[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
The Sox family of transcription factors have been widely studied in the context of oligodendrocyte development. However, comparatively little is known about the role of Sox2, especially during CNS remyelination. Here we show that the expression of Sox2 occurs in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in rodent models during myelination and in activated adult OPCs responding to demyelination, and is also detected in multiple sclerosis lesions. In normal adult white matter of both mice and rats, it is neither expressed by adult OPCs nor by oligodendrocytes (although it is expressed by a subpopulation of adult astrocytes). Overexpression of Sox2 in rat OPCs in vitro maintains the cells in a proliferative state and inhibits differentiation, while Sox2 knockout results in decreased OPC proliferation and survival, suggesting that Sox2 contributes to the expansion of OPCs during the recruitment phase of remyelination. Loss of function in cultured mouse OPCs also results in an impaired ability to undergo normal differentiation in response to differentiation signals, suggesting that Sox2 expression in activated OPCs also primes these cells to eventually undergo differentiation. In vivo studies on remyelination following experimental toxin-induced demyelination in mice with inducible loss of Sox2 revealed impaired remyelination, which was largely due to a profound attenuation of OPC recruitment and likely also due to impaired differentiation. Our results reveal a key role of Sox2 expression in OPCs responding to demyelination, enabling them to effectively contribute to remyelination.
Understanding the mechanisms of CNS remyelination is central to developing effective means by which this process can be therapeutically enhanced in chronic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In this study, we describe the role of Sox2, a transcription factor widely implicated in stem cell biology, in CNS myelination and remyelination. We show how Sox2 is expressed in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) preparing to undergo differentiation, allowing them to undergo proliferation and priming them for subsequent differentiation. Although Sox2 is unlikely to be a direct therapeutic target, these data nevertheless provide more information on how OPC differentiation is controlled and therefore enriches our understanding of this important CNS regenerative process.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 08/2015; 35(33). DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3655-14.2015 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amongst neurological diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) presents an attractive target for regenerative medicine. This is because the primary pathology, the loss of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes, can be followed by a spontaneous and efficient regenerative process called remyelination. While cell transplantation approaches have been explored as a means of replacing lost oligodendrocytes, more recently therapeutic approaches that target the endogenous regenerative process have been favored. This is in large part due to our increasing understanding of (1) the cell types within the adult brain that are able to generate new oligodendrocytes, (2) the mechanisms and pathways by which this achieved, and (3) an emerging awareness of the reasons why remyelination efficiency eventually fails. Here we review some of these advances and also highlight areas where questions remain to be answered in both the biology and translational potential of this important regenerative process. GLIA 2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vacuole formation (VF) rat is an autosomal recessive myelin mutant characterized by generalized tremor, hypomyelination, and periaxonal vacuole formation of the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report the most likely causative gene for neurological disease in the VF rat and pursue its roles in the development and maintenance of the CNS myelin. We identified a nonsense mutation in the dopey family member 1 (Dopey1) located on rat chromosome 8. Expression level of Dopey1 mRNA was decreased and DOPEY1 protein was undetectable both in the white and gray matter of the spinal cords in the VF rats. Double immunohistochemistry demonstrated that DOPEY1 was mainly expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes in the wild-type rats, whereas no positive cells were detected in the VF rats. We also demonstrated a marked reduction in myelin components both at mRNA and protein levels during myelinogenesis in the VF rats. In addition, proteolipid protein and myelin-associated glycoprotein accumulated in oligodendrocyte cell body, suggesting that Dopey1 is likely to be involved in the traffic of myelin components. Our results highlighted the importance of Dopey1 for the development and maintenance of the CNS myelin. GLIA 2014.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central nervous system remyelination by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) ultimately fails in the majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Remyelination benefits from transient expression of factors that promote migration and proliferation of OPCs, which may include fibronectin (Fn). Fn is present in demyelinated lesions in two major forms; plasma Fn (pFn), deposited following blood-brain barrier disruption, and cellular Fn, synthesized by resident glial cells and containing alternatively spliced domains EIIIA and EIIIB. Here, we investigated the distinctive roles that astrocyte-derived Fn (aFn) and pFn play in remyelination. We used an inducible Cre-lox recombination strategy to selectively remove pFn, aFn or both from mice, and examined the impact on remyelination of toxin-induced demyelinated lesions of spinal cord white matter. This approach revealed that astrocytes are a major source of Fn in demyelinated lesions. Furthermore, following aFn conditional knockout, the number of OPCs recruited to the demyelinated lesion decreased significantly, whereas OPC numbers were unaltered following pFn conditional knockout. However, remyelination completed normally following conditional knockout of aFn and pFn. Both the EIIIA and EIIIB domains of aFn were expressed following demyelination, and in vitro assays demonstrated that the EIIIA domain of aFn mediates proliferation of OPCs, but not migration. Therefore, although the EIIIA domain from aFn mediates OPC proliferation, aFn is not essential for successful remyelination. Since previous findings indicated that astrocyte-derived Fn aggregates in chronic MS lesions inhibit remyelination, aFn removal may benefit therapeutic strategies