[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to investigate the potential contribution of a major birch pollen Bet v 1-homologous allergen to birch pollen-associated tomato fruit allergy.
Two isoforms of a Bet v 1-homologous protein (designated Sola l 4) from tomato fruit were identified by cDNA-cloning and produced as recombinant proteins. Allergen-specific IgE levels to tomato, birch pollen, Bet v 1, and Sola l 4 were determined in birch pollen allergic patients with allergy or tolerance to tomato. Sola l 4 was recognized in 76% of birch/tomato allergic patients, while tomato- and Bet v 1-specific IgE was detectable in 64% and 81% of sera. Almost all patients sensitized to Bet v 1 reacted with Sola l 4. Both Sola l 4 isoforms displayed allergenic potency and IgE-cross-reactivity with Bet v 1 as investigated by competitive ELISA and in vitro mediator release assay. Nevertheless, the reactivity pattern of patients' sera was diverse.
Sola l 4, a novel pathogenesis related-10 protein, qualifies as major allergen in tomato fruits. Data suggest Sola l 4 as class II allergen. IgE-testing using Sola l 4 showed low clinical specificity, but high sensitivity in tomato allergic patients and will further improve component-resolved allergy diagnosis.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 02/2014; · 4.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conjugated vaccines consisting of flagellin and antigen activate TLR5 and induce strong innate and adaptive immune responses. Objective of the present study was to gain further insight into the mechanisms by which flagellin fusion proteins mediate their immune modulating effects. In a mouse model of Ova-induced intestinal allergy a fusion protein of flagellin and Ova (rflaA:Ova) was used for intranasal and intraperitoneal vaccination. Aggregation status of flaA, Ova and flaA:Ova were compared by light scattering, uptake of fluorescence labeled proteins into mDC was analyzed, processing was investigated by microsomal digestion experiments. Mechanism of DC-activation was investigated using proteasome and inflammasome inhibitors. Immune responses of wildtype, IL-10(-/-), TLR5(-/-) mDCs and Ova-transgenic T cells were investigated. Mucosal and i.p.-application of rflaA:Ova were able to prevent allergic sensitization, suppress disease-related symptoms, prevent body weight loss and reduction in food uptake. Intranasal vaccination resulted in strongest suppression of Ova-specific IgE production. These protective effects were associated with increased aggregation of rflaA:Ova and accompanied by tenfold higher uptake rates into mDC compared to the mixture of both proteins. Microsomal digestion showed that stimulation with rflaA:Ova resulted in faster degradation and the generation of different peptides compared to rOva. rflaA:Ova-mediated activation of mDC could be suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by the application of both inflammasome and proteasome inhibitors. Using TLR5(-/-) mDC the rflaA:Ova induced IL-10 secretion was shown to be TLR5 dependent. In co-cultures of IL-10(-/-) mDC with DO11.10 T cells the lack of rflaA:Ova-mediated IL-10 secretion resulted in enhanced levels of both TH2 (IL-4, IL-5) and TH1 (IL-2 and IFN-y) cytokines. In summary, mucosal vaccination with flaA:Ova showed strongest preventive effect. Stimulation with rflaA:Ova results in strong immune modulation mediated by enhanced uptake of the aggregated fusion protein, likely resulting in a different processing by DC as well as stronger TLR5 mediated cell activation.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e87822. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combining allergen(s) with an adjuvant is a strategy to improve the efficacy and safety of allergen-specific immunotherapy. Here, we aimed at investigating the adjuvant effects of polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid (poly(A:U)), a TLR3 agonist, and R848 (resiquimod), a TLR7 agonist, in epicutaneous immunotherapy with Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, to intervene in birch pollen allergy.
