Agneta Siegbahn

Uppsala University, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden

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Publications (231)1968.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) predicts death and composite cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the independent associations between GDF-15 levels and major bleeding, the extent of coronary lesions and individual CV events in patients with ACS. Methods and results: Growth differentiation factor-15 was analysed at baseline (n = 16 876) in patients with ACS randomized to ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATO (PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes) trial. Growth differentiation factor-15 levels were related to extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and to all types of non-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related major bleeding, spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death during 12-month follow-up. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for established risk factors for CV disease and prognostic biomarkers (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, cystatin C, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and high-sensitive troponin T), 1 SD increase in ln GDF-15 was associated with increased risk of major bleeding with a hazard ratio (HR) 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-1.51) and with a similar increase in risk across different bleeding locations. For the same increase in ln GDF-15, the HR for the composite of CV death, spontaneous MI, and stroke was 1.29 (1.21-1.37), CV death 1.41 (1.30-1.53), all-cause death 1.41 (1.31-1.53), spontaneous MI 1.15 (1.05-1.26), and stroke 1.19 (1.01-1.42). The C-statistic improved for the prediction of CV death and non-CABG-related major bleeding when adding GDF-15 to established risk factors. Conclusions: In patients with ACS, higher levels of GDF-15 are associated with raised risks of all types of major non-CABG-related bleeding, spontaneous MI, and stroke as well as CV and total mortality and seem to improve risk stratification for CV-mortality and major bleeding beyond established risk factors. Clinical trial registration:; NCT00391872.
    European Heart Journal 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv491 · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • Mikael Åberg · Oskar Eriksson · Agneta Siegbahn
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) is a 47-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein and the main initiator of the blood coagulation cascade. Binding to its ligand factor VIIa (FVIIa) also initiates noncoagulant signaling with broad biological implications. In this review, we discuss how TF interacts with other cell-surface proteins, which affect biological functions such as cell migration and cell survival. A vast number of publications have demonstrated the importance of TF-induced activation of protease-activated receptors, but recently published research has indicated a more complicated picture. As it has been discovered that TF interacts with integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases, novel signaling mechanisms for the TF/FVIIa complex have been presented. The knowledge of these new aspects of TF signaling may, for instance, facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for cancer and acute coronary syndromes, two examples of diseases characterized by aberrant TF expression and signaling.
    Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 09/2015; DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1564046 · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Christina Christersson · Bertil Lindahl · Agneta Siegbahn
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The knowledge of circadian variation of microparticles (MPs) in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the daily variation of platelet-, endothelial- and monocyte-derived MPs in whole blood and their tissue factor expression (TF) in SCAD and whether these MPs were related to other endothelial and coagulation markers. Materials and methods: Serial blood samples from patients with SCAD were collected during one day. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the amount of large MPs 0.5-1.0 μm, positive for annexin, and their expression of CD41, CD62P, CD144, CD14 and TF. The lag time and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was calculated by Calibrated Automated Thrombogram and soluble (s)P-selectin, sTF and vWF by ELISA. Results: The majority of MPs in whole blood consisted of CD41 + MPs with no significant daily variation. In contrast, the concentration of CD62P + MPs described a daily variation with the lowest concentrations found in the evening (p = 0.031). CD62P + and CD144 + MPs had the highest expression of TF, 52.6% and 42.9%, respectively, and correlated to the endothelial activity evaluated by vWF. There was a circadian rhythm of lag time (p < 0.001) and ETP (p = 0.001). The CD62P+, CD14 + and CD144 + MPs correlated to the lag time. Conclusion: The different subsets of platelet-, endothelial- and monocyte-derived MPs do not present the same circadian variation and they differ in TF expression in SCAD. The MPs from activated platelets, endothelial cells and monocytes exist in low concentrations in whole blood but are related to the endothelial and coagulation activity found in SCAD.
    Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 09/2015; DOI:10.3109/00365513.2015.1086928 · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • Desirée Edén · Agneta Siegbahn · Dariush Mokhtari
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    ABSTRACT: Patients diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes have elevated levels of coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) and its receptor tissue factor (TF) in their bloodstream. This may affect the fate of the beta cells. We aimed to study the effects of TF/FVIIa signalling on cytokine-induced beta cell death and islet function in vitro. Human pancreatic islets and MIN-6 beta cells were used to study TF mRNA and protein expression using real-time PCR, immunoblotting and flow cytometry. The effects of TF/FVIIa on cytokine-induced beta cell death were studied in MIN-6 cells and human pancreatic islets using cell-death ELISA and propidium iodide and cleaved caspase-3 staining. Effects of TF/FVIIa on the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were investigated by immunoblotting. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from human islets was measured with an insulin ELISA. A combination of the cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ induced TF expression in human pancreatic islets and in beta cells. TF/FVIIa did not affect basal beta cell death but, independently of downstream coagulation activity, augmented beta cell death in response to cytokines. The effect of TF/FVIIa on cytokine-induced beta cell death was found to be dependent on the stress kinase JNK, since FVIIa addition potentiated cytokine-induced JNK activation and JNK inhibition abolished the effect of TF/FVIIa on cytokine-induced beta cell death. Moreover, TF/FVIIa signalling resulted in inhibition of GSIS from human pancreatic islets. These results indicate that TF/FVIIa signalling has a negative effect on beta cell function and promotes beta cell death in response to cytokines.
    Diabetologia 08/2015; 58(11). DOI:10.1007/s00125-015-3729-y · 6.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used a proteomics array to simultaneously measure multiple proteins that have been suggested to be associated with atherosclerosis and related them to plaque prevalence in carotid arteries in a human population-based study. In the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS; n = 931, 50% women, all aged 70 years), the number of carotid arteries with plaques was recorded by ultrasound. Levels of 82 proteins were assessed in plasma by a proximity extension assay (Proseek Multiplex CVD, Olink Bioscience, Uppsala, Sweden) and related to carotid measures in a regression framework. Following adjustment for multiple testing with Bonferroni correction, seven of the proteins were significantly related to the number of carotid arteries affected by plaques in sex-adjusted models (osteoprotegrin, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM)-1, growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), matrix metalloprotease-12 (MMP-12), renin, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14 (TNFSF14) and growth hormone). Of these, renin (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.49 per standard deviation increase), growth hormone (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.43), osteoprotegerin (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43) and TNFSF14 (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.35) were related to plaque prevalence independently of each other and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. A novel targeted proteomics approach using the proximity extension technique discovered several new associations of candidate proteins with carotid artery plaque prevalence in a large human sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 07/2015; 242(1):205-210. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.07.023 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ticagrelor, a direct-acting P2Y12-receptor antagonist, is rapidly absorbed and partly metabolized to the major metabolite AR-C124910XX (ARC). To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor and clinical outcomes, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in patients treated with ticagrelor in the PLATO trial. A two-stage design was used for the GWAS with discovery (discovery phase: n = 1812) and replication cohorts (replication phase: n = 1941). The steady-state area under the curve (AUCss) values, estimated by the population pharmacokinetic (PK) models, were log transformed and analysed on a genome-wide scale using linear regression. SNPs were analysed against clinical events using Cox-regression in 4990 patients. An SNP (rs113681054) in SLCO1B1 was associated with levels of ticagrelor (P = 1.1 × 10(-6)) and ARC (P = 4.6 × 10(-13)). This SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with a functional variant (rs4149056) that results in decreased OATP1B1 transporter activity. Ticagrelor levels were also associated with two independent SNPs (rs62471956, P = 7.7 × 10(-15) and rs56324128, P = 9.7 × 10(-12)) in the CYP3A4 region. Further, ARC levels were associated with rs61361928 (P = 3.0 × 10(-14)) in UGT2B7. At all loci, the effects were small. None of the identified SNPs that affected ticagrelor PK were associated with the primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death myocardial infarction, and stroke), non-CABG-related bleeds or investigator-reported dyspnoea. In patients with ACS, ticagrelor pharmacokinetics is influenced by three genetic loci (SLCO1B1, UGT2B7, and CYP3A4). However, the modest genetic effects on ticagrelor plasma levels did not translate into any detectable effect on efficacy or safety during ticagrelor treatment. NCT00391872. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:
    European Heart Journal 05/2015; 36(29). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv116 · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. Methods: We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested the association between a change in genetically determined height of 1 SD (6.5 cm) with the risk of CAD in 65,066 cases and 128,383 controls. Using individual-level genotype data from 18,249 persons, we also examined the risk of CAD associated with the presence of various numbers of height-associated alleles. To identify putative mechanisms, we analyzed whether genetically determined height was associated with known cardiovascular risk factors and performed a pathway analysis of the height-associated genes. Results: We observed a relative increase of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4 to 22.1; P<0.001) in the risk of CAD per 1-SD decrease in genetically determined height. There was a graded relationship between the presence of an increased number of height-raising variants and a reduced risk of CAD (odds ratio for height quartile 4 versus quartile 1, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.84; P<0.001). Of the 12 risk factors that we studied, we observed significant associations only with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (accounting for approximately 30% of the association). We identified several overlapping pathways involving genes associated with both development and atherosclerosis. Conclusions: There is a primary association between a genetically determined shorter height and an increased risk of CAD, a link that is partly explained by the association between shorter height and an adverse lipid profile. Shared biologic processes that determine achieved height and the development of atherosclerosis may explain some of the association. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 04/2015; 372(17). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1404881 · 55.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -Interleukin 18 (IL-18) promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation and is increased in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However the relative contribution of genetic variants to the IL-18 levels has not been fully evaluated. -Baseline plasma IL-18 levels were measured in 16633 ACS patients, of whom 9340 had genetic data that passed genotype quality control. A two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed, followed by combined analyses using over 10 million genotyped or imputed genetic markers. SNPs at three loci (IL18, NLRC4, and MROH6), were identified (P < 3.15 × 10(-8)) in the discovery cohort (N=3777) and replicated in the remaining patients (N=5563). In the pooled data (discovery + replication cohort), seven independent associations, in five chromosomal regions, were associated with IL-18 levels (minimum P = 6.99 × 10(-72)). Six SNPs are located in predicted promoter regions of which one disrupts a transcription factor binding site. One SNP in NLRC4 is a rare missense variant, predicted to be deleterious to the protein. Altogether, the identified genetic variants explained 8% of the total variation in IL-18 levels in the cohort. -Our results show that genetic variants play an important role in determining IL-18 levels in patients with ACS and we have identified genetic variants located in the IL-18 gene (IL18) or close to genes that are involved in procaspase-1 activation (NLRC4, and CARD16, CARD17, and CARD18. These associations also highlight the importance of the NLRC4 inflammasome for IL-18 production in ACS patients.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics 03/2015; 8(3). DOI:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.114.000724 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(10):A1634. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)61634-5 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incremental prognostic value of admission measurements of biomarkers beyond clinical characteristics and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unclear. Centrally analyzed plasma for biomarker measurements was available in 5,385 of the STEMI patients treated with PPCI in the PLATO trial. Extent of CAD was graded by operators in association with PPCI. We evaluated the prognostic value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) beyond clinical characteristics and extent of CAD using Cox proportional hazards analyses, C-index, and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Outcomes were cardiovascular death (CVD) and spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI). Angiographic data on extent of CAD improved the prediction of CVD compared to clinical risk factors alone, increasing the C-index from 0.760 to 0.778, total NRI of 0.31. Biomarker information provided additional prognostic value for CVD beyond clinical risk factors and extent of CAD, C-indices ranging from 0.792 to 0.795 for all biomarkers, but with a higher NRI for NT-proBNP. Extent of CAD and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T were not associated with spontaneous MI. The prediction of spontaneous MI beyond clinical characteristics and extent of CAD (C-index 0.647) was improved by both NT-proBNP (C-index 0.663, NRI 0.22) and GDF-15 (C-index 0.652, NRI 0.05). Biomarker measurement on admission is feasible and provides incremental risk stratification in patients with STEMI treated with PPCI, with NT-proBNP and GDF-15 being most valuable due to the association with both CVD and spontaneous MI. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Heart Journal 03/2015; 169(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2015.02.019 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(10):A231. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)60231-5 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although cardiac troponin is associated with outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF), the complementary prognostic information provided by cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cTnT is unknown. This study investigated the distribution, determinants, and prognostic value of cTnI and cTnT concentrations in patients with AF. At the time of randomization, we analyzed cTnI and cTnT concentrations of 14 806 AF patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial using high-sensitivity assays. Correlations (Spearman), determinants (multiple analysis of variance), and outcomes (adjusted Cox models and c-statistics) were investigated. Concentrations of cTnI and cTnT were correlated (r = 0.70) and measurable in most participants [cTnI 98.5% (median 5.4 ng/L, ≥99th percentile in 9.2%) and cTnT 93.5% (median 10.9 ng/L, ≥99th percentile in 34.4%)]. Renal impairment was the most important factor affecting the concentrations of both troponins. cTnI increase was more associated with heart failure, vascular disease, and persistent/permanent AF, and cTnT with age, male sex, and diabetes. Over a median 1.9 years of follow-up, patients with both troponins above the median had significantly higher risk for stroke/systemic embolism [hazard ratio (HR) 1.72 (95% CI 1.31-2.27)], cardiac death [3.14 (2.35-4.20)], and myocardial infarction [2.99 (1.78-5.03)] than those with both troponins below median (all P < 0.005). Intermediate risks were observed when only 1 troponin was above the median. When combined with clinical information, each marker provided similar prognostication and had comparable c-statistics. cTnI and cTnT concentrations are moderately correlated and measurable in plasma of most AF patients. The risk of stroke and cardiovascular events is highest when both troponins are above median concentrations. Each troponin provides comparable prognostic information when combined with clinical risk factors. © 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.
