Inger Hilde Nordhus

Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Hordaland, Norway

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Publications (80)216.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbances are known to have a negative impact on a range of clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We examined the associations of insomnia symptoms and objectively measured sleep parameters to a composite score for body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index (a multidimensional index of COPD severity), arterial blood gases, nocturnal respiratory disturbances, periodic limb movements (PLM), psychologic distress, pain, age, and sex. The sample comprised 73 COPD outpatients (mean age, 63.6years; standard deviation {SD}, 7.5; range 47-85years; 41.1% women). Insomnia symptoms were measured with the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS) and sleep efficiency (SE), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and total sleep time (TST) were assessed with clinical polysomnography (PSG). BODE index was positively associated with composite BIS score (P=.040). Patients with more severe COPD presented more complaints of nonrestorative sleep compared to patients with less severe COPD (P=.010). In multivariate analysis, the composite BIS score was independently associated with PLM (P<.001), nocturnal respiratory disturbances (P=.001), pain (P=.031), and psychologic distress (P=.044) but not with the BODE index. Objectively measured sleep variables were not associated with any of the health-related variables. Insomnia symptoms in COPD patients result from a wide range of health-related factors. More severe COPD may be associated with a subjective experience of nonrestorative sleep but not with objectively measured sleep variables.
    Sleep Medicine 10/2013; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the associations between depressive/anxiety disorders (DAs), perceived health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mortality in dialysis patients. Patients were assessed for depressive and DAs with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcome Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36), and the Beck Depression Inventory and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were also applied. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were also collected. Patients with depressive disorders reported more impaired HRQOL on four of the eight subscales, while those with a depressive disorder comorbid with DA reported more impairment on all MOS SF-36 subscales compared to those without any psychiatric disorder. During the observation period, 50% of those with depression, 28% of those with anxiety and 33% of patients with DA disorder died. A survival analysis did not indicate that patients with depressive or DAs had a higher mortality than patients without such disorders. Dialysis patients with depressive disorders reported impaired HRQOL, whereas those with DAs did not. Patients with DA reported the most serious HRQOL impairment. No evidence was obtained to support the hypothesis that depressive and DAs contributed to compromised survival in dialysis patients. In patients with depression, DAs should also be assessed as they significantly contribute to impaired HRQOL.
    General hospital psychiatry 07/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Behavioral and psychological symptoms like depression and anxiety often coexist with dementia, and create an additional burden for patients and their caregivers. Anxiety symptoms have been related to poorer cognitive performance and decline in functional status. Whether anxiety is a cause or consequence of dementia-related impairment has received little attention so far. Most studies have focused on patients with Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and less is known about anxiety in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The aims of the study were to investigate changes in the frequency and severity of anxiety in patients with AD or DLB over time and to assess the temporal relationship between anxiety symptoms and dementia-related impairment. Methods: In this observational longitudinal study, the sample comprised outpatients with first-time diagnosed mild dementia (n=196, 65% Alzheimer´s dementia, 20% DLB) recruited from clinics in geriatric medicine and old age psychiatry in Rogaland and Hordaland counties in Western Norway. Standardized clinical instruments and diagnostic criteria were employed. The participants are followed up at four years after the baseline assessments.
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed.
    Journal of Sleep Research 01/2013; · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Shift-related sleep and sleepiness problems may be due to characteristics of both shifts (ie, day, evening and night shifts) and work schedules (ie, permanent vs rotational schedules). The Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire (BSWSQ) was used to investigate associations between shift-related sleep problems and work schedules. METHODS: 1586 nurses completed the BSWSQ. Participants who, in relation to a shift, 'often' or 'always' experienced both a sleep problem and a tiredness/sleepiness problem were defined as having shift-related insomnia (separate for day, evening and night shifts and rest-days). Logistic regression analyses were conducted for day, evening, night, and rest-day insomnia with participants on both permanent and rotational schedules. RESULTS: Shift-related insomnia differed between the work schedules. The evening shift insomnia was more prevalent in the two-shift rotation schedule than the three-shift rotation schedule (29.8% and 19.8%, respectively). Night shift insomnia showed higher frequencies among three-shift rotation workers compared with permanent night workers (67.7% and 41.7%, respectively). Rest-day insomnia was more prevalent among permanent night workers compared with two- and three-shift rotations (11.4% compared with 4.2% and 3.6%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalences of shift-related insomnia differed between the work schedules with higher frequencies for three-shift rotations and night shifts. However, sleep problems were present in all shifts and schedules. This suggests that both shifts and work schedules should be considered in the study of shift work-related sleep problems.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 01/2013; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with panic disorder (PD) are known to report impaired sleep quality and symptoms of insomnia. PD is an anxiety disorder characterised by deficient physiological regulation as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), and reduced HRV, PD and insomnia have all been related to impaired inhibitory ability. The present study aimed to investigate the interrelationships between subjectively reported sleep impairment, cognitive inhibition and vagally mediated HRV in a sample characterised by variability on measures of all these constructs. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with PD with or without agoraphobia were included. Cognitive inhibition was assessed with the Color-Word Interference Test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), HRV was measured using high frequency (HF) power (ms(2)), and subjectively reported sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). RESULTS: Cognitive inhibition was related to both Sleep latency and Sleep disturbances, whereas HRV was only related to Sleep disturbances. These relationships were significant also after controlling for depression. LIMITATIONS: Correlational design. CONCLUSION: Cognitive inhibition is related to key insomnia symptoms: sleep initiation and sleep maintenance. The data supports the psychobiological inhibition model of insomnia, and extends previous findings. Possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We aimed to investigate the 10-year trend in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms, insomnia cases, and use of hypnotic agents in the adult Norwegian population. Methods Data from 2 representative surveys assessing identical insomnia symptoms in the adult population of Norway, one conducted in 1999 to 2000 (N=2001) and one conducted in 2009 to 2010 (N=2000), were compared. Results Controlling for basic demographic variables, significant increases were found over the 10-year study period in the prevalence of sleep-onset insomnia from 13.1% to 15.2%, dissatisfaction with sleep from 8.2% to 13.6%, daytime impairment from 14.8% to 18.8%, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) insomnia cases from 11.9% to 15.5%, and hypnotic agent use from 6.9% to 11.1%. No secular trend was found for maintenance insomnia or for early morning awakening insomnia. Across the 2 surveys, women reported a higher prevalence of insomnia than men. Age was positively associated with the prevalence of nocturnal sleep problems and use of hypnotic agents but was inversely associated with daytime impairment. Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) reported a higher prevalence of several insomnia symptoms. Conclusions Insomnia seems to be on the rise in the general adult population, which gives reason for concern. Prevention of insomnia and cost-effective interventions should receive higher priority in the future.
    Sleep Medicine 01/2013; · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Affective Disorders. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective : Low self-esteem is one of the main psychosocial factors related to childhood overweight. Yet not all overweight children are affected. Little is known about what characterises the group of overweight children with the lowest self-esteem. Our aim was to identify factors related to low domain-specific self-esteem in children with overweight/obesity. Methods: Children (aged 10-13; N = 5,185) and parents from a large population-based sample completed the Eating Disturbance Scale, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, and questions about bullying and socio-economic status (SES). Parents reported the child's weight and height. 545 children with overweight/obesity were identified in the overall sample and selected for the current analyses. Self-esteem scores from this group were compared to scores from children with normal weight. Factors examined in relation to self-esteem in children with overweight/obesity were: age, gender, SES, disturbed eating, bullying, parents' evaluation of weight status and degree of overweight. Results: Children with overweight scored significantly lower than normal-weight children on all self-esteem domains. Athletic competence and physical appearance were most impaired. Disturbed eating and bullying were related to low physical appearance as well as scholastic, social and athletic self-esteem. Being female, a pre-teen, having a higher BMI and being evaluated as overweight by parents were associated with lower satisfaction with physical appearance. Conclusions: Disturbed eating and bullying are significantly related to low self-esteem in the overweight group. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
    Obesity Facts 10/2012; 5(5):722-733. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced in patients who suffer from panic disorder (PD). Reduced HRV is related to hypoactivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which negatively affects executive functioning. The present study assessed the relationships between vagally mediated HRV at baseline and measures of executive functioning in 36 patients with PD. Associations between these physiological and cognitive measures and panic-related variables were also investigated. HRV was measured using HF-power (ms(2)), and executive functions were assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Panic-related variables comprised panic frequency, panic-related distress, and duration of PD. Performance on the neuropsychological measures correlated significantly with HRV. Both panic-related distress and duration of PD were inversely related with measures of HRV and cognitive inhibition. The current findings support the purported relationship between HRV and executive functions involving the PFC.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 10/2012; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of sexual abuse in a Norwegian representative population sample. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual abuse occurring before and after the age of sexual consent (16 years) in a representative Norwegian population sample. A random sample of 1450 men and women aged 18-80 years received a questionnaire about unwanted sexual experiences, which were categorized as unwanted sexual behaviours, unwanted sexual acts or unwanted intercourse. In total 703 people responded, giving a response rate of 48, 7%. The sample consisted of 387 women (55.3 %) and 316 men (44.9 %). Unwanted sexual behaviour before age 16 was reported by 24.3% of women and by 12.0 % of men, whereas 19.4 % of women and 7.6 % of men reported being 16 years or older the first time they had such experiences. Unwanted sexual acts before age 16 was reported by 18.3 % of women and 3.2 % of men, and by 9.0 % of women and 3.5 % of men above age 16. Unwanted intercourse occurring before the age of 16 was reported by 11.4 % of women and by 0.9 % of men, whereas 16.3 % of women and 1.6 % of men reported being 16 years or older the first time they had such experiences. The results show that unwanted sexual experiences were highly prevalent among these respondents, and more prevalent among women than men. Further, there was a relatively high prevalence of sexual abuse before the age of 16 years.
    Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening. 10/2012; 10:950-957.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Type D personality may be a risk factor for poor outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease. The biological mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to test the hypotheses that Type D personality is associated with biological markers for sympathetic dysregulation.Design: Cross-sectional community-based study.Methods: Type D personality was evaluated by DS-14 in 450 persons (46% men), aged between 30 and 65 years. From a Holter-recording, (mean length 18.3 hours), long-term heart rate, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart rate variability (HRV) were registered as markers of sympathetic dysregulation. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, apnoea-hypopnoea index, medication, and anxiety symptoms were adjusted for.Results: Type D persons had higher long-term averaged heart rate (74 vs. 71 beats/min, p = 0.003), but this difference was attenuated and not significant in the multivariate model (p = 0.078)). There was an increased prevalence of complex ventricular ectopy (bigeminy, trigeminy, or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia; 14 vs. 6%, p = 0.005 in multivariate model). HRV indices did not differ significantly between those with or without Type D personality. Anxiety symptoms did not confound these associations.Conclusions: Type D personality is independently associated with a higher likelihood of ventricular arrhythmias, which may be implicated in the increased cardiovascular risk observed in persons with Type D personality.
    European journal of preventive cardiology. 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Depression and insomnia are closely linked, yet our understanding of their prospective relationships remains limited. The aim of the current study was to investigate the directionality of association between depression and insomnia. Methods Data were collected from a prospective population-based study comprising the most recent waves of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) (the HUNT2 in 1995-1997 and the HUNT3 in 2006-2008). A total of 24,715 persons provided valid responses on the relevant questionnaires from both surveys. Study outcomes were onset of depression or insomnia at HUNT3 in persons not reporting the other disorder in HUNT2. Results Both insomnia and depression significantly predicted the onset of the other disorder. Participants who did not have depression in HUNT2 but who had insomnia in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an odds ratio (OR) of 6.2 of developing depression at HUNT3. Participants who did not have insomnia in HUNT2 but who had depression in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an OR of 6.7 of developing insomnia at HUNT3. ORs were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for potential confounding factors. Conclusions The results support a bidirectional relationship between insomnia and depression. This finding stands in contrast to the previous studies, which have mainly focused on insomnia as a risk factor for the onset of depression.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 08/2012; 74(7):758-65. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Inflammation is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of both cardiovascular disease and depressive disorders. We hypothesized that circulating concentrations of the novel inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers osteoprotegerin (OPG) and adiponectin as well as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are associated with the severity of depressive symptoms and presence of major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: In a cross-sectional population-derived study (Akershus Sleep Apnea Project) 520 persons underwent clinical examination and venous blood sampling. Medical history was obtained and the participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Structured clinical interviews for axis-I disorders including MDD were performed in a subgroup of 288 participants. OPG and adiponectin concentrations were determined by in-house time-resolved immunofluorometric assays. RESULTS: Despite significant correlation with hsCRP (r=0.162, p<0.001), the sum-score of BDI did not correlate with OPG or adiponectin levels (r=0.011, p=0.811 and r=0.055, p=0.210, respectively). Neither circulating OPG nor adiponectin differed between persons with (n=34) and without (n=246) MDD (median±interquartile range: 1.18 (0.96-1.49) vs. 1.17 (0.93-1.57) ug/l and 7.26 (5.13-9.91) vs. 7.39 (5.23-11.37) mg/l, respectively). LIMITATIONS: Causal considerations are not possible, and results in the sub-group of diagnosed participants need careful interpretation due to small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: hsCRP was independently associated with depressive symptoms, but no association between depression severity or presence of MDD and OPG- or adiponectin concentrations was observed in community-residing persons at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 08/2012; · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although anxiety and depression are frequent comorbid disorders in dialysis patients, they remain underrecognized and often untreated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a truncated version of the BDI, the Cognitive Depression Index (CDI), as screening tools for anxiety and depression in dialysis patients. A total of 109 participants (69.7% males), from four dialysis centers, completed the self-report symptom scales HADS and BDI. Depression and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, overall agreement, kappa and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Depressive disorders were found in 22% of the patients based on the SCID-I, while anxiety disorders occurred in 17%. The optimal screening cut-off score for depression was ≥ 7 for the HADS depression subscale (HADS-D), ≥ 14 for the HADS-total, ≥ 11 for the CDI and ≥ 17 for the BDI. The optimal screening cut-off for anxiety was ≥ 6 for the HADS anxiety subscale (HADS-A) and ≥ 14 for the HADS-total. At cut-offs commonly used in clinical practice for depression screening (HADS-D: 8; BDI: 16), the BDI performed slightly better than HADS-D. The BDI, CDI and HADS demonstrated acceptable performance as screening tools for depression, as did the HADS-A for anxiety, in our sample of dialysis patients. The recommended cut-off scores for each instrument were: ≥ 17 for BDI, ≥ 11 for CDI, ≥ 7 for HADS depression subscale, ≥ 6 for HADS anxiety subscale and ≥ 14 for HADS total. The CDI did not perform better than the BDI in our study. Lower cut-off for the HADS-A than recommended in medically ill patients may be considered when screening for anxiety in dialysis patients.
    Journal of psychosomatic research 08/2012; 73(2):139-44. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The "Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire" (BSWSQ) was developed to systematically assess discrete sleep problems related to different work shifts (day, evening, night shifts) and rest days. In this study, we assessed the psychometric properties of the BSWSQ using a sample of 760 nurses, all working in a three-shift rotation schedule: day, evening, and night shifts. BSWSQ measures insomnia symptoms using seven questions: >30-min sleep onset latency, >30-min wake after sleep onset, >30-min premature awakenings, nonrestorative sleep, being tired/sleepy at work, during free time on work days, and when not working/on vacation. Symptoms are assessed separately for each work shift and rest days, as "never," "rarely," "sometimes," "often," "always," or "not applicable." We investigated the BSWSQ model fit, reliability (test-retest of a subsample, n = 234), and convergent and discriminant validity between the BSWSQ and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. We also investigated differences in mean scores between the different insomnia symptoms with respect to different work shifts and rest days. BSWSQ demonstrated an adequate model fit using structural equation modeling: root mean square error of approximation = .071 (90% confidence interval [CI] = .066-.076), comparative fit index = .91, and chi-square/degrees of freedom = 4.41. The BSWSQ demonstrated good reliability (test-retest coefficients p <  .001). We found good convergent and discriminant validity between BSWSQ and the other scales (all coefficients p <  .001). There were significant differences between the overall/composite scores of the various work shifts. Night shift showed the highest score compared to day and evening shifts as well as to rest days (all post hoc comparisons p <  .001). Mean scores of different symptoms also varied significantly within the individual work shifts. We conclude that the BSWSQ meets the necessary psychometric standards, enabling systematic study of discrete insomnia symptoms in different work shifts.
    Chronobiology International 08/2012; 29(7):937-46. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies have suggested that physical exercise can reduce symptoms for subjects suffering from panic disorder (PD). The efficacy of this intervention has so far not been compared to an established psychotherapy, such as cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Assessment of controlled long-term effects and the clinical significance of the treatment are also lacking. Aim: To compare physical exercise to CBT as treatment for PD, and assess controlled long-term and clinically significant effects. Method: PD-patients were randomized to either three weekly sessions of physical exercise (n = 17), or one weekly session of CBT (n = 19). Both treatments ran for 12 weeks, were manualized and administered in groups. Patients were assessed twice before the start of treatment, at post-treatment and at 6 and 12 months thereafter. Primary outcome-measures consisted of the Mobility Inventory (MI), the Agoraphobia Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ) and the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ). Results: A two-way repeated measures MANOVA of these measures demonstrated a significant effect of time, F(16, 544) = 7.28, p < .01, as well as a significant interaction effect, F(16, 544) = 1.71, p < .05, in favour of CBT. This finding was supported by the assessment of clinically significant changes of avoidant behaviour and of treatment-seeking one year later. Conclusion: Group CBT is more effective than group physical exercise as treatment of panic disorder, both immediately following treatment and at follow-up assessments.
    Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 07/2012; · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We examined the effect of a 12-week family-based cognitive behavioural weight management programme developed for use in primary care settings. Methods: The sample consisted of 49 children with obesity (aged 7—13 years; mean ± SD: 10.68 ±1.24). Families were randomly assigned to immediate start-up of treatment or to a 12-week waiting list condition. Outcome measures were body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), self-esteem, symptoms of depression and blood parameters indicative of cardio-metabolic risk. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment, post-waiting list and 12 months after treatment termination. Results: The mean reduction for the treatment group was −0.16 BMI SDS units compared with an increase of 0.04 units for the waiting list group (p = .001). For the entire sample, there was a significant post-treatment improvement on BMI SDS (p = .001), all self-esteem measures (p = .001—.041) and symptoms of depression (p = .004). The mean BMI SDS reduction was −0.18 units post-treatment, and it was maintained at 12-month follow-up. Significant reductions were found in blood lipid levels of total cholesterol (p = .03), LDL-cholesterol (p = .005) and HDL-cholesterol (p = .01) at 12-month follow-up. The favourable effect on most of the psychological measures waned from post-treatment to follow-up, but not approaching baseline levels. Boys demonstrated significantly greater reductions in BMI SDS than girls (p = .001), while baseline psychiatric co-morbidity did not influence BMI SDS outcome. Conclusions: The treatment shows significant and favourable effects on BMI SDS, selfesteem and symptoms of depression compared with a waiting list condition.
    Obesity Research & Clinical Practice 06/2012; · 0.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Anxiety in persons with dementia has received little attention despite its severe consequences. In this observational cross-sectional study, we investigated the frequency of anxiety and associations between anxiety and socio-demographic and clinical variables in an outpatient sample with first-time diagnosed mild dementia. Methods: The study sample (n = 169) comprised participants recruited from clinics in geriatric medicine and old age psychiatry for a longitudinal dementia study. Symptoms of anxiety were rated by a caregiver on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and by the patient on the anxiety tension item on the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Measures of caregiver stress, dementia-related impairment (Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale), and cognitive functioning were also included. Results: According to caregiver reports, 19.5% had clinically significant anxiety and an additional 22.5% had subclinical anxiety. Half of the patients reported experiencing anxiety from time to time. Patients with Lewy-body dementia reported anxiety more often compared to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Anxiety was associated with depression, higher caregiver stress, and more dementia-related impairment, but not with cognitive test performance. Caregiver stress and higher CDR score increased the odds for anxiety significantly, even when controlling for depression. Conclusion: Anxiety is common in patients with mild dementia, and seems to be associated not so much with cognitive test performance than with caregiver distress and the patient's ability to function in daily life. Anxiety should be taken into account when assessing dementia, as well as screened for when examining patients with known dementia.
    International Psychogeriatrics 06/2012; 24(11):1771-8. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess health- related quality of life (HRQOL) with SF-12 and SF-36 and compare their abilities to predict mortality in chronic dialysis patients, after adjusting for traditional risk factors. The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) with the embedded SF-12 was applied in 301 dialysis patients cross-sectionally. Physical and mental component summary (PCS-36, MCS-36, PCS-12, and MCS-12) scores were calculated. Clinical and demographic data were collected. Mortality (followed for up to 4.5 years) was analyzed with Kaplan Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards, after censoring for renal transplantation. Exclusion factors were observation time <2 months (n = 21) and missing component summary scores (n = 10 for SF-36; n = 28 for SF-12), thus 252 patient were included in the analyses. In 252 patients (60.2 ± 15.5 years, 65.9% males, dialysis vintage 9.0, IQR 5.0-23.0 months), mortality during follow-up was 33.7%.(85 deaths). Significant correlations were observed between PCS-36 and PCS-12 (ρ = 0.93, p < 0.001) and between MCS-36 and MCS-12 (ρ = 0.95, p < 0.001). Mortality rate was highest in patients in the lowest quartile of PCS-12 (χ2 = 15.3, p = 0.002) and PCS-36 (χ2 = 16.7, p = 0.001). MCS was not associated with mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality were 2.5 (95% CI 1.0-6.3, PCS-12) and 2.7 (1.1 - 6.4, PCS-36) for the lowest compared with the highest ("best perceived") quartile of PCS. Compromised HRQOL is an independent predictor of poor outcome in dialysis patients. The SF-12 provided similar predictions of mortality as SF-36, and may serve as an applicable clinical tool because it requires less time to complete.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 05/2012; 10:46. · 2.10 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
216.65 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2013
    • Haukeland University Hospital
      • Norwegian Competence Center for Sleep Disorders
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 1999–2013
    • University of Bergen
      • • Department of Clinical Psychology
      • • Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2012
    • Akershus universitetssykehus
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Oslo
      • • Division of Medicine
      • • Department of Behavioural Sciences in Medicine
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 2011
    • Oslo University Hospital
      • Department of Nephrology
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway