L. Geil

National Cancer Institute (USA), Maryland, United States

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Publications (60)327.37 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immune responses to invading pathogens are mediated largely through a family of transmembrane Toll-like receptors and modulated by a number of downstream effectors. In particular, a family of four interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAK) regulates responsiveness to bacterial endotoxins. Pharmacological targeting of particular IRAK components may be beneficial for treatment of bacterial infections. Here, we studied transcriptional regulation of the human IRAK2 gene. Analysis of the IRAK2 promoter region reveals putative binding sites for several transcriptional factors, including ZIP (EGR1 and SP1), CTCF and AP-2beta. Deletion of the ZIP or AP-2 sites did not significantly affect IRAK2 promoter activity in naive and endotoxin-treated mononuclear cells, in dormant and activated Jurkat T-cells, in lung and kidney cells. In contrast, we found that CTCF plays a major role in IRAK2 transcription. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay of the DNA fragments containing the IRAK2 CpG island, revealed a single high-affinity binding site for the transcriptional regulator and a chromatin insulator protein, CTCF. This assay revealed a CTCF-binding site within the mouse Irak2 promoter. The presence of the CTCF protein in human IRAK2 promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Specific residues that interacted with the CTCF protein, were identified by methylation interference assay. In all cell lines analyzed, including cells of lung, renal, monocytic and T-cell origin, the IRAK2 luciferase reporter construct, containing an intact CTCF-binding site, showed strong promoter activity. However, IRAK2 promoter activity was decreased dramatically for the constructs with a mutated CTCF-binding site.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2005; 346(2):411-22. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Initial analysis identified the NPRL2/G21 gene located in 3p21.3C, the lung cancer region, as a strong candidate tumor suppressor gene. Here we provide additional evidence of the tumor suppressor function of NPRL2/G21. The gene has highly conserved homologs/orthologs ranging from yeast to humans. The yeast ortholog, NPR2, shows three highly conserved regions with 32 to 36% identity over the whole length. By sequence analysis, the main product of NPRL2/G21 encodes a soluble protein that has a bipartite nuclear localization signal, a protein-binding domain, similarity to the MutS core domain, and a newly identified nitrogen permease regulator 2 domain with unknown function. The gene is highly expressed in many tissues. We report inactivating mutations in a variety of tumors and cancer cell lines, growth suppression of tumor cells with tet-controlled NPRL2/G21 transgenes on plastic Petri dishes, and suppression of tumor formation in SCID mice. Screening of 7 renal, 5 lung, and 7 cervical carcinoma cell lines showed homozygous deletions in the 3' end of NPRL2 in 2 renal, 3 lung, and 1 cervical (HeLa) cell line. Deletions in the 3' part of NPRL2 could result in improper splicing, leading to the loss of the 1.8 kb functional NPRL2 mRNA. We speculate that the NPRL2/G21 nuclear protein may be involved in mismatch repair, cell cycle checkpoint signaling, and activation of apoptotic pathway(s). The yeast NPR2 was shown to be a target of cisplatin, suggesting that the human NPRL2/G21 may play a similar role. At least two homozygous deletions of NPRL2/G21 were detected in 6 tumor biopsies from various locations and with microsatellite instability. This study, together with previously obtained results, indicates that NPRL2 is a multiple tumor suppressor gene.
    Cancer Research 10/2004; 64(18):6438-43. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we have identified a new putative tumor suppressor gene, RASSF1A (Ras association domain family 1A gene), located at human chromosome 3p21.3, the segment that is often lost in many types of human cancers. The RASSF1A promoter was shown to be frequently hypermethylated in various epithelial tumors, including small cell lung, breast, bladder, prostate, gastric, and renal cell carcinomas. In this study, we have analyzed the methylation status of the RASSF1A gene in primary human cervical cancers and in eight cervical cancer cell lines. The RASSF1A promoter is hypermethylated in 4 of 42 (= 10%) of squamous cell carcinomas, in 4 of 19 (= 21%) of adenosquamous carcinomas, and in 8 of 34 (= 24%) of cervical adenocarcinomas. Although in adenocarcinomas, methylation of RASSF1A and presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 sometimes coexisted, not a single case of HPV-16/18-positive squamous cell carcinomas had RASSF1A methylation. Similarly, in all eight analyzed cervical cell lines, RASSF1A inactivation and HPV infection were mutually exclusive (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.0357): two HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines had a methylated and silenced RASSF1A promoter (C-33A and HT-3), whereas the other six HPV-positive lines expressed RASSF1A mRNA (ME 180, MS751, SiHa, C-4I, HeLa, and CaSki). For cervical tumors and cell lines combined, the Pearson's chi(2) test (chi(2) = 3.99; P <or= 0.05) indicates a borderline-significant reverse correlation between inactivation of RASSF1A and the presence of high-risk HPVs. Our data imply that the presence of HPVs in cervical carcinomas alleviates the requirement for RASSF1A inactivation and suggests that these two events may engage the same tumorigenic pathway.