BALB/c mice received epicutaneous immunization (EPI) with recombinant Bet v 1 (rBet v 1) alone, or plus poly(A:U), or R848 on their depilated back using patches. Among the groups, EPI with rBet v 1 and R848 induced detectable levels of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells in lymph nodes and Bet v 1-specific IgG2a antibodies in the sera of mice. Before or after EPI, mice were sensitized with rBet v 1 plus aluminium hydroxide adjuvant and intranasally challenged with birch pollen extract. Prophylactic EPI with rBet v 1 plus R848 inhibited the production of biologically active Bet v 1-specific IgE antibodies in sensitization. Prophylactic and therapeutic EPI with rBet v 1 plus R848 suppressed lung inflammation upon challenges. Remarkably, only rBet v 1 plus R848 reduced the development of enhanced pause (PenH), a substituted parameter for airway hyper-reactivity, in challenged mice. In contrast to R848, poly(A:U) did not present adjuvant effect on the suppression of asthmatic features.
Epicutaneous immunization with rBet v 1 plus R848 induced predominant Bet v 1-specific Th1 responses and efficiently suppressed asthmatic features elicited by birch pollen. R848 could be a promising adjuvant in epicutaneous immunotherapy for birch pollen-induced allergic asthma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-encoding antigens are considered as safe vaccine candidates for various infectious diseases in humans. Here, we investigated the immune-modulating properties of MVA-encoding ovalbumin (MVA-OVA) on the allergen-specific immune response.
The immune-modulating properties of MVA-OVA were investigated using GM-CSF-differentiated BMDCs from C57BL/6 mice. OVA expression upon MVA-OVA infection of BMDCs was monitored. Activation and maturation markers on viable MVA-OVA-infected mDCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Secretion of INF-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 was determined in a co-culture of BMDCs infected with wtMVA or MVA-OVA and OVA-specific OT-I CD8(+) and OT-II CD4(+ ) T cells. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with wtMVA, MVA-OVA, or PBS, sensitized to OVA/alum and challenged with a diet containing chicken egg white. OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a and cytokine secretion from mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells were analyzed. Body weight, body temperature, food uptake, intestinal inflammation, and health condition of mice were monitored.
Infection with wtMVA and MVA-OVA induced comparable activation of mDCs. MVA-OVA-infected BMDCs expressed OVA and induced enhanced IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion from OVA-specific CD8(+ ) T cells in comparison with OVA, wtMVA, or OVA plus wtMVA. Prophylactic vaccination with MVA-OVA significantly repressed OVA-specific IgE, whereas OVA-specific IgG2a was induced. MVA-OVA vaccination suppressed TH 2 cytokine production in MLN cells and prevented the onset of allergic symptoms and inflammation in a mouse model of OVA-induced intestinal allergy.
Modified vaccinia virus Ankara-ovalbumin (MVA-OVA) vaccination induces a strong OVA-specific TH 1- immune response, likely mediated by the induction of IFN-γ and IgG2a. Finally, MVA-based vaccines need to be evaluated for their therapeutic potential in established allergy models.
Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 01/2013; 23(3). · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paper mulberry (Morus papyrifera) pollen is considered to be one of the most clinically relevant aeroallergens in Pakistan. To date, the allergenicity of the pollen has not been investigated.
To characterize the sensitization profile of mulberry-allergic patients and the proteins of paper mulberry pollen contributing to pollinosis in the Pakistani population.
Proteins were extracted from mulberry pollen using different protocols. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E binding proteins to mulberry pollen was determined by ImmunoCAP testing and immunoblotting using sera from 29 mulberry pollen-allergic patients with positive skin prick test results to mulberry pollen antigens. The histamine release assay was performed in vitro to determine the allergenic potency of pollen extracts and a partially purified mulberry pollen allergen. The protein was identified using N-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF).
IgE sensitization to mulberry pollen was confirmed by positive ImmunoCAP results to pollen from Morus alba (white mulberry) in 23 out of 29 mulberry pollen-allergic patients. A 10-kDa protein from the paper mulberry pollen extract was considered a major allergen, along with additional IgE-reactive proteins. Sera from 79% of the patients reacted to the 10-kDa allergen, which showed substantial capacity to trigger histamine release in 3 out of 4 patients. N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF/TOF yielded an amino acid sequence with no homology to known proteins.
Mulberry-allergic patients are sensitized to multiple mulberry pollen allergens. We identified a novel 10-kDa protein that was a major allergen and should be further investigated for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 01/2013; 23(3):168-75. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to 25% of food allergic subjects in central Europe suffer from carrot allergy. Until now, two isoforms of the major carrot (Daucus carota) allergen Dau c 1 have been described: Dau c 1.01, comprising five variants (Dau c 1.0101-Dau c 1.0105) and Dau c 1.02.
To investigate potential allergenic properties of a Dau c PRPlike protein, a novel isoform of the PR-10 protein family in carrot.
Dau c PRPlike cDNA from carrot roots (cv Rodelika) was cloned after RT-PCR and 5'RACE. Dau c PRPlike protein was expressed in E. coli, purified under native conditions by Ni-NTA chromatography and analysed by CD spectroscopy. Immuno-reactivity of the rDau c PRPlike protein was compared with rDau c 1.0104 and rDau c 1.0201 in terms of IgE binding (immunoblotting, ImmunoCAP), IgE cross-reactivity (ELISA inhibition) and in vitro mediator release with sera from carrot allergic patients. mRNA expression of Dau c PRPlike protein in wild-type and transgenic carrot roots was analysed by qRT-PCR.
The Dau c PRPlike protein was identified as a new allergenic isoform, Dau c 1.03, in carrot roots. 68% of carrot allergic patients were sensitized to rDau c 1.03. The IgE-reactivity of rDau c 1.03 strongly correlated with reactivity to rDau c 1.0104, but not to rDau c 1.0201. The extent of IgE cross-reactivity and allergenic potency of Dau c 1 isoforms varied between the individual sera tested. Dau c 1.03 mRNA transcripts were up-regulated in Dau c 1.01 and Dau c 1.02 gene-silenced carrot roots.
Dau c 1 isoforms display distinct IgE epitope heterogeneity. Dau c 1.03 appears to contribute to the allergenicity of carrots and the manifestation of carrot allergy. The epitope diversity of different Dau c 1 isoforms should be considered for component-resolved diagnosis and gene silencing of carrot allergens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 agonist flagellin is associated with immunomodulatory functions.
We sought to investigate whether Listeria monocytogenes-derived flagellin A (flaA) can modulate ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell responses and prevent OVA-induced intestinal allergy.
Bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells from BALB/c, C57BL/6, or TLR signaling-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) mice were stimulated with rOVA, rflaA, rflaA plus rOVA, or a recombinant fusion protein consisting of rflaA and rOVA (rflaA:OVA). The immunomodulating properties of rflaA plus rOVA and rflaA:OVA were investigated by means of DC-T-cell coculture with CD4(+) T cells from OVA-T-cell receptor transgenic or OVA/alum-immunized mice. rflaA:OVA was applied as a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine in a murine model of intestinal allergy.
rflaA:OVA induced upregulation of TLR5 and dose-dependent IL-6 and IL-10 secretion by myeloid dendritic cells. IL-10 contributed to repressing IL-4 and IFN-γ secretion by OVA-T-cell receptor transgenic CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, rflaA:OVA suppressed CD4(+) T cells derived from T(H)2-biased mice on OVA/alum immunization. In a murine model of intestinal allergy, prophylactic vaccination with rflaA:OVA reduced T-cell activation. Protection from intestinal allergy included suppression of OVA-specific IgE while inducing OVA-specific IgG(2a). Equimolar amounts of rflaA or rOVA provided alone or as a mixture did not have comparable effects. Moreover, therapeutic vaccination was shown to reduce allergic symptoms and T-cell activation in the spleen.
The rflaA:OVA fusion protein showed strong TLR-mediated immunomodulating capacities probably attributed by the proximity of adjuvant and allergen, leading to the prevention of intestinal allergy in a murine disease model. Therefore recombinant flaA:allergen fusion proteins are promising vaccine candidates for intervention in patients with IgE-mediated allergy.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 08/2011; 128(6):1340-1348.e12. · 12.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Published data on crustacean allergens are incomplete. The identification of tropomyosin (TM), arginine kinase (AK), sarcoplasmic Ca-binding protein (SCP) and myosin light chain (MLC) as shrimp allergens are all important contributions but additional allergens are required for the development of a complete set of reagents for component resolved diagnosis and the exploration of novel vaccination strategies.
The North Sea shrimp (Crangon crangon), which is frequently consumed in Europe, served as a model organism in this study. TM and AK were directly cloned from mRNA based on sequence homology and produced as recombinant proteins. Additional IgE-reactive proteins were isolated by preparative SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry and corresponding cDNAs were cloned and expressed in E. coli. The relevance of the 6 cloned crustacean allergens was confirmed with sera of 31 shrimp-allergic subjects, 12 of which had a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) to shrimp and 19 a convincing history of food allergy to shrimp, including 5 cases of anaphylaxis. Quantitative IgE measurements were performed by ImmunoCAP.
Six recombinant crustacean proteins: TM, AK, SCP, a novel MLC, troponin C (TnC), and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) bound IgE in ImmunoCAP analysis. Specific IgE to at least one of these single shrimp allergens was detected in 90% of the study population, thus the in vitro diagnostic sensitivity was comparable to that of shrimp extract (97%). In 75% of the subjects, the combined technical sensitivity was similar to or greater with single shrimp allergens than with natural shrimp extract.
We identified six IgE-binding proteins from C. crangon, three of which have not before been described as allergens in crustaceans. This extensive panel of shrimp allergens forms a valuable asset for future efforts towards the identification of clinically relevant biomarkers and as a basis to approach patient-tailored immunotherapeutic strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity.
Low pH induced conformational changes of all homologues, which was reduced at physiological ionic strength for all except rPru p 1 as observed by circular dichroism (CD)-spectroscopy. The homologues were rapidly digested by pepsin, losing their IgE binding activity, although the kinetics and patterns of digestion varied subtly between homologues, rApi g 1 being the most stable. We have demonstrated for the first time that gastric phosphatidyl-choline (PC) induced conformational changes in all homologues but only rMal d 1 penetrated the PC vesicles as detected by fluorescence polarization, slowing its digestion and retaining more of its allergenic activity. PC enhanced basophil activation of all digested allergens except rApi g 1.
The Bet v 1 scaffold is generally susceptible to low pH and pepsinolysis and interacts with PC vesicles, properties which can explain effects of the gastric environment on their allergenicity. These data show the importance of including surfactants in model digestion systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of IgE antibody binding to epitopes provides information for food allergy diagnosis and management and construction of hypoallergenic candidate vaccines, but the contribution of sequential epitopes to functionally relevant IgE binding is not fully understood.
We sought to study the impact of IgE-binding peptides described as major sequence epitopes in the literature on IgE-binding capacity of 2 selected food allergens.
IgE-binding peptides of the food allergens Ara h 2 (peanut) and Pen a 1 (shrimp) were identified. Synthetic soluble peptides representing the identified sequences were assessed for their capacity to inhibit IgE binding to the parent allergens by means of ELISA and in mediator release assay. The IgE-binding capacity of unfolded recombinant (r) Ara h 2 was analyzed. A hybrid tropomyosin carrying the IgE-binding regions of Pen a 1 grafted into the structural context of the nonallergenic mouse tropomyosin was applied in ELISA inhibition experiments and ImmunoCAP analysis.
Although IgE-binding peptides representing sections of the allergen sequences were detected, no relevant capacity to inhibit the IgE binding to the parent allergen in ELISA or basophil activation test was observed. Unfolded rAra h 2 showed reduced IgE-binding capacity compared with folded rAra h 2 and failed to elicit mediator release. Hybrid tropomyosin bound less IgE than rPen a 1 in ImmunoCAP analysis and revealed marginal inhibitory capacity.
Peptides identified as major sequence epitopes on Pen a 1 and Ara h 2 show little contribution to the IgE binding of the allergens studied.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 09/2009; 124(2):328-36, 336.e1-6. · 12.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carrot allergy is caused by primary sensitization to birch pollen. Continuous carrot exposure results in additional Dau c 1-specific allergic responses. Thus, immunotherapy with birch pollen may not improve the food allergy.
Evaluation of mutation and oligomerization of the major carrot allergen, Dau c 1, in regard to alteration of antibody binding capacities, structure, and the ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies.
Measurement of IgE reactivities to monomers, dimers of wild-type and mutant Dau c 1.0104 and Dau c 1.0201, and Dau c 1.0104 trimer, their ability to induce blocking antibodies in mice, and their allergenic potency by histamine release.
The reactivity of human IgE to the mutant dimer was reduced on average by 81%. Sera of immunized Balb/c mice showed specific IgG similar to the human IgE antibody response; Dau c 1.01 was more antigenic than Dau c 1.02. Both wild-type and mutant Dau c 1 variants induced cross-reacting IgG, which blocked binding of human IgE. The mutants were more antigenic than the wild-type forms, and the dimers induced higher IgG responses in mice than the monomers. The results of the histamine release experiments corroborated the findings of the antibody binding studies.
Destruction of native conformation rather than oligomerization is the appropriate strategy to reduce the allergenicity of Bet v 1-homologous food allergens.
The dimer composed of mutants of Dau c 1.0104 and Dau c 1.0201 is a promising candidate vaccine for treatment of carrot allergy because of its high immunogenicity and drastically reduced allergenicity.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 05/2007; 119(4):944-51. · 12.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For better understanding the cross-reactivity between the major birch pollen and celery allergens, Bet v 1 and Api g 1, respectively, putative epitope areas and structurally important positions for IgE-binding of the isoforms Api g 1.01 and Api g 1.02 were point mutated. The IgE binding capacities were measured in ELISA, the IgE cross-reactivity between the isoforms, mutants and Bet v 1 investigated by ELISA-inhibition experiments with serum pools from patients with confirmed celery allergy (DBPCFC). Api g 1.01 displayed a clearly higher frequency and capacity of IgE binding than Api g 1.02. In Api g 1.01, substitution of lysine against glutamic acid at amino acid position 44, a key residue of the Bet v 1 "P-loop", increased the IgE-binding properties. Structural instability due to proline insertion at position 111/112 resulted in loss of IgE binding of Api g 1.01, but not of Api g 1.02. Between Api g 1.01 and Api g 1.02 only partial cross-reactivity was seen. The data suggest that the IgE epitopes of the two isoforms are distinct and that in contrast to Api g 1.01, the "P-loop" region plays an important role for IgE binding of celery allergic subjects to Api g 1.02. Understanding and investigation of the molecular mechanisms in celery allergy is an important step to generate hypoallergenic proteins for safe and efficacious immunotherapy of food allergy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Europe, pollen-related food allergy is the most frequent form of food allergy in adults. Reliability of current diagnostic procedures, however, is poor and therapeutic options are not available.
In the present study, we created a panel of recombinant allergens from carrot and evaluated its potential in component-resolved in vitro diagnosis of carrot allergy.
Recombinant (r) Dau c 1.0104, Dau c 1.0201 and Dau c 4 were cloned by a polymerase chain reaction strategy, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Carrot lipid transfer protein (LTP) was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Sera from 40 carrot-allergic patients were investigated. Twenty-one birch pollen-allergic subjects with negative open provocation to carrot and 20 non-allergic subjects were included as controls. IgE binding to recombinant allergens as well as to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) was measured by ELISA. Cross-reactivity between Dau c 1 isoforms and Bet v 1 was assayed by ELISA inhibition. Biological activity of the recombinant carrot allergens was assessed by histamine release assay and peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulation.
Ninety-eight percent of the carrot-allergic patients were positive to at least one recombinant allergen; 98% reacted to rDau c 1.0104, 65% to rDau c 1.0201, 38% to rDau c 4 and 20% had IgE against CCD. Specificity using the recombinant allergens was high when compared with non-allergic controls, but low compared with birch-sensitized subjects without carrot allergy. Sensitization to Dau c 1.0201, however, proved to be highly specific for clinically relevant sensitization. Inhibition assays indicated the absence of LTP in carrot root extract, and epitope diversity between Dau c 1.0104, Dau c 1.0201 and Bet v 1.
Our panel of recombinant allergens from carrot can provide a standardized tool for in vitro diagnosis of carrot allergy, and for epitope studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen-associated food allergy is a well-characterized syndrome, which is due to the cross-reactivity of IgE antibodies to homologous allergens in various foods. One crossreacting area on the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and its homologue in cherry (Prunus avium) Pru av 1 has already been identified. This is the so-called 'P-loop' region, which encompasses amino acid residues around position 45 and is found on the two virtually identical tertiary protein structures. We tried to determine an additional IgE cross-reacting patch on Pru av 1 and Bet v 1. The putative IgE-binding region on Pru av 1 was localized with a mAb (monoclonal antibody) that was generated against Bet v 1, and cross-reacts with several Bet v 1 homologues in food and inhibits the binding of patients' IgE to Pru av 1. mAb reactivity pattern was analysed and amino acid positions 28 and 108 of Pru av 1 were selected and mutated by site-directed mutagenesis. The Pru av 1 mutants were produced as recombinant proteins and characterized for their folding, mAb- and IgE-binding capacity and allergenic potency with a cellular assay using the humanized rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RBL-25/30. Amino acid position 28 is involved in a second major IgE-binding region on Pru av 1 and probably on Bet v 1. The identification of this second major IgE-binding region is an essential prerequisite to understand the phenomenon of cross-reactivity and its clinical consequences, and to produce hypoallergenic proteins for an improved immunotherapy of type I allergy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of thermal processing and nonenymatic as well as polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed browning reaction on the allergenicity of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1 was investigated. After thermal treatment of the recombinant protein rPru av 1 in the absence or presence of carbohydrates, SDS-PAGE, enzyme allergosorbent tests, and inhibition assays revealed that thermal treatment of rPru av 1 alone did not show any influence on the IgE-binding activity of the protein at least for 30 min, thus correlating well with the refolding of the allergen in buffer solution as demonstrated by CD spectroscopic experiments. Incubation of the protein with starch and maltose also showed no effect on IgE-binding activity, whereas reaction with glucose and ribose and, even more pronounced, with the carbohydrate breakdown products glyceraldehyde and glyoxal induced a strong decrease of the IgE-binding capacity of rPru av 1. In the second part of the study, the effect of polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed oxidation of polyphenols on food allergen activity was investigated. Incubation of rPru av 1 with epicatechin in the presence of tyrosinase led to a drastic decrease in IgE-binding activity of the protein. Variations of the phenolic compound revealed caffeic acid and epicatechin as the most active inhibitors of the IgE-binding activity of rPru av 1, followed by catechin and gallic acid, and, finally, by quercetin and rutin, showing significantly lower activity. On the basis of these data, reactive intermediates formed during thermal carbohydrate degradation as well as during enzymatic polyphenol oxidation are suggested as the active chemical species responsible for modifying nucleophilic amino acid side chains of proteins, thus inducing an irreversible change in the tertiary structure of the protein and resulting in a loss of conformational epitopes of the allergen.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2004; 52(12):4002-7. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Birch pollinosis is often accompanied by adverse reactions to food due to pollen-allergen specific IgE cross-reacting with homologous food allergens. The tertiary structure of Pru av 1, the major cherry (Prunus avium) allergen, for example, is nearly identical with Bet v 1, the major birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen allergen. In order to define cross-reactive IgE epitopes, we generated and analysed mutants of Pru av 1 and Api g 1.0101, the major celery (Apium graveolens) allergen, by immunoblotting, EAST (enzyme allergosorbent test), CD and NMR spectroscopy. The mutation of Glu45 to Trp45 in the P-loop region, a known IgE epitope of Bet v 1, significantly reduced IgE binding to Pru av 1 in a subgroup of cherry-allergic patients. The backbone conformation of Pru av 1 wild-type is conserved in the three-dimensional structure of Pru av 1 Trp45, demonstrating that the side chain of Glu45 is involved in a cross-reactive IgE epitope. Accordingly, for a subgroup of celery-allergic patients, IgE binding to the homologous celery allergen Api g 1.0101 was enhanced by the mutation of Lys44 to Glu. The almost complete loss of IgE reactivity to the Pru av 1 Pro112 mutant is due to disruption of its tertiary structure. Neither the mutation Ala112 nor deletion of the C-terminal residues 155-159 influenced IgE binding to Pru av 1. In conclusion, the structure of the P-loop partially explains the cross-reactivity pattern, and modulation of IgE-binding by site-directed mutagenesis is a promising approach to develop hypo-allergenic variants for patient-tailored specific immunotherapy.