Jeroen J Bax

Leiden University Medical Centre, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (720)4677.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To develop an alternative method for Vp-assessment using high-temporal velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (VE-MRI). Left ventricular (LV) inflow propagation velocity (Vp) is considered a useful parameter in the complex assessment of LV diastolic function and is measured by Color M-mode echocardiography. A total of 43 patients diagnosed with ischemic heart failure (61 ± 11 years) and 22 healthy volunteers (29 ± 13 years) underwent Color M-mode echocardiography and VE-MRI to assess the inflow velocity through the mitral valve (mean interexamination time 14 days). Temporal resolution of VE-MRI was 10.8-11.8 msec. Local LV inflow velocity was sampled along a 4-cm line starting from the tip of the mitral leaflets and for consecutive sample points the point-in-time was assessed when local velocity exceeded 30 cm/s. From the position-time relation, Vp was calculated by both the difference quotient (Vp-MRI-DQ) as well as from linear regression (Vp-MRI-LR). Good correlation was found between Vp-echo and both Vp-MRI-DQ (r = 0.83, P < 0.001) and Vp-MRI-LR (r = 0.84, P < 0.001). Vp-MRI showed a significant but small underestimation as compared to Vp measured by echocardiography (Vp-MRI-DQ: 5.5 ± 16.2 cm/s, P = 0.008; Vp-MRI-LR: 9.9 ± 15.2 cm/s, P < 0.001). Applying age-related cutoff values for Vp to identify LV impaired relaxation, kappa-agreement with echocardiography was 0.72 (P < 0.001) for Vp-MRI-DQ and 0.69 (P < 0.001) for Vp-MRI-LR. High temporal VE-MRI represents a novel approach to assess Vp, showing good correlation with Color M-mode echocardiography. In healthy subjects and patients with ischemic heart failure, this new method demonstrated good agreement with echocardiography to identify LV impaired relaxation. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/jmri.24905 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Significant coronary artery disease is highly prevalent in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Timing of staged percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in TAVI candidates remains debated. The present study assessed the impact of timing of the staged PCI on TAVI outcomes. Ninety-six patients (age 81 ± 5 years, 57% men) who had undergone staged PCI within 1 year before TAVI were included. The population was dichotomized according to the median time elapsed between PCI and TAVI (<30 and ≥30 days). Inhospital events and 30-day outcomes after TAVI were defined according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions. Forty-eight patients underwent PCI <30 days and 48 patients underwent PCI ≥30 days before TAVI. Patients treated with PCI <30 days had lower hemoglobin levels at baseline (7.2 ± 0.9 mmol/L vs 7.9 ± 0.9 mmol/L, p = 0.002), more frequently atrial fibrillation (27% vs 13%, p = 0.018), and a shorter time interval between computed tomography acquisition and TAVI (7 days [2 to 10] vs 22 days [6 to 39], p <0.001) than their counterparts. Minor bleedings (13% vs 0%, p = 0.011) and overall vascular injury (27% vs 8%, p = 0.016 [minor injury: 17% vs 2%, p = 0.014; major injury: 10% vs 6%, p = 0.460]) were more frequently recorded in patients with staged PCI <30 days before TAVI. There were no differences in the incidence of other events and in 2-year survival. In conclusion, shortly (<30 days) or remote (≥30 days) staged PCI before TAVI resulted in comparable outcomes with the exception of minor vascular injury and minor bleeding events which were more frequently observed in patients treated with shortly staged PCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American journal of cardiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.03.019 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite considerable improvements in the medical management of patients with myocardial infarction (MI), patients with large MI still have substantial risk to develop heart failure. In the early post MI setting, implantable cardioverter defibrillators have reduced arrhythmic deaths but have no impact on overall mortality. Hence, additional interventions are required to further reduce the overall morbidity and mortality of patients with large MI. The pacing remodeling prevention therapy (PRomPT) trial is designed to study the effects of peri-infarct pacing in preventing adverse post-MI remodeling. Up to 250 subjects with a peak creatine phosphokinase (CPK) > 3000 U/L (or a troponin T (TnT) > 10 mcg/L) at time of MI will be randomized to either dual-site or single-site biventricular pacing with the LV lead implanted in a peri-infarct region or a non-implanted control. Those randomized to a device will be blinded to the pacing mode, however randomization to a device or control cannot be blinded. Subjects randomized to pacing will have the device implanted within 10 days of MI. The primary objective is to assess the change in left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV) from baseline to 18 months. Secondary objectives are to assess changes in clinical and mechanistic parameters between the groups, including rates of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular events, the incidence of sudden cardiac death and all-cause mortality, NYHA functional class, 6 minute walking distance, and quality of life CONCLUSIONS: The PRomPT trial will provide important evidence regarding the potential of peri-infarct pacing to interrupt adverse remodeling in patients with large MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of cardiac failure 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2015.03.005 · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Jeroen J Bax, Victoria Delgado
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic heart failure is a major public-health problem with a high prevalence, complex treatment, and high mortality. A careful and comprehensive analysis is needed to provide optimal (and personalized) therapy to heart failure patients. The main 4 non-invasive imaging techniques (echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, multi-detector-computed tomography, and nuclear imaging) provide information on cardiovascular anatomy and function, which form the basis of the assessment of the pathophysiology underlying heart failure. The selection of imaging modalities depends on the information that is needed for the clinical management of the patients: (1) underlying etiology (ischemic vs non-ischemic); (2) in ischemic patients, need for revascularization should be evaluated (myocardial ischemia/viability?); (3) left ventricular function and shape assessment; (4) presence of significant secondary mitral regurgitation; (5) device therapy with cardiac resynchronization therapy and/or implantable cardiac defibrillator (risk of sudden cardiac death). This review is dedicated to assessment of myocardial viability, however "isolated assessment of myocardial viability" may be clinically not meaningful and should be considered among all those different variables. This complete information will enable personalized treatment of the patient with ischemic heart failure.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize left ventricular (LV) mechanics in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with moderate-to-severe or severe aortic regurgitation (AR) and preserved ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction) using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE). The association between baseline LV strain and development of indications for surgery in asymptomatic patients was also evaluated. A total of 129 patients with moderate-to-severe or severe AR and LVEF >50% (age 55 ± 17 years, 64% male, 53% asymptomatic at baseline) were included. Standard echocardiography and 2D-STE were performed at baseline. Compared with asymptomatic patients, symptomatic patients had significantly impaired LV longitudinal (-14.9 ± 3.0 vs. -16.8 ± 2.5%, P < 0.001), circumferential (-17.5 ± 2.9 vs. -19.3 ± 2.8%, P = 0.001), and radial (35.7 ± 12.2 vs. 43.1 ± 14.7%, P = 0.004) strains. Among 49 asymptomatic patients who were followed up, 26 developed indications for surgery (symptoms onset or LVEF ≤50%). These patients had comparable LV volumes, LVEF, and colour Doppler assessments of AR jet at baseline, but more impaired LV longitudinal (P = 0.009) and circumferential (P = 0.017) strains compared with patients who remained asymptomatic. Impaired baseline LV longitudinal (per 1% decrease, HR = 1.21, P = 0.04) or circumferential (per 1% decrease, HR = 1.22, P = 0.04) strain was independently associated with the need for surgery. Multidirectional LV strain was more impaired in symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients with moderate-to-severe or severe AR, despite preserved LVEF. In asymptomatic AR patients, longitudinal and circumferential strains identified patients who would require surgery during follow-up. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:
    European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jev019 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study aims (i) to evaluate changes in myocardial ischaemia on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) after 2 years in a cohort of high-risk patients with diabetes without cardiac symptoms or known coronary artery disease (CAD) and (ii) to assess the value of baseline computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA)-derived coronary atherosclerosis parameters to predict changes in myocardial ischaemia. The population consisted of 100 high-risk patients with diabetes without cardiac symptoms referred for cardiovascular risk stratification. All patients underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring, CTA, and SPECT MPI. After 2 years of follow-up, SPECT MPI was repeated to evaluate potential progression of ischaemia. In total, 20% of patients presented with ischaemia at baseline. Of these 20 patients, 7 (35%) still had ischaemia at follow-up, whereas 13 (65%) showed resolution and 4 (20%) showed progression of ischaemia at follow-up. Of the 80 patients without ischaemia at baseline, 65 (81%) had a normal MPI at follow-up and 15 patients (19%) presented with new ischaemia. There were no significant differences in the CAC score or the extent, severity, and composition of CAD on CTA between patients with and without ischaemia at baseline. Similarly, no differences could be demonstrated between patients with and without ischaemia at follow-up or between patients with and without progression of ischaemia. The rate of progression of ischaemia in high-risk patients with diabetes without cardiac symptoms is limited. Few patients presented with new ischaemia, whereas some patients showed resolution of ischaemia. Atherosclerosis parameters on CTA were not predictive of new-onset ischaemia or progression of ischaemia. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:
    European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jev003 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: QRS fragmentation (fQRS) and prolonged QTc interval on surface ECG are prognostic in various cardiomyopathies other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The association between fQRS and prolonged QTc duration with occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias or sudden cardiac death (VTA/SCD) in patients with HCM was explored. 195 clinical HCM patients were studied. QTc duration was derived applying Bazett's formula; fQRS was defined as presence of various RSR' patterns, R or S notching and/or >1 additional R wave in any non-aVR lead in patients without pacing or (in)complete bundle branch block. The endpoints comprised SCD, ECG documented sustained VTA (tachycardia or fibrillation) or appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapies [antitachycardia pacing (ATP) or shock] for VTA in ICD recipients [n = 58 (30%)]. QT prolonging drugs recipients were excluded. After a median follow-up of 5.7 years (IQR 2.7-9.1), 26 (13%) patients experienced VTA or SCD. Patients with fQRS in ≥3 territories (inferior, lateral, septal and/or anterior) (p = 0.004) or QTc ≥460 ms (p = 0.009) had worse cumulative survival free of VTA/SCD than patients with fQRS in <3 territories or QTc <460 ms. fQRS in ≥3 territories (ß 4.5, p = 0.020, 95%CI 1.41-14.1) and QTc ≥460 ms (ß 2.7, p = 0.037, 95%CI 1.12-6.33) were independently associated with VTA/SCD. Likelihood ratio test indicated assessment of fQRS and QTc on top of conventional SCD risk factors provides incremental predictive value for VTA/SCD (p = 0.035). Both fQRS in ≥3 territories and QTc duration are associated with VTA/SCD in HCM patients, independently of and incremental to conventional SCD risk factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/jce.12629 · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • European Heart Journal 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu481 · 14.72 Impact Factor
  • Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
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    ABSTRACT: Non-invasive cardiac imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis and management of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Transthoracic echocardiography is the imaging technique of first choice to evaluate wall thickness, left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, presence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and abnormal mitral anatomy, whereas cardiac magnetic resonance provides additional information on tissue characterization (replacement fibrosis) using late gadolinium enhancement. Nuclear imaging techniques permit also the assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but are more frequently used to evaluate myocardial ischemia (particularly assessment of microvascular dysfunction using positron emission tomography) and abnormal sympathetic myocardial innervation. This review article provides an overview of the use of nuclear imaging techniques to refine the phenotyping and risk stratification of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with particular focus on prediction of progression to overt heart failure, detection of myocardial ischemia, and evaluation of the arrhythmogenic substrate and risk of sudden cardiac death.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12350-014-0054-7 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this chapter of Tools and Techniques Clinical, 3D transoesophageal echocardiography for selecting and guiding in percutaneous mitral valve repair using MitraClip (R) is discussed. The following is a summarised overview of this technique. The complete, unabridged version with images is available online at:
    EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 11/2014; 10(7):884-6. DOI:10.4244/EIJV10I7A150 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the implications of stable coverage of the coronary ostia by the Edwards SAPIEN valve frame in terms of myocardial ischemia and subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Background: Edwards SAPIEN frame is frequently deployed relatively higher than recommended and may overlap the coronary ostia. Methods: A total of 142 patients (age 81±7 years, male 49%) treated with Edwards SAPIEN valve and with multi-detector row computed tomography at 1 month follow-up were evaluated. The position of the frame in relation to the coronary ostia was assessed. Levels of troponin T were measured 12-24 hours after TAVI. PCI events at follow-up were recorded. Results: The left coronary ostium was fully covered in 3 (2.1%) patients and the right coronary ostium in 11 (7.7%). There were no differences in troponin T levels between patients with fully covered ostia vs. patients with partly or non-covered ostia (0.24 (0.13-0.50) μg/L vs. 0.35 (0.15-0.55) μg/L, respectively; p=0.377). At 30±15 months follow up, 10(7%) patients underwent successful PCI. Rate of subsequent PCI was similar between patients with any covered ostium and patients with non-covered ostia (4 (7.8%) vs. 6 (6.5%), p=0.780, respectively). Conclusions: Full overlap of the coronary ostia by Edwards SAPIEN frame is infrequent and in most cases does not limit subsequent PCI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    ABSTRACT: A bedside-available transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)-dedicated prognostic risk score is an unmet clinical need. We aimed to develop such a risk score predicting 1-year mortality post-TAVI and to compare it with the performance of the logistic EuroSCORE (LES) I and LES-II and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' (STS) score. Baseline variables of 511 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI that were independently associated with 1-year mortality post-TAVI were included in the "TAVI2-SCORe." Discrimination and calibration abilities of the novel score were assessed and compared with surgical risk scores. One-year mortality was 17.0% (n = 80 of 471). Porcelain thoracic aorta (hazard ratio [HR] 2.56), anemia (HR 2.03), left ventricular dysfunction (HR 1.98), recent myocardial infarction (HR 3.78), male sex (HR 1.81), critical aortic valve stenosis (HR 2.46), old age (HR 1.68), and renal dysfunction (HR 1.76) formed the TAVI2-SCORe (all p <0.05). According to the number of points assigned (1 for each variable and 2 for infarction), patients were stratified into 5 risk categories: 0, 1 (HR 2.6), 2 (HR 3.6), 3 (HR 10.5), and ≥4 (HR 17.6). TAVI2-SCORe showed better discrimination ability (Harrells' C statistic 0.715) compared with LES-I, LES-II, and STS score (0.609, 0.633, and 0.50, respectively). Cumulative 1-year survival rate was 54% versus 88% for patients with TAVI2-SCORE ≥3 versus <3 points, respectively (p <0.001). Contrary to surgical risk scores, there was no significant difference between observed and expected 1-year mortality for all TAVI2-SCORe risk strata (all p >0.05, Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic 0.304), suggesting superior calibration performance. In conclusion, the TAVI2-SCORe is an accurate, simple, and bedside-available score predicting 1-year mortality post-TAVI, outperforming conventional surgical risk scores for this end point. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.10.029 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 10/2014; 21(6). DOI:10.1007/s12350-014-0013-3 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognostic implications of flow, assessed by stroke volume index (SVi), and left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain on survival of patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (AS) and preserved LV ejection fraction are debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of flow and LV global longitudinal strain on survival in these patients treated with aortic valve replacement (AVR). Patients with low-gradient severe AS with preserved LV ejection fraction treated with AVR (n = 134, mean age 76 ± 10 years, 50% men) were included in the present study. Aortic valve hemodynamics and LV function were assessed with 2-dimensional, Doppler and speckle-tracking echocardiography before AVR. Patients were dichotomized on the basis of low (SVi ≤35 ml/m(2)) or normal (SVi >35 ml/m(2)) flow and impaired (>-15%) or more preserved (≤-15%) global longitudinal strain. The end point was all-cause mortality. During a median follow-up period of 1.8 years (interquartile range 0.5 to 3) after AVR, 26 patients (19.4%) died. Survival was better for patients with SVi >35 ml/m(2) or global longitudinal strain ≤-15% compared with those with SVi ≤35 ml/m(2) or global longitudinal strain >-15% (log-rank p = 0.01). Atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio 5.40, 95% confidence interval 1.81 to 16.07, p = 0.002) and chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio 3.67, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 9.06, p = 0.005) were the clinical variables independently associated with all-cause mortality. The addition of global longitudinal strain (chi-square = 19.87, p = 0.029, C-statistic = 0.74) or SVi (chi-square = 29.62, p <0.001, C-statistic = 0.80) to a baseline model including atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease (chi-square = 14.52, C-statistic = 0.68) improved risk stratification of these patients. In conclusion, flow and LV global longitudinal strain are independently associated with survival after AVR in patients with low-gradient severe AS with preserved LV ejection fraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 09/2014; 114(12):1875-1881. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.09.030 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Potentially, Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) score could be calculated on contrast computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA). This will make a separate non-contrast CT scan superfluous. This study aims to assess the performance of a novel fully automatic algorithm to detect and quantify the Agatston CAC score in contrast CTA images. From a clinical registry, 20 patients were randomly selected for each CAC category (i.e. 0, 1-99, 100-399, 400-999, ≥1,000). The Agatston CAC score on non-contrast CT was calculated manually, while the novel algorithm was used to automatically detect and quantify Agatston CAC score in contrast CTA images. The resulting Agatston CAC scores were validated against the non-contrast images. A total of 100 patients (60 ± 11 years, 63 men) were included. The median CAC score on non-contrast CT was 145 (IQR 5-760), whereas the contrast CTA CAC score was 170 (IQR 23-594) (P = 0.004). The automatically computed CAC score showed a high correlation (R = 0.949; P < 0.001) and intra-class correlation (R = 0.863; P < 0.001) with non-contrast CT CAC score. Moreover, agreement within CAC categories was good (κ 0.588). Fully automatic detection of Agatston CAC score on contrast CTA is feasible and showed high correlation with non-contrast CT CAC score. This could imply a radiation dose reduction and time saving by omitting the non-contrast scan.
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 08/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1007/s10554-014-0519-4 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although pericardial effusion (PE) early after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been reported in few registries, late PE at follow-up remains unexplored. Particularly, after transapical TAVI, diagnosis of PE with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) may be challenging. The present evaluation assessed the incidence of PE early after TAVI and at 1 month follow-up using TTE and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). The agreement between TTE and MDCT to diagnose the presence and severity of PE at 1 month follow-up was evaluated. Overall 293 patients undergoing TAVI were included. Pre-discharge TTE was performed in all patients. At 1 month, repeat TTE was performed in 234 patients and additional MDCT evaluation in 143 patients. Pre-discharge small and moderate PE was observed in 74.1 and 4.1 % of patients, respectively, whereas significant PE was diagnosed in 8 (2.7 %) patients without differences between procedural access: 1.6 versus 3.6 % for transfemoral and transapical respectively, p = 0.474. At 1 month new-onset moderate PE was noted in 6 (2.5 %) patients all of who underwent transapical TAVI. MDCT and TTE disagreed on the grade of PE in 38 patients. Importantly, one patient with small PE on TTE was considered having moderate PE and two patients with small and moderate PE were considered having large PE. Also, two patients with moderate PE on echocardiography were considered small PE on MDCT. In conclusions, significant PE early after TAVI is infrequent. The prevalence of small and moderate PE remains stable at 1 month follow-up. MDCT refines the diagnosis of significant PE.
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 08/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1007/s10554-014-0520-y · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An exponential increase in the use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with severe aortic stenosis has been witnessed over the recent years. The current article reviews different areas of uncertainty related to patient selection. The use and limitations of risk scores are addressed, followed by an extensive discussion on the value of three-dimensional imaging for prosthesis sizing and the assessment of complex valve anatomy such as degenerated bicuspid valves. The uncertainty about valvular stenosis severity in patients with a mismatch between the transvalvular gradient and the aortic valve area, and how integrated use of echocardiography and computed tomographic imaging may help, is also addressed. Finally, patients referred for TAVI may have concomitant mitral regurgitation and/or coronary artery disease and the management of these patients is discussed.
    European Heart Journal 07/2014; 35(38). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu256 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides an overview on procedure-related issues and uncertainties in outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The different access sites and how to select them in an individual patient are discussed. Also, the occurrence and potential predictors of aortic regurgitation (AR) after TAVI are addressed. The different methods to quantify AR are reviewed, and it appears that accurate and reproducible quantification is suboptimal. Complications such as prosthesis-patient mismatch and conduction abnormalities (and need for permanent pacemaker) are discussed, as well as cerebrovascular events, which emphasize the development of optimal anti-coagulative strategies. Finally, recent registries have shown the adoption of TAVI in the real world, but longer follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the outcome (but also prosthesis durability). Additionally, future studies are briefly discussed, which will address the use of TAVI in pure AR and lower-risk patients.
    European Heart Journal 07/2014; 35(38). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu257 · 14.72 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 07/2014; 21(4). DOI:10.1007/s12350-014-9930-4 · 2.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

25k Citations
4,677.37 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2015
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Cardiology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003–2014
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2010
    • Emory University
      • Department of Radiology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 1997–2010
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Cardiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006–2009
    • Marshfield Clinic
      Marshfield, Wisconsin, United States
    • HagaZiekenhuis van Den Haag
      's-Gravenhage, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2008
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Medicine and Therapeutics
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Division of Cardiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • Aarhus University Hospital
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2000–2008
    • Erasmus MC
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Cardiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
  • 2007
    • VU University Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
    • Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Sacred Heart University
      Феърфилд, Connecticut, United States
  • 2002
    • Cardiovascular Research Foundation
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1998
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1996
    • Medisch Centrum Alkmaar
      • Department of Cardiology
      Alkmaar, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1995
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Department of Cardiology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands