy of X-rays Interestingly the
    01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: The reason why RBE for cell killing fell to less than unity (1.0) with very high-LET heavy-ions ((40)Ar: 1,640 keV/microm; (56)Fe: 780, 1,200, 2,000 keV/microm) was explored by evaluating the fraction of non-hit cell (time-lapse observation) and cells undergoing interphase death (calculation based on our previous data). CHO cells were exposed to 4 Gy (30% survival dose) of Ar (1,640 keV/microm) or Fe-ions (2,000 keV/microm). About 20% of all cells were judged to be non-hit, and about 10% cells survived radiation damage. About 70% cells died after dividing at least once (reproductive death) or without dividing (interphase death). RBE for reproductive (RBE[R]) and interphase (RBE[I]) death showed a similar LET dependence with maximum around 200 keV/microm. In this LET region, at 30% survival level, about 10% non-survivors underwent interphase death. The corresponding value for very high-LET Fe-ions (2,000 keV/microm) was not particularly high (approximately 15%), whereas that for X-rays was less than 3%. However, reproductive death (67%) predominated over interphase death (33%) even in regard to rather severely damaged cells (1% survival level) after exposure to Fe-ions (2,000 keV/microm). These indicate that interphase death is a type of cell death characteristic for the cells exposed to high-LET radiation and is not caused by "cellular over kill effect". Both NHF37 (non-hit fraction at 37% survival) and inactivation cross-section for reproductive death (sigma[R]) began to increase when LET exceeded 100 keV/microm. The exclusion of non-hit fraction in the calculation of surviving fraction partially prevented the fall of RBE[R] when LET exceeded 200 keV/microm. On the other hand, the mean number of lethal damage per unit dose (NLD/Gy) showed the same LET-dependent pattern as RBE[R]. These suggest that the increase in non-hit fraction and sigma[R] with an increasing LET is caused by enhanced clustering of ionization and DNA damage which lowers the energy efficiency for producing damage and RBE.
    Journal of Radiation Research 10/2005; 46(3):343-50. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor induction in mice legs that were locally irradiated with carbon ions was compared to tumor induction by gamma rays after single and fractionated irradiation. A total of 250 tumors were induced in 1104 mice that received carbon-ion doses of 5 through 65 Gy. A total of 77 tumors were induced in 371 mice that received gamma-ray doses of 45 through 95 Gy. Of 91 carbon-ion induced tumors examined histologically, 97 percent were malignant, and sarcomas such as malignant fibrous histiocytoma (47%) and fibrosarcoma (32%) were most frequently observed. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma was also the most frequently observed tumor (12 out of 20 tumors; 60%) after gamma-ray irradiation, followed by carcinomas (25%) such as adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Neither dose fractionation nor linear energy transfer affected tumor induction for carbon ions and gamma rays. Dose responses were linear for carbon ions and gamma rays, and showed no saturation up to 65 Gy of carbon ions and 95 Gy of gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness of carbon ions was 2.2 for tumor induction and 1.9 for early skin reaction. We conclude that risk of secondary tumor induction by carbon-ion radiotherapy would not be seriously higher than anticipated.
    Journal of Radiation Research 07/2005; 46(2):185-90. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the genetic influence of low-dose ionizing radiation at the chromosomal level, frozen human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were exposed to a 10 cGy dose delivered by a carbon-ion (24.5 ± 2.0 keV/µm) beam. Mutation assays were performed within a few days or after about one month of preservation at -80˚C following irradiation. The results showed an increase in mutation frequencies at the thymidine kinase (TK) gene locus of 1.6-fold (2.5 × 10 -6 to 3.9 × 10
    Biological Sciences in Space 01/2005; 19(4):237-241.
  • Fumio Yatagai
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    ABSTRACT: The relative biological-effectiveness of radiation is increased when cells or tissue are exposed to densely ionizing (high-LET) radiation. A large number of studies focus on the following aspects of the biological effects of high-LET radiation: (i) basic understanding of radiation damage and repair; (ii) developing radiotherapy protocols for accelerated charged particles; and (iii) estimation of human risks from exposure to high-LET heavy charged particles. The increased lethal effectiveness (cell inactivation) of high-LET radiation contributes to new methods for using radiation therapy, but it is also necessary to study the enhanced mutagenic effect of high LET radiation, because higher frequencies of mutation can be expected to provide higher rates of carcinogenicity with human exposure. It is important to note that both measures of biological effectiveness (lethality and mutagenicity) depend on the quality of radiation, the dose, dose-rate effects, and the biological endpoints studied. This paper is intended to provide a review of current research on the mutagenic effects of high-LET radiation, and is organized into three sections. First, are descriptions of the induced mutations studied with various detection systems (section 1) because the detectable mutations induced by ionizing radiation, including heavy-ions, depend largely on the detection system used. Second is a discussion of the biological significance of the dependence of induced mutations on LET (section 2). This is related to the molecular nature of radiation lesions and to the repair mechanisms used to help cells recover from such damage. Finally, applications of mutation detection systems for studies in space (section 3) are described, in which the carcinogenic effects of space environmental radiation are considered.
    Biological Sciences in Space 01/2005; 18(4):224-34.
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    ABSTRACT: We have just started the basic study to detect the genetic alterations at chromosome level as a result of radioadaptive response. The assay system is based upon the analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) induced in human lymphoblastoid cell TK6, which were pre-irradiated with low-doses of ionizing radiation (IR) before the challenging irradiation. In our previous study, this analysis was shown to be very sensitive to IR because the radiation-specific hemizygous LOHs (interstitial deletions) were observed after 10 cGy of IR (X-rays or accelerated carbon-ion beam). Here, we would like to introduce our plan how to detect the changes in such radiation-specific LOH patterns by the pre-irradiation of TK6. If we succeed the detection, the radioadaptation assay system can be used for elucidating the biological effects of low-doses of space ionizing radiation. In addition, we are also considering the modification of assay system by introducing the site-specific chromosome breakage (DNA double-strand break) instead of challenging IR. Furthermore, the preliminary results of the experiments using frozen TK6 cells for the preparation of ISS experiments.
    Biological Sciences in Space 12/2004; 18(3):112-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperthermia has a radiosensitizing effect, which is one of the most important biological bases for its use in cancer therapy with radiation. Although the mechanism of this effect has not been clarified in molecular terms, possible involvement of either one or both of two major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways, i.e. nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), has been speculated. To test this possibility, we examined cells of the chicken B-lymphocyte cell line DT40 and its derivatives lacking NHEJ and/or HR: KU70(-/-), DNA-PKcs(-/-/-), RAD54(-/-) and KU70(-/-)/RAD54(-/-). Radiosensitization by hyperthermia could be seen in all of the mutants, including KU70(-/-)/RAD54(-/-), which lacked both NHEJ and HR. Therefore, radiosensitization by hyperthermia cannot be explained simply by its inhibitory effects, if any, on NHEJ and/or HR alone. However, in NHEJ-defective KU70(-/-) and DNA-PKcs(-/-/-), consisting of two subpopulations with distinct radiosensitivity, the radiosensitive subpopulation, which is considered to be cells in G(1) and early S, was not sensitized. Substantial sensitization was seen only in the radioresistant subpopulation, which is considered to be cells in late S and G(2), capable of repairing DSBs through HR. This observation did not exclude possible involvement of NHEJ in G(1) and early S phase and also suggested inhibitory effects of hyperthermia on HR. Thus partial contribution of NHEJ and HR in radiosensitization by hyperthermia, especially that depending on the cell cycle stage, remains to be considered.
    Radiation Research 11/2004; 162(4):433-41. · 2.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

699 Citations
114.77 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
      • Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)
      Chōfu, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2000–2012
    • RIKEN
      Вако, Saitama, Japan
  • 2007
    • Toyota Physical and Chemical Institute
      Seto, Aichi, Japan
  • 1996–2006
    • National Institute of Radiological Sciences
      • Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy
      Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken, Japan