to promote remyelination in MS. GLIA 2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of remote astrocyte (AC) reaction to central or peripheral axonal insult is not clearly understood. Here we use a transgenic approach to compare the direct influence of normal with diminished AC reactivity on neuronal integrity and synapse recovery following extracranial facial nerve transection in mice. Our model allows straightforward interpretations of AC-neuron signalling by reducing confounding effects imposed by inflammatory cells. We show direct evidence that perineuronal reactive ACs play a major role in maintaining neuronal circuitry following distant axotomy. We reveal a novel function of astrocytic signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). STAT3 regulates perineuronal astrocytic process formation and re-expression of a synaptogenic molecule, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), apart from supporting neuronal integrity. We demonstrate that, through this new pathway, TSP-1 is responsible for the remote AC-mediated recovery of excitatory synapses onto axotomized motor neurons in adult mice. These data provide new targets for neuroprotective therapies via optimizing AC-driven plasticity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional screening for compounds that promote remyelination represents a major hurdle in the development of rational therapeutics for multiple sclerosis. Screening for remyelination is problematic, as myelination requires the presence of axons. Standard methods do not resolve cell-autonomous effects and are not suited for high-throughput formats. Here we describe a binary indicant for myelination using micropillar arrays (BIMA). Engineered with conical dimensions, micropillars permit resolution of the extent and length of membrane wrapping from a single two-dimensional image. Confocal imaging acquired from the base to the tip of the pillars allows for detection of concentric wrapping observed as 'rings' of myelin. The platform is formatted in 96-well plates, amenable to semiautomated random acquisition and automated detection and quantification. Upon screening 1,000 bioactive molecules, we identified a cluster of antimuscarinic compounds that enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination. Our findings demonstrate a new high-throughput screening platform for potential regenerative therapeutics in multiple sclerosis.
Nature Medicine 07/2014; 20(8). DOI:10.1038/nm.3618 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have revolutionised the genetic analysis of multiple sclerosis. Through international collaborative efforts involving tens of thousands of cases and controls, more than 100 associated common variants have now been identified. These variants consistently implicate genes associated with immunological processes, overwhelmingly lie in regulatory rather than coding regions, and are frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. The functional implications of these associated variants are mostly unknown; however, early work has shown that several variants have effects on splicing that result in meaningful changes in the balance between different isoforms in relevant tissues. Including the well established risk attributable to variants in genes encoding human leucocyte antigens, only about a quarter of reported heritability can now be accounted for, suggesting that a substantial potential for further discovery remains.
The Lancet Neurology 07/2014; 13(7). DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70041-9 · 21.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPs) are a major proliferating cell population within the adult CNS. In response to myelin loss or increasing demand, OPs have the capacity to differentiate into mature, myelinating oligodendrocytes. The name 'oligodendrocyte progenitor' suggests restriction to the oligodendrocyte cell lineage. However, with growing evidence of the lineage plasticity of OPs both in vitro and in vivo, we discuss whether they have potential beyond that expected of dedicated progenitor cells, and hence may justify categorization as adult stem cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) self-renew in a state of naïve pluripotency in which they are competent to generate all somatic cells. It has been hypothesized that, before irreversibly committing, ESCs pass through at least one metastable transition state. This transition would represent a gateway for differentiation and reprogramming of somatic cells. Here, we show that during the transition, the nuclei of ESCs are auxetic: they exhibit a cross-sectional expansion when stretched and a cross-sectional contraction when compressed, and their stiffness increases under compression. We also show that the auxetic phenotype of transition ESC nuclei is driven at least in part by global chromatin decondensation. Through the regulation of molecular turnover in the differentiating nucleus by external forces, auxeticity could be a key element in mechanotransduction. Our findings highlight the importance of nuclear structure in the regulation of differentiation and reprogramming.
Nature Material 04/2014; 13(6). DOI:10.1038/nmat3943 · 36.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelination allows rapid saltatory propagation of action potentials along the axon and is an essential prerequisite for the normal functioning of the nervous system. During peripheral nervous system (PNS) development, myelin-forming Schwann cells (SCs) generate radial lamellipodia to sort and ensheath axons. This process requires controlled cytoskeletal remodeling, and we show that SC lamellipodia formation depends on the function of profilin 1 (Pfn1), an actin-binding protein involved in microfilament polymerization. Pfn1 is inhibited upon phosphorylation by ROCK, a downstream effector of the integrin linked kinase pathway. Thus, a dramatic reduction of radial lamellipodia formation is observed in SCs lacking integrin-linked kinase or treated with the Rho/ROCK activator lysophosphatidic acid. Knocking down Pfn1 expression by lentiviral-mediated shRNA delivery impairs SC lamellipodia formation in vitro, suggesting a direct role for this protein in PNS myelination. Indeed, SC-specific gene ablation of Pfn1 in mice led to profound radial sorting and myelination defects, confirming a central role for this protein in PNS development. Our data identify Pfn1 as a key effector of the integrin linked kinase/Rho/ROCK pathway. This pathway, acting in parallel with integrin β1/LCK/Rac1 and their effectors critically regulates SC lamellipodia formation, radial sorting and myelination during peripheral nervous system maturation.
Development 03/2014; 141(7). DOI:10.1242/dev.101840 · 6.46 Impact Factor