    Clinical Chemistry 12/2014; 61(2). DOI:10.1373/clinchem.2014.226936 · 7.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analyses of circulating metabolites in large prospective epidemiological studies could lead to improved prediction and better biological understanding of coronary heart disease (CHD). We performed a mass spectrometry-based non-targeted metabolomics study for association with incident CHD events in 1,028 individuals (131 events; 10 y. median follow-up) with validation in 1,670 individuals (282 events; 3.9 y. median follow-up). Four metabolites were replicated and independent of main cardiovascular risk factors [lysophosphatidylcholine 18∶1 (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD] increment = 0.77, P-value<0.001), lysophosphatidylcholine 18∶2 (HR = 0.81, P-value<0.001), monoglyceride 18∶2 (MG 18∶2; HR = 1.18, P-value = 0.011) and sphingomyelin 28∶1 (HR = 0.85, P-value = 0.015)]. Together they contributed to moderate improvements in discrimination and re-classification in addition to traditional risk factors (C-statistic: 0.76 vs. 0.75; NRI: 9.2%). MG 18∶2 was associated with CHD independently of triglycerides. Lysophosphatidylcholines were negatively associated with body mass index, C-reactive protein and with less evidence of subclinical cardiovascular disease in additional 970 participants; a reverse pattern was observed for MG 18∶2. MG 18∶2 showed an enrichment (P-value = 0.002) of significant associations with CHD-associated SNPs (P-value = 1.2×10-7 for association with rs964184 in the ZNF259/APOA5 region) and a weak, but positive causal effect (odds ratio = 1.05 per SD increment in MG 18∶2, P-value = 0.05) on CHD, as suggested by Mendelian randomization analysis. In conclusion, we identified four lipid-related metabolites with evidence for clinical utility, as well as a causal role in CHD development.
    PLoS Genetics 12/2014; 10(12):e1004801. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004801 · 7.53 Impact Factor
  • Circulation 11/2014; 130(22):e195. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012350 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is the major cause of acute coronary events (CEs). Plaque destabilization is the consequence of an imbalance between inflammatory-driven degradation of fibrous tissue and smooth muscle cell-dependent tissue repair. Proinflammatory factors have been documented extensively as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk but factors that contribute to stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques have received less attention. The present study aimed to investigate whether plasma levels of the smooth muscle cell growth factor epidermal growth factor (EGF), heparin-binding-EGF (HB-EGF), and platelet-derived growth factor correlate with plaque phenotype and incidence of CEs. Approach and results: HB-EGF, EGF and platelet-derived growth factor were measured in plasma from 202 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy and in 384 incident CE cases and 409 matched controls recruited from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Significant positive associations were found between the plasma levels of all 3 growth factors and the collagen and elastin contents of the removed plaques. CE cases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort had lower levels of HB-EGF in plasma, whereas no significant differences were found for EGF and platelet-derived growth factor. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors in a Cox proportional hazard model, the hazard ratio for the highest HB-EGF tertile was 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.82; P<0.001). Conclusions: The associations between high levels of smooth muscle cell growth factors in plasma and a more fibrous plaque phenotype as well as the association between low levels of HB-EGF and incident CEs point to a potential clinically important role for factors that contribute to plaque stabilization by stimulating smooth muscle cells.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 10/2014; 35(1). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304369 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background-Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), high-sensitivity troponin, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels are predictive of death and cardiovascular events in healthy elderly subjects, patients with acute coronary syndrome, and patients with heart failure. High-sensitivity troponin I and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide are also prognostic in patients with atrial fibrillation. We evaluated the prognostic value of GDF-15 alone and in addition to clinical characteristics and other biomarkers in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods and Results-The Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial randomized 18 201 patients with atrial fibrillation to apixaban or warfarin. Biomarkers were measured at randomization in 14 798 patients. Efficacy and safety outcomes during 1.9 years of follow-up were compared across quartiles of GDF-15 by use of Cox analyses adjusted for clinical characteristics, randomized treatment, and other biomarkers. The GDF-15 level showed a median of 1383 ng/L (interquartile range, 977-2052 ng/L). Annual rates of stroke or systemic embolism ranged from 0.9% to 2.03% (P<0.001); of major bleeding, from 1.22% to 4.53% (P<0.001); and of mortality, from 1.34% to 7.19% (P<0.001) in the lowest compared with the highest GDF-15 quartile. The prognostic information provided by GDF-15 was independent of clinical characteristics and clinical risk scores. Adjustment for the other cardiac biomarkers attenuated the prognostic value for stroke, whereas the prognostic value for mortality and major bleeding remained. Apixaban consistently reduced stroke, mortality, and bleeding, regardless of GDF-15 levels. Conclusions-GDF-15 is a risk factor for major bleeding, mortality, and stroke in atrial fibrillation. The prognostic value for major bleeding and death remained even in the presence of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin I.
    Circulation 10/2014; 130(21). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.011204 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) binds the serine protease factor VIIa (FVIIa) to form a proteolytically active complex that can trigger coagulation or activate cell signaling. Here we addressed the involvement of tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) in TF/FVIIa signaling by antibody array analysis and subsequently found that EphB2 and EphA2 of the Eph RTK family were cleaved in their ectodomains by TF/FVIIa. We used N-terminal Edman sequencing and LC-MS/MS analysis to characterize the cleaved Eph isoforms and identified a key arginine residue at the cleavage site, in agreement with the tryptic serine protease activity of FVIIa. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) signaling and downstream coagulation activity was non-essential in this context, in further support of a direct cleavage by TF/FVIIa. EphB2 was cleaved by FVIIa concentrations in the subnanomolar range in a number of TF expressing cell types, indicating that the active cellular pool of TF was involved. FVIIa caused potentiation of cell repulsion by the EphB2 ligand ephrin-B1, demonstrating a novel proteolytical event to control Eph-mediated cell segregation. These results define Eph RTKs as novel proteolytical targets of TF/FVIIa and provide new insights into how TF/FVIIa regulates cellular functions independently of PAR2.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2014; 289(47). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.599332 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Elevated cystatin C concentration is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Genetic polymorphisms in CST3 influence cystatin C levels, but their relationship to outcomes is unclear. Methods: We measured cystatin C concentrations in plasma, obtained within 24 hours of admission, in 16,279 acute coronary syndrome patients from the PLATO trial. In 9,978 patients, we performed a genome-wide association study with up to 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Single nucleotide polymorphisms affecting cystatin C levels were evaluated in relation to the first occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) or CV death within 1 year using Cox regression analysis. Results: Several single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with cystatin C levels, most significantly rs6048952 (P = 7.82 × 10(-16)) adjacent to CST3. Median cystatin C concentrations per genotype were 0.85 mg/L (A/A), 0.80 mg/L (A/G), and 0.73 mg/L (G/G). Modeled as additive, the allelic effect, multivariable adjusted, was -0.045 mg/L per G allele for rs6048952. The multivariable adjusted c-statistic regarding the combined end point (CV death or MI) was 0.6735. Adding cystatin C or genotype-adjusted cystatin C levels resulted in c-statistics of 0.6761 and 0.6758, respectively. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios per G allele at rs6048952 in the entire population were 0.94 (95% CI 0.83-1.06) for CV death or MI and 0.88 (95% CI 0.71-1.08) for CV death. Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms affect cystatin C concentrations independently of kidney function. However, the polymorphisms were not observed to be associated with outcome, nor did they improve risk prediction or discriminative models.
    American Heart Journal 07/2014; 168(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2014.03.010 · 4.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,968.65 Total Impact Points


  • 1990–2015
    • Uppsala University
      • • Department of Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2011
    • Uppsala Monitoring Centre
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1982–2011
    • Uppsala University Hospital
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2004
    • Akademiska Sjukhuset
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2003
    • University of Tartu
      Dorpat, Tartu, Estonia
  • 2000
    • Landstinget i Uppsala Iän
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
    • Ankara University
      • Department of Surgery
      Engüri, Ankara, Turkey
  • 1999
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      • Department of Cardiology
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1992–1994
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Sweden
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden