C Warren Olanow

Parkinson's and Movement Disorders Center Of Maryland, Maryland, United States

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Publications (277)2067.54 Total impact

  • Article: Reply.
    Anthony H Schapira, C Warren Olanow
    Annals of Neurology 05/2009; 65(4):481. · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • C Warren Olanow
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    ABSTRACT: A disease-modifying therapy is the most important unmet medical need in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). Laboratory studies have identified many promising candidate agents, but none has been proven to be neuroprotective in PD. A major limitation has been the development of an endpoint that accurately reflects the underlying disease state. This dramatically limits the potential for a new drug being approved as a disease-modifying agent in PD. For the present, the best opportunity to provide patients with PD with a disease-modifying effect is with agents that have been approved for their symptomatic effects. This article reviews currently available drugs for PD and considers the evidence that they might have neuroprotective effects in PD.
    Neurology 03/2009; 72(7 Suppl):S59-64. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental studies suggest that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) induces impulsivity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to assess various measures of impulse control in PD patients with STN DBS in comparison to patients receiving medical therapy. In a cross-sectional evaluation, 53 consecutively eligible patients were assessed for impulsivity with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, for impulse control disorders (ICDs) using the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, and for obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory. Independent samples t-tests revealed that compulsivity scores were not different between DBS patients and patients without DBS. However, impulsivity scores were significantly higher in DBS patients. Additionally, ICDs were observed in 3 of 16 (19%) DBS patients and in 3 of 37 (8%) medically treated patients. No association was found between the use of dopamine agonists and impulsivity in DBS patients. Our data suggest that screening for impulsivity and ICDs should be performed prior to DBS, and that patients should be monitored for these problems during follow-up. Prospective trials are needed to confirm the findings of this exploratory study and to elucidate the reasons of a possible induction of impulsivity by STN DBS.
    European Journal of Neurology 03/2009; 16(4):493-7. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to assess dyskinesias in 34 Parkinson's disease patients randomized to receive bilateral fetal nigral transplantation with 4 donors per side (12), 1 donor per side (11), or placebo (11). Videotape recordings were performed at the baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 month visits during the “practically defined off” (12 hours after last evening dopaminergic therapy) and “best on” (best response following morning dopaminergic therapy) states. Videotapes were analyzed in random order by a blinded investigator. Dyskinesias during “best on” (on-medication dyskinesia) were observed in all, but 1 patient at baseline, and in all patients at each subsequent visit. There were no differences between groups. No patient had dyskinesia at baseline in “practically-defined off” (“off-medication” dyskinesia). Following transplantation, off-medication dyskinesia was observed in 13 of 23 patients, but not in any patient in the placebo group (P = 0.019). There was no difference in dyskinesia score between patients in the 1 and 4 donor groups. On-medication dyskinesias were typically generalized and choreiform, whereas off-medication dyskinesias were usually repetitive, stereotypic movements in the lower extremities with residual Parkinsonism in other body regions. Off-medication dyskinesias are common following transplantation and may represent a prolonged form of diphasic dyskinesias. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 02/2009; 24(3):336 - 343. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • C Warren Olanow, Matthew B Stern
    Annals of Neurology 02/2009; 64 Suppl 2:S1-2. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of a neuroprotective therapy that slows, stops, or reverses neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the single most important unresolved issue in the management of this disorder. Current therapies provide effective control of symptoms, particularly in the early stages of the disease, but disease progression is associated with the development of "nondopaminergic" features such as postural instability, falling, and dementia that are not adequately controlled with existing medications. There are many promising candidate neuroprotective agents based on pathological and laboratory studies, but to date, it has not been possible to determine that any drug has a disease-modifying effect in PD. Obstacles to the development of a neuroprotective therapy in PD include: (1) uncertainty as to the precise cause of cell death in PD and what to target; (2) the lack of an animal model of PD that precisely reflects the etiopathogenesis of the disease, the pattern of dopaminergic and nondopaminergic pathology, and its chronic, progressive nature; (3) determination of the correct dose to use in clinical trials; and (4) delineation of a clinical end point that is an accurate measure of the underlying disease and is not confounded by potential symptomatic effects of a study intervention. New developments in understanding the cause of the disease, in the development of animal models of PD, and in clinical trial methodology will hopefully hasten the resolution of these problems.
    Annals of Neurology 02/2009; 64 Suppl 2:S101-10. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is reviewed in light of recent advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the basal ganglia (BG). Current emphasis is placed on the parallel interactions between corticostriatal and corticosubthalamic afferents on the one hand, and internal feedback circuits modulating BG output through the globus pallidus pars interna and substantia nigra pars reticulata on the other. In the normal BG network, the globus pallidus pars externa emerges as a main regulatory station of output activity. In the parkinsonian state, dopamine depletion shifts the BG toward inhibiting cortically generated movements by increasing the gain in the globus pallidus pars externa-subthalamic nucleus-globus pallidus pars interna network and reducing activity in "direct" cortico-putaminal-globus pallidus pars interna projections. Standard pharmacological treatments do not mimic the normal physiology of the dopaminergic system and, therefore, fail to restore a functional balance between corticostriatal afferents in the so-called direct and indirect pathways, leading to the development of motor complications. This review emphasizes the concept that the BG can no longer be understood as a "go-through" station in the control of movement, behavior, and emotions. The growing understanding of the complexity of the normal BG and the changes induced by DA depletion should guide the development of more efficacious therapies for Parkinson's disease.
    Annals of Neurology 02/2009; 64 Suppl 2:S30-46. · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • Jose A. Obeso, C. Warren Olanow
    Annals of Neurology - ANN NEUROL. 01/2009; 65(5):618-619.
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    ABSTRACT: This report describes pathological changes within the grafted neurons of another patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) who died 14 years posttransplantation. Although numerous healthy appearing grafted neurons were present at this long-term time point, some displayed Lewy bodies as evidenced by alpha-synuclein, ubiquitin, and thioflavin-S staining. Additionally, there was a general loss of dopamine transporter-immunoreactivity in grafted neurons. Some grafted cell displayed a loss of tyrosine hydroxylase. These data support the emerging concept that PD-like pathology is seen in young grafted neurons when they survive long term.
    Movement Disorders 12/2008; 23(16):2303-6. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a clinimetric assessment of the Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). The MDS-UDPRS Task Force revised and expanded the UPDRS using recommendations from a published critique. The MDS-UPDRS has four parts, namely, I: Non-motor Experiences of Daily Living; II: Motor Experiences of Daily Living; III: Motor Examination; IV: Motor Complications. Twenty questions are completed by the patient/caregiver. Item-specific instructions and an appendix of complementary additional scales are provided. Movement disorder specialists and study coordinators administered the UPDRS (55 items) and MDS-UPDRS (65 items) to 877 English speaking (78% non-Latino Caucasian) patients with Parkinson's disease from 39 sites. We compared the two scales using correlative techniques and factor analysis. The MDS-UPDRS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79-0.93 across parts) and correlated with the original UPDRS (rho = 0.96). MDS-UPDRS across-part correlations ranged from 0.22 to 0.66. Reliable factor structures for each part were obtained (comparative fit index > 0.90 for each part), which support the use of sum scores for each part in preference to a total score of all parts. The combined clinimetric results of this study support the validity of the MDS-UPDRS for rating PD.
    Movement Disorders 12/2008; 23(15):2129-70. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A neuroprotective therapy is the single most important unmet medical need in Parkinson's disease. Several promising agents in the laboratory have been tested in the clinic, but none has been established in clinical trials to have a disease modifying effect despite positive results because of potential confounding symptomatic or pharmacologic effects. The delayed start design was developed to try to avoid a symptomatic confound when testing a putative neuroprotective therapy. In this study design, patients are randomly assigned to study drug or placebo in the first phase of the study, and both groups receive the active drug in the second phase. If benefits seen at the end of phase I persist through the end of phase II, they cannot be readily explained by a symptomatic effect (as patients in both groups are receiving the same medication) and benefits in the early start group must relate to the early initiation of the treatment. Although the precise mechanism responsible for such an effect can be debated, positive results in a delayed start study indicate that patients who receive early treatment have a better outcome than those where the treatment is delayed. We are using the delayed start design to assess the potential disease modifying effects of rasagiline in a prospective double blind controlled trial (the ADAGIO study). We here describe the rationale for the study and baseline characteristics of the 1,176 patients who have been enrolled into the trial. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 11/2008; 23(15):2194 - 2201. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • C Warren Olanow
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    ABSTRACT: After 40 years, levodopa remains the most effective therapy for the treatment of PD. However, long-term therapy is complicated by motor fluctuations and dyskinesia that can represent a source of significant disability for some patients. Other medical therapies that are currently available for the treatment of PD primarily represent an attempt to prevent or treat motor complications. Surgical therapies improve motor complications in appropriate candidates, but do not provide antiparkinsonian benefits that are superior to levodopa, and are themselves associated with potentially serious side effects. Increasing information suggests that levodopa-induced motor complications relate to pulsatile, nonphysiologic dopamine replacement. A therapeutic strategy that could deliver levodopa/dopamine to the brain in a more continuous and physiologic manner might be expected to provide all of the benefits of standard levodopa with reduced motor complications. Such a levodopa formulation might replace all current dopaminergic antiparkinsonian medications and avoid the need for surgery in most PD patients. However, problems of continuous dopaminergic stimulation must be addressed and avoided, and the issue of nondopaminergic features remains to be addressed.
    Movement Disorders 10/2008; 23 Suppl 3:S613-22. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • C Warren Olanow, Andrew Lees, Jose Obeso
    Movement Disorders 10/2008; 23 Suppl 3:S495-6. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic levodopa treatment for Parkinson's disease patients is frequently associated with the development of motor complications such as end-of-dose wearing-off and dyskinesias. In this review, we provide an overview of the strategies available for dealing with these problems. Medical management includes manipulation of levodopa dosing to establish the optimum treatment schedule, improving levodopa absorption, catechol-O-methyl transferase-inhibition (COMT), Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibition, dopaminergic agonists, amantadine, and continuous dopaminergic infusions. Surgical procedures and particularly deep brain stimulation are also reviewed. It should be noted that none of these treatments has been shown to provide anti-parkinsonian efficacy that is greater than what can be achieved with levodopa. We highlight the importance of initiating therapy with a treatment strategy that reduces the risk that a Parkinson's disease patient will develop motor complications in the first place. Key Words: Advanced PD, dyskinesias, motor fluctuations, levodopa, dopamine agonists, COMT inhibitors, MAO-B inhibitors.
    Movement Disorders 10/2008; 23 Suppl 3:S599-612. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for therapies that slow or reverse the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Neurotrophic factors can improve the function of degenerating neurons and protect against further neurodegeneration, and gene transfer might be a means to deliver effectively these factors to the brain. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of gene delivery of the neurotrophic factor neurturin. In this phase I, open-label clinical trial, 12 patients aged 35-75 years with a diagnosis of PD for at least 5 years in accordance with the UK Brain Bank Criteria received bilateral, stereotactic, intraputaminal injections of adeno-associated virus serotype 2-neurturin (CERE-120). The first six patients received doses of 1.3x10(11) vector genomes (vg)/patient, and the next six patients received 5.4x10(11) vg/patient. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00252850. The procedure was well tolerated. Extensive safety monitoring in all patients revealed no clinically significant adverse events at 1 year. Several secondary measures of motor function showed improvement at 1 year; for example, a mean improvement in the off-medication motor subscore of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) of 14 points (SD 8; p=0.000121 [36% mean increase; p=0.000123]) and a mean increase of 2.3 h (2; 25% group mean increase; p=0.0250) in on time without troublesome dyskinesia were seen. Improvements in several secondary measures were not significant, including the timed walking test in the off condition (p=0.053), the Purdue pegboard test of hand dexterity (p=0.318), the reduction in off time (p=0.105), and the activities of daily living subscore (part II) of the UPDRS (p=0.080). (18)F-levodopa-uptake PET did not change after treatment with either dose of CERE-120. The initial data support the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of CERE-120 as a possible treatment for PD; however, these results must be viewed as preliminary until data from blinded, controlled clinical trials are available. Ceregene; Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research.
    The Lancet Neurology 06/2008; 7(5):400-8. · 23.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fourteen years after transplantation into the striatum of an individual with Parkinson's disease, grafted nigral neurons were found to have Lewy body-like inclusions that stained positively for alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin and to have reduced immunostaining for dopamine transporter. These pathological changes suggest that Parkinson's disease is an ongoing process that can affect grafted cells in the striatum in a manner similar to host dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. These findings have implications for cell-based therapies and for understanding the cause of Parkinson's disease.
    Nature medicine 06/2008; 14(5):504-6. · 27.14 Impact Factor
  • Venugopalan D Nair, C Warren Olanow
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that specific dopamine agonists mediate protection against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress by activating the D2 receptor-coupled phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway. In the present study we examined the downstream effectors of PI-3K/Akt signaling and their role in cell death after oxidative stress and protection provided by ropinirole, a D2 receptor agonist in PC12 cells and primary cultures of dopamine neurons. Ropinirole treatment was associated with rapid translocation and phosphorylation of the PI-3K substrate Akt and phosphorylation of Akt substrates. One of these Akt downstream substrates was identified as the pro-apoptotic factor glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Ropinirole-induced protection was associated with phosphorylation of GSK-3beta (inactivation). In contrast, inhibition of PI-3K blocked the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta (activation) and prevented the protection mediated by ropinirole. Suppression of Akt with specific short hairpin RNA in normal PC12 cells caused cell death, which was associated with reduced phosphorylation of GSK-3beta and reduced levels of beta-catenin, a transcriptional activator that is regulated by GSK-3beta. Knock-out of GSK-3beta expression with a short hairpin RNA alone was itself sufficient to cause cell death. We further demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dephosphorylates Akt and GSK-3beta, increases GSK-3beta activity, and promotes an interaction with beta-catenin and its degradation. Inhibition of GSK-3beta activity by inhibitor VIII protects cells from H2O2 similar to ropinirole. These results indicate that GSK-3beta downstream of Akt plays a critical role in cell death and survival in these models.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2008; 283(22):15469-78. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical features that are prognostic indicators of placebo response among dyskinetic Parkinson's disease patients were determined. Placebo-associated improvements occur in Parkinsonism, but responses in dyskinesia have not been studied. Placebo data from two multicenter studies with identical design comparing sarizotan to placebo for treating dyskinesia were accessed. Sarizotan (2 mg/day) failed to improve dyskinesia compared with placebo, but both treatments improved dyskinesia compared with baseline. Stepwise regression identified baseline characteristics that influenced dyskinesia response to placebo, and these factors were entered into a logistic regression model to quantify their influence on placebo-related dyskinesia improvements and worsening. Because placebo-associated improvements in Parkinsonism have been attributed to heightened dopaminergic activity, we also examined the association between changes in Parkinsonism and dyskinesia. Four hundred eighty-four subjects received placebo treatment; 178 met criteria for placebo-associated dyskinesia improvement and 37 for dyskinesia worsening. Older age, lower baseline Parkinsonism score, and lower total daily levodopa doses were associated with placebo-associated improvement, whereas lower baseline dyskinesia score was associated with placebo-associated worsening. Placebo-associated dyskinesia changes were not correlated with Parkinsonism changes, and all effects in the sarizotan group were statistically explained by the placebo-effect regression model. Dyskinesias are affected by placebo treatment. The absence of correlation between placebo-induced changes in dyskinesia and Parkinsonism argues against a dopaminergic activation mechanism to explain placebo-associated improvements in dyskinesia. The magnitude and variance of placebo-related changes and the factors that influence them can be helpful in the design of future clinical trials of antidyskinetic agents.
    Movement Disorders 05/2008; 23(5):700-7. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • Jeffrey H Kordower, C Warren Olanow
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    ABSTRACT: Gene therapy for Parkinson's disease has become a clinical reality with three different approaches currently being tested in patients. All three trials employ an adeno-associated virus with a type two serotype (AAV2). To date, no serious adverse events related to the injections of therapeutic vectors have been reported in any patient. This safety profile was predicted based upon, in some cases, exhaustive preclinical testing in both rodent and primate species. Still some argue that regulatable promoters are required so that expression of the transgene can be halted should untoward side effects arise. We argue that given the current empirical data base of AAV2, the lack of regulatable promoters that have been proven to be safe and effective, and the pressing clinical needs of PD patients, the mandatory use of regulatable vectors is not only unnecessary but, in some instances, misguided and potentially dangerous. This commentary will outline the issues related to the use of regulatable promoters for gene therapy for PD and express our opinion as to why mandating the use of such promoters might result in outcomes that are unsafe, unproductive, and counter to the progress of scientifically sound, clinical research.
    Experimental Neurology 02/2008; 209(1):34-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    Movement Disorders 01/2008; 23(15):2129–2170. · 4.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
2,067.54 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Parkinson's and Movement Disorders Center Of Maryland
      Maryland, United States
    • Mount Sinai Hospital
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1995–2014
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • Clínica Universidad de Navarra
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2011
    • Ceregene
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2000–2011
    • Universidad de Navarra
      • • Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery
      • • Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA)
      Pamplona, Navarre, Spain
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2010
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Neurology
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2009
    • University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2009
    • Rush University Medical Center
      • Department of Neurological Sciences
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2007
    • University Center Rochester
      • Department of Neurology
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 1997–2006
    • King's College London
      • MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Kansas
      • Department of Neurology
      Kansas City, KS, United States
  • 2005
    • IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed
      Poczilli, Molise, Italy
  • 2004
    • New York University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2002–2004
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      • Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Science
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Gracie Square Hospital, New York, NY
      New York City, New York, United States
    • King College
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1995–2004
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2000–2003
    • University College London
      • • Department of Clinical Neuroscience
      • • Institute of Neurology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1989–2000
    • University of South Florida
      • • Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center
      • • Department of Neurology
      Tampa, FL, United States
  • 1998
    • WWF United Kingdom
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Universidad de La Laguna
      • Department of Physiology
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 1991
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Neurology and Neuroscience
      Ithaca, NY, United States