Patrick G Northup

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States

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Publications (87)439.44 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common side effect of protease inhibitors used to treat chronic hepatitis C (HCV), and most patients do not experience without clinically overt hepatotoxicity. The safety of second-wave protease inhibitors, including simeprevir, has not been well studied in patients with advanced cirrhosis.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 11/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the understanding of the coagulopathy in chronic liver disease have provided a strong support for anticoagulation as a new therapeutic paradigm for patients with cirrhosis. Laboratory studies indicate that the net effect of changes in hemostasis in many patients with chronic liver disease is a hypercoagulable status. In turn, clinical thrombosis is increasingly recognized as a complication of liver disease. When occurring within the liver, thrombosis may even progress the disease course. Exciting preliminary data regarding the potential of low-molecular-weight heparin to slow down the progression of liver disease indicate that this class of drugs may improve outcome without a major increase in bleeding risk. However, this new era for antithrombotic therapy in chronic liver disease is still hindered by a persistent false notion that patients with cirrhosis are "auto-anticoagulated" by their underlying liver disease. In addition, there is insufficient clinical evidence on safety and efficacy of anticoagulant therapy in cirrhosis and the studies conducted so far are limited by small sample sizes, uncontrolled treatment arms, or by their retrospective nature. Finally, a lack of knowledge on how or when to monitor antithrombotic treatment to optimize the risk-benefit ratio has restricted a widespread application of anticoagulant treatment in clinical management algorithms. Nonetheless, by systematically covering possibilities and pitfalls, this review highlights the potential of antithrombotic therapy to improve the quality of life and the clinical outcome of patients with chronic liver disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Blood reviews. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The complex nature of haemostasis in patients with liver disease can result in bleeding and/or thrombosis. These opposing outcomes, which have multiple contributing factors, can pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas for physicians. With the high rate of haemorrhagic complications in patients with cirrhosis, we examine the various procoagulants available for use in this population. In this Review, we describe the clinical and current rationale for using each of the currently available procoagulants-vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), cryoprecipitate, platelets, recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), antifibrinolytics, prothrombin concentrate complexes (PCC), desmopressin and red blood cells. By examining the evidence and use of these agents in liver disease, we provide a framework for targeted, goal-directed therapy with procoagulants.
    Nature Reviews Gastroenterology &#38 Hepatology 07/2014; · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) allocation system for liver transplantation provides “exceptions” for diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It was the aim of this study to assess equipoise between exception candidates and non-exception candidates on the waiting list and to assess if the exception system contributes to steadily increasing regional MELD at transplant. 78,595 adult liver transplant candidates between January 2005 and December 2012 were analyzed. Yearly trends in waiting list characteristics, and transplantation rates were analyzed for statistical association with MELD exceptions. Regional variations in these associations and the effect of exceptions on regional MELD scores at transplant were also analyzed. 27.29% of the waiting list was occupied by candidates with exceptions. Candidates with exceptions fared much better on the waiting list compared to those without exceptions in mean days waiting (HCC 237 vs. non-HCC 426), transplantation rates (HCC 79.05% vs. non-HCC 40.60%), and waiting list death rates (HCC 4.49% vs. non-HCC 24.63%). Strong regional variation in exception utilization occurred but exceptions were highly correlated with waiting list death rates, transplantation rates, and MELD score at removal in all regions. In a multivariate model predicting MELD score at transplant within regions, the percentage of HCC MELD exceptions was the strongest independent predictor of regional MELD score at transplant. Conclusion: Liver transplant candidates with MELD exceptions have superior outcomes compared to non-exception candidates and the current MELD exception system is largely responsible for steadily increasing MELD scores at transplant independent of geography. (Hepatology 2014;)
    Hepatology 07/2014; · 12.00 Impact Factor
  • Hepatology 05/2014; · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients with cirrhosis are at risk to develop venous thromboembolism. Although current guidelines support the routine administration of thromboprophylaxis to hospitalized patients, there is limited data regarding the safety or efficacy of this practice in hospitalized cirrhosis patients. AIMS: We aimed to determine if administration of thromboprophylaxis was associated with increased complication rates for hospitalized cirrhosis patients. METHODS: Data were collected on patients admitted to the University of Virginia between 2007 and 2010. Study personnel systematically collected data on complications, including gastrointestinal bleed, venous thromboembolism and death directly from the medical record. RESULTS: A total of 235 patients (accounting for 355 discrete hospitalizations in which thromboprophylaxis was administered) met inclusion criteria accounting for 1660 person-days of thromboprophylaxis administered to patients. The mean age at admission was 58 (95% CI 57.1-59.2) years and 217 (61%) were male patients. The mean admission model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was 16.2 (95% CI 15.5-16.9). The mean hospital length of stay was 6.5 (95% CI 5.9-7.4) days. In patients who received thromboprophylaxis, the mean treatment length was 4.7 days (95% CI 4.2-5.2). There were nine gastrointestinal bleeding events (2.5% of admissions), five venous thromboembolisms (1.4% of admissions), two cases of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (0.5% of admissions) and 14 deaths overall (3.9% of admissions). CONCLUSIONS: The use of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized cirrhosis patients is not associated with high rates of gastrointestinal bleeding or death.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 05/2013; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Until recently, it was widely accepted that patients with cirrhosis have a bleeding tendency related to the changes in the hemostatic system that occur as a consequence of the disease. However, it has now been well established that patients with cirrhosis are at risk for both bleeding and thrombotic complications. These thrombotic complications include portal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and coronary or cerebrovascular infarctions. Antithrombotic drugs to prevent or treat thrombotic complications in patients with cirrhosis have been used only minimally in the past due to the perceived bleeding risk. As the thrombotic complications and the necessity of antithrombotic treatment in these patients is increasingly recognized, the use of antithrombotic drugs in this population is likely increasing. Moreover, given the rising incidence of fatty liver disease and generally longer survival times of patients with chronic liver diseases, it would be reasonable to presume that some of these thrombotic complications may be increasing in incidence over time. In this review we will outline the indications for antithrombotic treatment in patients with cirrhosis. Furthermore, we will discuss the available antithrombotic drugs and indicate possible applications, advantages, and caveats. Since for many of these drugs, very little experience in patients with cirrhosis exists, these data are essential in the design of future clinical and laboratory studies on mechanisms, efficacy, and safety of the various antithrombotic strategies in these patients.
    Journal of Hepatology 03/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
  • Patrick G Northup, Stephen H Caldwell
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    ABSTRACT: The human hemostasis system is complex and poorly understood after decades of intense scientific study. Despite multiple defects in routine coagulation laboratory studies in patients with chronic liver disease, there is growing evidence that these patients are effectively "rebalanced" with regard to procoagulant and anticoagulant activity and that most of these patients remain in a tenuous but balanced state of hemostasis. A major difficulty in the assessment of these patients is that there are no established laboratory tests that accurately reflect the changes in both the procoagulant and anticoagulant systems and therefore routine laboratory testing is misleading to the clinician and may prompt inappropriate or risky therapies with little real benefit to the patient. The international normalized ratio (INR) is an example of this type of misleading test. While the INR is inextricably linked to prognosis and severity of protein synthetic dysfunction in acute and chronic liver disease, it is a very poor marker for bleeding risk and should not be used in isolation for this purpose. Coagulation disorders are critical in the management of frequent clinical scenarios such as esophageal variceal bleeding, invasive and percutaneous procedures, portal vein thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, and acute liver failure. This article summarizes the pathophysiology of hemostasis in liver disease, describes the strengths and weaknesses of various laboratory tests in assessment of these patients, and outlines the optimal management of hemostasis for some common clinical scenarios. Further research is needed for proper understanding of hemostasis in liver disease in order to optimally and safely manage these complex patients.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 03/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 02/2013; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown a direct role of liver atrophy in the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia of cirrhosis via reduced production of thrombopoeitin. About 181 patients listed for liver transplantation at a single transplant center were evaluated at the time of listing with laboratory tests and volumetric liver measurements using computed tomography. Expected normal liver volume was calculated using the Heinemann formula. Liver volume ratio (LVR) was calculated as actual liver volume over expected liver volume. Patients were predominantly male (70.7%), with viral hepatitis (60.2%), had a mean age of 51.8 years (SD 8.7), model for end stage liver disease (MELD) of 14 (SD 6.4), LVR of 0.95 (SD 0.3), and platelet count of 105 000/mcL (SD 66 000). Platelet count (P < 0.0001) correlated more strongly with LVR than MELD, MELD components (P = 0.27) or serum albumin (P = 0.003). Platelet count (HR 0.987, 95% CI 0.979-0.994, P = 0.001) was a strong independent predictor of mortality. Patients with platelet count < 100 000/mcL had a shorter survival (935 vs. 1396 days, P = 0.002) and higher death rate (42.2% vs. 23.6%, P = 0.01), but no different transplantation rate (36.7% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.64) compared to those with platelet count ≥ 100 000/mcL. Low platelet count corresponds to higher waiting list mortality and is a sign of advanced liver atrophy.
    Transplant International 01/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Few studies have described the role of multimodality therapy and the complexity of endoscopic management of pancreatic duct disruption. Our study aim was to analyse and confirm factors associated with the resolution of pancreatic duct disruption. METHODS: Over 6 years, retrospective data on patients with pancreatic duct disruption managed endoscopically were retrieved. Success was defined as resolution of the pancreatic duct disruption at 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with resolution. RESULTS: 113 patients (78 male) with a mean age 51.3 year were included. Resolution of the pancreatic duct leak occurred in 80 cases (70.2%). 72 cases received transpapillary pancreatic duct stents, with 51 demonstrating resolution of pancreatic duct leak (71%) cystenterostomy was performed in 68 patients with 51 resolved (75%). In partial duct disruptions, pancreatic duct stenting combined with endoscopic drainage of fluid collections resulted in an increased rate of resolution (80%) compared to complete disruptions treated in a similar manner (57%). In complete pancreatic ductal disruptions, transpapillary pancreatic duct stenting had no additional benefit (9/17, 52.9%) compared to cystenterostomy or percutaneous drainage alone (24/34, 70.6%; P=0.61). CONCLUSION: Pancreatic duct disruptions require multimodality treatment, addressing not only the integrity of the pancreatic duct but also any fluid collections associated. Partial ductal disruption should be managed by a bridging stent.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 10/2012; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    Neeral L Shah, Patrick G Northup, Stephen H Caldwell
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The relative incidence of bleeding and thrombotic events and the use of blood products in hospitalized cirrhosis patients have not been widely reported. We aimed to estimate the magnitude of bleeding events and venous thrombosis in consecutive hospitalized cirrhotic patients over a finite time period and to examine the amount and indications for blood product use in cirrhosis patients admitted to a tertiary care center. Results. Among patients admitted with decompensated liver disease, 34 (40%) suffered bleeding events (about one-half non-variceal) and 6 patients (7%) suffered deep venous thrombosis. In the blood product survey, 168 patients were transfused with plasma or platelets during the survey inter- vals. Liver disease patients accounted for 7.7% of the total but disproportionately consumed 32.4% (46 of 142) of the units of plasma mostly administered as prophylaxis. In contrast, cirrhosis patients received only 7 of the 53 units of platelets transfused (13.2%) during the survey intervals. Conclusions. Coagulation issues constitute a common problem in patients with liver disease. Recent advances in laboratory testing have shown that stable cirrhosis patients are relatively hypercoagulable. The result of this prospective survey among decompensated (unstable) cirrhosis patients shows that, while DVT is not uncommon, bleeding (non-variceal in one half) remains the dominant clinical problem. This situation likely sustains the common practice of plasma infusion in these patients although its use is of unproven and questionable benefit. Better clinical tools are needed to refine clinical practice in this setting.
    Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology 09/2012; 11(5):686-90. · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Patrick G Northup, Zachary H Henry
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    ABSTRACT: Non-selective beta-blockers have been a cornerstone of therapy for prevention of esophageal variceal bleeding in cirrhosis patients for more than two decades. When lowering the hepatic vein portal pressure gradient (HVPG) below 12 mm Hg or decreasing the pressure by 20% from baseline, these drugs are of proven benefit in reducing variceal bleeding and improving survival in this patient population. The recent work by Hendández-Gea et al., suggests that initiation of the beta-blocker nadolol in cirrhosis patients with high-risk varices can delay or prevent the first occurrence of clinically evident ascites. This finding comes with some caveats, however. The beneficial effect was only seen in patients who had an improvement by 10% or more from baseline HVPG pressure (only 51% of the treated patients in this study). This class of medications has some risk and tolerance issues, and many patients do not respond, even when the heart rate is optimally decreased. Despite this, the use of beta-blockers may be beneficial in the primary prevention of the formation of ascites and further decompensation of cirrhosis.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2012; 107(3):428-30. · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    Patrick G Northup, Carl L Berg
    Liver Transplantation 02/2012; 18(4):381-3. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disorders with a high prevalence in the industrialized world. Despite the high prevalence, the etiology and fundamental pathophysiology for the disease process is poorly understood. There is now a growing fund of knowledge suggesting that the ongoing inflammatory state associated with NAFLD leads to a low-level activation of the coagulation system. Although the data supporting this activation of the coagulation system are significant, the link with end-organ disease, mainly cardiovascular disease, is less firm and mostly epidemiological. In this review, we will explore the evidence for and against a hypercoagulable or thrombophilic state in NAFLD. We will examine possible pathophysiologic explanations and mechanisms, human epidemiologic and population-based data, and the possible therapeutic and preventative implications for treatment of thrombophilia in patients with this disease process.
    Seminars in Liver Disease 02/2012; 32(1):39-48. · 8.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyponatremia complicates cirrhosis and predicts short term mortality, including adverse outcomes before and after liver transplantation. From April 1, 2008, through April 2, 2010, all adult candidates for primary liver transplantation with cirrhosis, listed in Region 11 with hyponatremia, were eligible for sodium (Na) exception. Patients with serum sodium (SNa) less than 130 mg/dL, measured two weeks apart and within 30 days of Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) exception request, were given preapproved Na exception. MELD Na was calculated [MELD + 1.59 (135-SNa/30 days)]. MELD Na was capped at 22, and subject to standard adult recertification schedule. On data end of follow-up, December 28, 2010, 15,285 potential U.S. liver recipients met the inclusion criteria of true MELD between 6 and 22. In Region 11, 1,198 of total eligible liver recipients were listed. Sixty-two (5.2%) patients were eligible for Na exception (MELD Na); 823 patients (68.7%) were listed with standard MELD (SMELD); and 313 patients (26.1%) received HCC MELD exception. Ninety percent of MELD Na patients and 97% of HCC MELD patients were transplanted at end of follow up, compared to 49% of Region 11 standard MELD and 40% of U.S.A. standard MELD (USA MELD) patients (p < 0.001); with comparable dropout rates (6.5, 1.6, 6.9, 9% respectively; p = 0.2). MELD Na, HCC MELD, Region 11 SMELD, and USA MELD post-transplant six-month actual patient survivals were similar (92.9, 92.8, 92.2, and 93.9 %, respectively). The Region 11 MELD Na exception prospective trial improved hyponatremic cirrhotic patient access to transplant equitably, and without compromising transplant efficacy.
    Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology 01/2012; 11(1):62-7. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) improves survival in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Partial liver radiotherapy with modern techniques has been shown to be safe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival value of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with concurrent chemotherapy combined with TACE. A University of Virginia Interventional Radiology patient log was used to identify patients treated with TACE ± another modality from 1999 through 2005. During this time, 44 patients received TACE for unresectable HCC, and 7 of these received adjuvant EBRT. Univariate analysis and multivariable proportional hazards survival modeling were used to identify factors impacting survival. We compared 37 patients receiving TACE alone to 7 receiving TACE and EBRT (5 with concurrent capecitabine). Unadjusted mean transplant-free survival times were TACE only = 376 days (standard error [SE] = 63 days), TACE + EBRT = 879 days (SE = 100 days). EBRT, TNM stage, and MELD score were important predictors for survival on univariate analysis (p < .10). The adjusted hazard ratio for transplant or death in the TACE + EBRT group was 0.15 (0.02-0.95, p = .026). EBRT with concurrent chemotherapy following TACE is feasible and well tolerated with modern treatment techniques. Further research should be directed toward determining the potential overall survival benefit of adjuvant EBRT with chemotherapy following TACE for hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Gastrointestinal cancer research: GCR 01/2012; 5(1):13-7.
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    ABSTRACT: MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) exception awards affect the liver allocation process. Award rates of specific nonhepatocellular carcinoma exceptions, termed symptom-based exceptions (SBE), differ across UNOS regions. We aimed to characterize the regional variability in SBE awards and examine predictive factors for receiving a SBE in the MELD era. The OPTN liver transplant and waiting list dataset was analyzed for waiting list registrants during the MELD allocation on February 27, 2002, until November 22, 2006. Competing risks proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine predictors for receiving a SBE in 39 169 registrants. The hazard ratios for receiving a SBE differed significantly across regions when adjusted for multiple variables including age, gender, ethnicity, physiologic MELD score, blood group, functional status, etiology of liver disease, insurer and education level. Utilization of SBE is highly significantly variable across UNOS regions, and does not correlate with organ availability as estimated by the regional mean physiologic MELD score at transplantation. Patients with Medicaid as their primary payer have a lower likelihood of receiving a SBE award, while patients with cryptogenic/NASH cirrhosis or cholestatic liver disease have a higher likelihood of receiving a SBE. Reasons for these regional and demographic disparities deserve further investigation.
    American Journal of Transplantation 11/2011; 11(11):2353-61. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    Transplant International 09/2011; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared post-transplant outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who took sorafenib prior to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with those patients who were not treated with sorafenib. Thirty-three patients with HCC who were listed for liver transplantation were studied: 10 patients were treated with sorafenib prior to transplantation in an attempt to prevent progression of HCC while awaiting transplant. The remaining 23 patients were considered controls. The mean duration of sorafenib use was 19.2 (SD 25.2) weeks. Overall death rates were similar between the sorafenib group and control group (20% vs. 8.7%, respectively, P = 0.56). However, the patients in the sorafenib group had a higher incidence of acute cellular rejection following transplantation (67% vs. 22%, OR = 7.2, 95% CI 1.3-39.6, P = 0.04). The sorafenib group also had a higher rate of early biliary complications (67% vs. 17%, OR = 9.5, 1.6-55.0, P = 0.01). The use of sorafenib was found to be an independent predictor of post-transplant biliary complications (OR 12.6, 1.4-116.2, P = 0.03). Sorafenib administration prior to OLT appears to be associated with an increase in biliary complications and possibly in acute rejection following liver transplantation. Caution should be taken in this setting until larger studies are completed.
    Transplant International 07/2011; 24(10):991-8. · 3.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
439.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • University of Virginia
      • • Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      • • Digestive Health Research Center
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2013
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States