    Cancer Research 04/2003; 63(8):1888-93. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed expression status of the recently identified tumor suppressor geneRASSF1A in primary prostate carcinomas and in prostate cell lines. We found complete methylation of the RASSF1A promoter in 63% of primary microdissected prostate carcinomas (7 of 11 samples). The remaining 4 samples (37%) were partially methylated, possibly because of contamination with normal cells. No promoter methylation was observed in matching normal prostate tissues. High levels of RASSF1A transcript and no methylation of RASSF1A promoter were found in explanted primary normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells. Complete silencing and methylation of RASSF1A promoter was observed in five widely used prostate carcinoma cell lines, which acquired the ability to grow in culture spontaneously, including LNCaP, PC-3, ND-1, DU-145, 22Rv1, and one primary prostate carcinoma immortalized by overexpression of the human telomerase catalytic subunit (RC-58T/hTERT). However, no silencing of RASSF1A was found in four other prostate carcinoma cell lines, which were adapted for cell culture after transformation with human papillomaviral DNA. Suppression of cell growth in vitro was demonstrated after the reintroduction of RASSF1A-expressing construct into LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. Our data implicate the RASSF1A gene in human prostate tumorigenesis.
    Cancer Research 07/2002; 62(12):3498-502. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clear cell-type renal cell carcinomas (clear RCC) are characterized almost universally by loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 3p, which usually involves any combination of three regions: 3p25-p26 (harboring the VHL gene), 3p12-p14.2 (containing the FHIT gene), and 3p21-p22, implying inactivation of the resident tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs). For the 3p21-p22 region, the affected TSGs remain, at present, unknown. Recently, the RAS association family 1 gene (isoform RASSF1A), located at 3p21.3, has been identified as a candidate lung and breast TSG. In this report, we demonstrate aberrant silencing by hypermethylation of RASSF1A in both VHL-caused clear RCC tumors and clear RCC without VHL inactivation. We found hypermethylation of RASSF1A's GC-rich putative promoter region in most of analyzed samples, including 39 of 43 primary tumors (91%). The promoter was methylated partially or completely in all 18 RCC cell lines analyzed. Methylation of the GC-rich putative RASSF1A promoter region and loss of transcription of the corresponding mRNA were related causally. RASSF1A expression was reactivated after treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Forced expression of RASSF1A transcripts in KRC/Y, a renal carcinoma cell line containing a normal and expressed VHL gene, suppressed growth on plastic dishes and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. Mutant RASSF1A had reduced growth suppression activity significantly. These data suggest that RASSF1A is the candidate renal TSG gene for the 3p21.3 region.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2001; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several tumor suppressor genes were shown to be inactivated by a process involving aberrant de novo methylation of their GC-rich promoters which is usually associated with transcriptional repression. The mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. In particular this abnormal methylation may be caused and/or maintained by either deficiency of some trans-acting factor(s) or by various malfunctions acting in cis. Here we studied the nature of aberrant methylation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease tumor suppressor gene in a human clear cell renal carcinoma cell line, UOK 121, that contains a silent hypermethylated endogenous VHL allele. First, we transfected unmethylated VHL transgenes, driven by the VHL promoter, into UOK 121 cells. Next, to exclude possible position effects that may influence methylation of the introduced VHL genes, we transferred a single chromosome 3, carrying an apparently normal hypomethylated VHL allele into the UOK 121 cells. Finally, we created somatic cell hybrids between UOK 121 and UMRC 6 cells containing a mutant VHL-expressing hypomethylated allele. In these three experiments both the methylation of the VHL promoter and the transcriptional status of the introduced and endogenous VHL alleles remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate that the putative trans-acting factors present in the UOK 121 and UMRC 6 cells are unable to induce changes in methylation pattern of the VHL alleles in all cell lines and hybrids studied. Taken together, the results indicate that cis-specific local features are pivotal in maintaining and perpetuating aberrant methylation of the VHL CpG island. Contribution of some putative trans-acting factors cannot be excluded during a period when the aberrant VHL methylation pattern was first generated.
    Oncogene 11/1999; 18(41):5672-9. · 7.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The absence of functional von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene leads to the development of neoplasias characteristic of VHL disease, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, we compared the sensitivity of RCC cells lacking VHL gene function with that of RCC cells expressing the wild-type VHL gene (wtVHL) after exposure to various stresses. While the response to most treatments was not affected by the VHL gene status, glucose deprivation was found to be much more cytotoxic for RCC cells lacking VHL gene function than for wtVHL-expressing cells. The heightened sensitivity of VHL-deficient cells was not attributed to dissimilar energy requirements or to differences in glucose uptake, but more likely reflects a lesser ability of VHL-deficient cells to handle abnormally processed proteins arising from impaired glycosylation. In support of this hypothesis, other treatments which act through different mechanisms to interfere with protein processing (i.e., tunicamycin, brefeldin A, and azetidine) were also found to be much more toxic for VHL-deficient cells. Furthermore, ubiquitination of cellular proteins was elevated in VHL-deficient cells, particularly after glucose deprivation, supporting a role for the VHL gene in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Accordingly, the rate of elimination of abnormal proteins was lower in cells lacking a functional VHL gene than in wtVHL-expressing cells. Thus, pVHL appears to participate in the elimination of misprocessed proteins, such as those arising in the cell due to the unavailability of glucose or to other stresses.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 03/1999; · 5.37 Impact Factor
  • Molecular and Cellular Probes 11/1998; 12(5):343-4. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To discover genes involved in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-mediated carcinogenesis, we used renal cell carcinoma cell lines stably transfected with wild-type VHL-expressing transgenes. Large-scale RNA differential display technology applied to these cell lines identified several differentially expressed genes, including an alpha carbonic anhydrase gene, termed CA12. The deduced protein sequence was classified as a one-pass transmembrane CA possessing an apparently intact catalytic domain in the extracellular CA module. Reintroduced wild-type VHL strongly inhibited the overexpression of the CA12 gene in the parental renal cell carcinoma cell lines. Similar results were obtained with CA9, encoding another transmembrane CA with an intact catalytic domain. Although both domains of the VHL protein contribute to regulation of CA12 expression, the elongin binding domain alone could effectively regulate CA9 expression. We mapped CA12 and CA9 loci to chromosome bands 15q22 and 17q21.2 respectively, regions prone to amplification in some human cancers. Additional experiments are needed to define the role of CA IX and CA XII enzymes in the regulation of pH in the extracellular microenvironment and its potential impact on cancer cell growth.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1998; 95(21):12596-601. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC) is a recently recognized form of inherited kidney cancer characterized by a predisposition to develop multiple, bilateral papillary renal tumours. The pattern of inheritance of HPRC is consistent with autosomal dominant transmission with reduced penetrance. HPRC is histologically and genetically distinct from two other causes of inherited renal carcinoma, von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and the chromosome translocation (3;8). Malignant papillary renal carcinomas are characterized by trisomy of chromosomes 7, 16 and 17, and in men, by loss of the Y chromosome. Inherited and sporadic clear cell renal carcinomas are characterized by inactivation of both copies of the VHL gene by mutation, and/or by hypermethylation. We found that the HPRC gene was located at chromosome 7q31.1-34 in a 27-centimorgan (cM) interval between D7S496 and D7S1837. We identified missense mutations located in the tyrosine kinase domain of the MET gene in the germline of affected members of HPRC families and in a subset of sporadic papillary renal carcinomas. Three mutations in the MET gene are located in codons that are homologous to those in c-kit and RET, proto-oncogenes that are targets of naturally-occurring mutations. The results suggest that missense mutations located in the MET proto-oncogene lead to constitutive activation of the MET protein and papillary renal carcinomas.
    Nature Genetics 06/1997; 16(1):68-73. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, human chromosome band 3p21.3 was shown to undergo overlapping homozygous deletions in several small cell lung cancer lines further defining a putative tumor suppressor gene(s) region. We report the cloning and mutational analysis of a novel human gene, SKMc15, from the commonly homozygously deleted region in three small cell lung cancer lines (NCI-H1450, NCI-H740, GLC20). It has 11 exons ranging in size from 50 to 541 bp with an open reading frame of 442 amino acids. The gene covers 7 to 10 kb of genomic DNA; the message of 1.8 to 2 kb is expressed in all analyzed fetal and adult human and mouse tissues including heart, brain, placenta, lung liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, testis and pancreas and in small cell and non-small cell cancer lines. The intron/exon boundaries were used to analyze the gene for mutations by exon PCR-SSCP sequencing in 60 small cell lung cancer cell lines. No loss-of-function mutations were detected. The cDNA sequence has high homology, 75% at the protein level, to the rat early response gene PC4 and its murine homolog TIS7. In addition, the known partial sequence of the putative mouse interferon beta2 (64 amino acids) gene is highly conserved in PC4/TIS7 (94%) and in SKMc15 (83%) at the amino acid level. The sequence TAAAT, which is thought to be involved in mRNA degradation, is present in the 3' UTR of SKMc15 and in the 3' UTR of PC4 and TIS7 genes.
    Human Genetics 04/1997; 99(3):334-41. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The critical region on human chromosome 3p21.3 harboring a putative lung cancer tumor suppressor gene (TSG) was previously defined by allelotyping and recently refined by overlapping homozygous deletions. We report the construction of a 700-kb (cosmid and one P1 phage) clone contig covering the deletion overlap and its flanks. The minimal set of 23 cosmids comprises 600 kb and is extended by one P1 phage to 700 kb to cover the distal breakpoint of the overlap. The clone contig was extensively characterized by restriction and expression mapping to produce high resolution physical and transcription maps of the cloned region. Potential transcribed fragments were detected by hybridization with PCR-amplified cDNA libraries, direct cDNA selection "zoo" blotting, cDNA screening, and identification of 24 CpG islands. Thus far, 15 new genes represented by partial or full-length cDNAs were isolated, characterized, and precisely positioned on the contig. Two previously cloned genes, namely GNAI-2 and GNAT-1, were also positioned. In addition, the telomeric breakpoint of the NCI H740 deletion and centromeric breakpoint of the overlapping GLC20 deletion were discovered and mapped to define precisely the candidate TSG region. This large cosmid clone contig and high resolution maps will prove crucial in the identification of the lung cancer TSG(s).
    Cancer Research 05/1996; 56(7):1487-92. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NotI linking clones, localized to the human chromosome 3p21.3 region and homozygously deleted in small cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H740 and NCI-H1450, were used to search for a putative tumor suppressor gene(s). One of these clones, NL1G210, detected a 2.5-kb mRNA in all examined human tissues, expression being especially high in the heart and skeletal muscle. Two overlapping cDNA clones containing the entire open reading frame were isolated from a human heart cDNA library and fully characterized. Computer analysis and a search of the GenBank database to reveal high sequence identity of the product of this gene to serine-threonine kinases, especially to mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2, a recently described substrate of mitogen-activated kinases. Sequence identitiy was 72% at the nucleotide level and 75% at the amino acid level, strongly suggesting that this protein is a serine-threonine kinase. Here we demonstrate that the new gene, referred to as 3pK (for chromosome 3p kinase), in fact encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated protein serine-threonine kinase with a novel substrate specificity.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 04/1996; 16(3):868-76. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease gene is a novel multiple tumor suppressor gene which plays a causal role in the origin of some common cancers including clear cell renal carcinomas and hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system. Here we report the identification of transcription start sites and the promoter of the human VHL gene. The promoter sequence does not contain TATA and CCAAT boxes. Transcription is initiated around a putative SP1 binding site about 60 bp upstream from the first AUG codon in the VHL mRNA. Several putative transcription factor binding sites, notably for nuclear respiratory factor 1 and PAX, were found upstream of the transcription start sites. Promoter-luciferase expression constructs demonstrate, that the promoter is functional when transfected into 293 cells (transformed primary human embryonal kidney cells) and UMRC 6 renal carcinoma cells. Activity is dependent on correct orientation of the promoter. A minimal promoter region of 106 bp was delineated. A set of VHL minigenes, containing the 5' flanking VHL genomic region, was constructed and transfected into UMRC 6 cells. In these cells the level of transcription from the minigenes driven by VHL promoter was comparable with endogenous VHL expression.
    Oncogene 07/1995; 10(11):2185-94. · 7.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: cDNA clones having extensive sequence identity with the sea urchin fascin and the Drosophila singed gene products were isolated from a human teratocarcinoma cDNA library. The human homolog, termed hsn, is a single-copy gene that was localized to human chromosome 7p22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and is predicted to encode a 493-amino-acid product with a molecular mass of approximately 55,000. This protein would be similar in size to the fascin and singed proteins, as well as a previously described 55-kD actin-bundling protein that was purified from HeLa cells. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the 55-kD HeLa protein were reactive against a bacterially expressed hsn fusion protein, indicating that the hsn gene probably encodes the 55-kD protein. The hsn mRNA was variably expressed in all human tissues analyzed and was highly expressed in actively growing renal carcinoma cell lines and in activated, but not in resting, lymphocytes, suggesting a functional role for hsn in proliferation. The fascin family lacks homology with other characterized actin-binding proteins, and the high degree of evolutionary conservation of these proteins indicates a functional importance of their actin-bundling properties.
    DNA and Cell Biology 09/1994; 13(8):821-7. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have isolated and ordered yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) and cosmids surrounding the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA-2) genes on chromosome 3p25-26. The YAC contig consists of six YACs and covers a region of 1 megabase. A cosmid-phage contig around VHL and PMCA-2 genes (400 kilobases) was established and integrated into the YAC map. Using these clones, we generated an EcoRI map of the 400-kilobase region. PMCA-2 and VHL complementary DNA were positioned entirely within the cosmid-phage contig as well as two polymorphic markers (D3S601 and D3S1317). This physical map of the cloned region will allow a detailed analysis of both the PMCA-2 and VHL genes. Some of the genomic clones may be useful for isolation of the full-length VHL complementary DNA.
    Cancer Research 06/1994; 54(9):2486-91. · 8.65 Impact Factor
  • M. H. Wei, J. Y. Chen, L. Geil
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    ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of human tumors have strongly suggested that human chromosome 3p21.3 harbors putative tumor suppressor genes which directly contribute to tumorigenesis of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). We have constructed a cosmid contig of 450 Kb within 3p21.3. A conventional cosmid walking strategy coupled with Not1 linking and jumping clones and P1 phage clones from 3p21.3 was used to isolate 18 continuous overlapping cosmids. The common overlapping regions of several homozygous deletions in SCLC cell lines are included in this contig. Two approaches are being employed for characterization of this contig: (1) highly conserved expressed sequences are being indentified by utilizing cDNA libraries to identify hybridizing fragments from this contig. Hybridizing genomic fragments are then used to screen cDNA libraries. (2) CpG islands associated with genes are being mapped within each cosmid. Candidate genes obtained in these experiments are being analyzed for mutation in SCLC cell lines by SSCP. This contig also provides a detailed physical map of the region. It will be useful to cloning the putative tumor suppressor gene and systematic characterization of other genes in this region.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/1994; 55. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence for a TSG involved in breast cancer on the short arm of chromosome 3. This has been shown by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) data. The area is divided into two distinct regions, one at 3p24-26 (LOH 45%) and the other at 3p13-14 (LOH 41%). While looking for LOH a homozygous deletion was found in one breast tumor with a cosmid probe located at 3p13 using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. A Yac of 1.5 Mb was isolated and characterized. The Yac is stable and is not chimeric. The left and the right ends of the Yac were converted into large phages -20 Kb and FISH analysis is being used to determine if either or both ends of the Yac are still in the deletion or are outside of the deletion. The Yac was converted into cosmids and the cosmids are being used to isolate candidate genes in the region 3p13. We have also shown that the 3p13 breast homozygous deletion does not overlap with the U2020 small cell lung homozygous deletion at 3p13-12.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/1994; 55. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A gene discovered by positional cloning has been identified as the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease tumor suppressor gene. A restriction fragment encompassing the gene showed rearrangements in 28 of 221 VHL kindreds. Eighteen of these rearrangements were due to deletions in the candidate gene, including three large nonoverlapping deletions. Intragenic mutations were detected in cell lines derived from VHL patients and from sporadic renal cell carcinomas. The VHL gene is evolutionarily conserved and encodes two widely expressed transcripts of approximately 6 and 6.5 kilobases. The partial sequence of the inferred gene product shows no homology to other proteins, except for an acidic repeat domain found in the procyclic surface membrane glycoprotein of Trypanosoma brucei.
    Science 06/1993; 260(5112):1317-20. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A gene discovered by positional cloning has been identified as the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease tumor suppressor gene. A restriction fragment encompassing the gene showed rearrangements in 28 of 221 VHL kindreds. Eighteen of these rearrangements were due to deletions in the candidate gene, including three large nonoverlapping deletions. Intragenic mutations were detected in cell lines derived from VHL patients and from sporadic renal cell carcinomas. The VHL gene is evolutionarily conserved and encodes two widely expressed transcripts of approximately 6 and 6.5 kilobases. The partial sequence of the inferred gene product shows no homology to other proteins, except for an acidic repeat domain found in the procyclic surface membrane glycoprotein of Trypanosoma brucei. 17 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab.
    Science 05/1993; · 31.03 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
92 Downloads
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327.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2002
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology
      Maryland, United States
  • 1999
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 1997–1998
    • NCI-Frederick
      Maryland, United States