[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRPM5, a cation channel of the TRP superfamily, is highly expressed in taste buds of the tongue, where it has a key role in the perception of sweet, umami and bitter tastes. Activation of TRPM5 occurs downstream of the activation of G-protein-coupled taste receptors and is proposed to generate a depolarizing potential in the taste receptor cells. Factors that modulate TRPM5 activity are therefore expected to influence taste. Here we show that TRPM5 is a highly temperature-sensitive, heat-activated channel: inward TRPM5 currents increase steeply at temperatures between 15 and 35 degrees C. TRPM4, a close homologue of TRPM5, shows similar temperature sensitivity. Heat activation is due to a temperature-dependent shift of the activation curve, in analogy to other thermosensitive TRP channels. Moreover, we show that increasing temperature between 15 and 35 degrees C markedly enhances the gustatory nerve response to sweet compounds in wild-type but not in Trpm5 knockout mice. The strong temperature sensitivity of TRPM5 may underlie known effects of temperature on perceived taste in humans, including enhanced sweetness perception at high temperatures and 'thermal taste', the phenomenon whereby heating or cooling of the tongue evoke sensations of taste in the absence of tastants.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRP channels represent the main pathways for cation influx in non-excitable cells. Although TRP channels were for a long time considered to be voltage independent, several TRP channels now appear to be weakly voltage dependent with an activation curve extending mainly into the non-physiological positive voltage range. In connection with this voltage dependence, there is now abundant evidence that physical stimuli, such as temperature (TRPV1, TRPM8, TRPV3), or the binding of various ligands (TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPM8, TRPM4), shift this voltage dependence towards physiologically relevant potentials, a mechanism that may represent the main functional hallmark of these TRP channels. This review discusses some features of voltage-dependent gating of TRPV1, TRPM4 and TRPM8. A thermodynamic principle is elaborated, which predicts that the small gating charge of TRP channels is a crucial factor for the large voltage shifts induced by various stimuli. Some structural considerations will be given indicating that, although the voltage sensor is not yet known, the C-terminus may substantially change the voltage dependence of these channels.
The Journal of Physiology 09/2005; 567(Pt 1):35-44. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-selective cation (NSC) channels activated by intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) play an important role in Ca2+ signaling and membrane excitability in many cell types. TRPM4 and TRPM5, two Ca2+-activated cation channels of the TRP superfamily, are potential molecular correlates of NSC channels. We compared the functional properties of mouse TRPM4 and TRPM5 heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells. Dialyzing cells with different Ca2+ concentrations revealed a difference in Ca2+ sensitivity between TRPM4 and TRPM5, with EC50 values of 20.2+/-4.0 microM and 0.70+/-0.1 microM, respectively. Similarly, TRPM5 activated at lower Ca2+ concentration than TRPM4 when [Ca2+]i was raised by UV uncaging of the Ca2+-cage DMNP-EDTA. Current amplitudes of TRPM4 and TRPM5 were not correlated to the rate of changes in [Ca2+]i. The Ca2+ sensitivity of both channels was strongly reduced in inside-out patches, resulting in approximately 10-30 times higher EC50 values than under whole-cell conditions. Currents through TRPM4 and TRPM5 deactivated at negative and activated at positive potentials with similar kinetics. Both channels were equally sensitive to block by intracellular spermine. TRPM4 displayed a 10-fold higher affinity for block by flufenamic acid. Importantly, ATP4- blocked TRPM4 with high affinity (IC50 of 0.8+/-0.1 microM), whereas TRPM5 is insensitive to ATP4- at concentrations up to 1 mM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that are expressed in many tissues and cell types in both vertebrates and invertebrates. While the biophysical features of many of the mammalian TRP channels have been described, relatively little is known about their biological roles. Invertebrate TRPs offer valuable genetic handles for characterizing the functions of these cation channels in vivo. Importantly, studies in model organisms can help to identify fundamental mechanisms involved in normal cellular functions and human disease. In this review, we give an overview of the different TRP channels known in the two most utilized invertebrate models, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster, and discuss briefly the heuristic impact of these invertebrate channels with respect to TRP function in mammals.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 01/2005; 449(3):213-26. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have tested the effects of decavanadate (DV), a compound known to interfere with ATP binding in ATP-dependent transport proteins, on TRPM4, a Ca(2+)-activated, voltage-dependent monovalent cation channel, whose activity is potently blocked by intracellular ATP(4-). Application of micromolar Ca(2+) concentrations to the cytoplasmic side of inside-out patches led to immediate current activation followed by rapid current decay, which can be explained by an at least 30-fold decreased apparent affinity for Ca(2+). Subsequent application of DV (10 microm) strongly affected the voltage-dependent gating of the channel, resulting in large sustained currents over the voltage range between -180 and +140 mV. The effect of DV was half-maximal at a concentration of 1.9 microm. The Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent gating of the channel was well described by a sequential kinetic scheme in which Ca(2+) binding precedes voltage-dependent gating. The effects of DV could be explained by an action on the voltage-dependent closing step. Surprisingly, DV did not antagonize the effect of ATP(4-) on TRPM4, but caused a nearly 10-fold increase in the sensitivity of the ATP(4-) block. TRPM5, which is the most homologous channel to TRPM4, was not modulated by DV. The effect of DV was lost in a TRPM4 chimera in which the C-terminus was substituted with that of TRPM5. Deletion of a cluster in the C-terminus of TRPM4 containing positively charged amino acid residues with a high homology to part of the decavanadate binding site in SERCA pumps, completely abolished the DV effect but also accelerated desensitization. Deletion of a similar site in the N-terminus had no effects on DV responses. These results indicate that the C-terminus of TRPM4 is critically involved in mediating the DV effects. In conclusion, decavanadate modulates TRPM4, but not TRPM5, by inhibiting voltage-dependent closure of the channel.
The Journal of Physiology 12/2004; 560(Pt 3):753-65. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid (AA) modulates T-type Ca(2+) channels and is therefore a potential regulator of diverse cell functions, including neuronal and cardiac excitability. The underlying mechanism of modulation is unknown. Here we analyze the effects of AA on the T-type Ca(2+) channel alpha(1G) heterologously expressed in HEK-293 cells. AA inhibited alpha(1G) currents within a few minutes, regardless of preceding exposure to inhibitors of AA metabolism (ETYA and 17-ODYA). Current inhibition was also observed in cell-free inside-out patches, indicating a membrane-delimited interaction of AA with the channel. AA action was consistent with a decrease of the open probability without changes in the size of unitary currents. AA shifted the inactivation curve to more negative potentials, increased the speed of macroscopic inactivation, and decreased the extent of recovery from inactivation at -80 mV but not at -110 mV. AA induced a slight increase of activation near the threshold and did not significantly change the deactivation kinetics or the rectification pattern. We observed a tonic current inhibition, regardless of whether the channels were held in resting or inactivated states during AA perfusion, suggesting a state-independent interaction with the channel. Model simulations indicate that AA inhibits T-type currents by switching the channels into a nonavailable conformation and by affecting transitions between inactivated states, which results in the negative shift of the inactivation curve. Slow-inactivating alpha(1G) mutants showed an increased affinity for AA with respect to the wild type, indicating that the structural determinants of fast inactivation are involved in the AA-channel interaction.
The Journal of General Physiology 10/2004; 124(3):225-38. · 4.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian sensory system is capable of discriminating thermal stimuli ranging from noxious cold to noxious heat. Principal temperature sensors belong to the TRP cation channel family, but the mechanisms underlying the marked temperature sensitivity of opening and closing ('gating') of these channels are unknown. Here we show that temperature sensing is tightly linked to voltage-dependent gating in the cold-sensitive channel TRPM8 and the heat-sensitive channel TRPV1. Both channels are activated upon depolarization, and changes in temperature result in graded shifts of their voltage-dependent activation curves. The chemical agonists menthol (TRPM8) and capsaicin (TRPV1) function as gating modifiers, shifting activation curves towards physiological membrane potentials. Kinetic analysis of gating at different temperatures indicates that temperature sensitivity in TRPM8 and TRPV1 arises from a tenfold difference in the activation energies associated with voltage-dependent opening and closing. Our results suggest a simple unifying principle that explains both cold and heat sensitivity in TRP channels.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRPM4b (in contrast to the short splice variant TRPM4a) is a Ca(2+)-activated but Ca(2+)-impermeable cation channel. We have studied TRPM4 currents in inside-out patches. Supramicromolar Ca(2+) concentrations applied at the inner side, [Ca(2+)](i), activated TRPM4 with an EC(50) value of 0.37 mM, a value that is much higher than that of whole-cell currents. Current amplitudes decreased above 1 mM [Ca(2+)](i), (IC(50) 9.3 mM). Sr(2+) but not Ba(2+)could partially substitute for Ca(2+). ATP, ADP, AMP and AMP-PNP all quickly and reversibly inhibited TRPM4 with IC(50) values between 2 and 19 microM (at +100 mV). Adenosine also blocked TRPM4 at 630 microM. The block at high ATP concentrations was incomplete and was not affected by the presence of free Mg(2+). ADP induced the most sensitive block with an IC(50) of 2.2 microM. For inhibition of TRPM4 by free ATP(4-), an IC(50) value of 1.7+/-0.3 microM was calculated. GTP, UTP and CTP at concentrations up to 1 mM did not induce a similar block. Spermine blocked TRPM4 currents with an IC(50) of 61 microM. In conclusion, TRPM4 is a channel that can be effectively modulated by intracellular nucleotides and polyamines.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 05/2004; 448(1):70-5. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TRP superfamily forms a functionally important class of cation channels related to the product of the Drosophila trp gene. TRP channels display an unusual diversity in activation mechanisms and permeation properties, but the basis of this diversity is unknown, as the structure of these channels has not been studied in detail. To obtain insight in the pore architecture of TRPV6, a Ca(2+)-selective member of the TRPV subfamily, we probed the dimensions of its pore and determined pore-lining segments using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. Based on the permeability of the channel to organic cations, we estimated a pore diameter of 5.4 A. Mutating Asp(541), a residue involved in high affinity Ca(2+) binding, altered the apparent pore diameter, indicating that this residue lines the narrowest part of the pore. Cysteines introduced in a region preceding Asp(541) displayed a cyclic pattern of reactivity to Ag(+) and cationic methylthio-sulfanate reagents, indicative of a pore helix. The anionic methanethiosulfonate ethylsulfonate showed only limited reactivity in this region, consistent with the presence of a cation-selective filter at the outer part of the pore helix. Based on these data and on homology with the bacterial KcsA channel, we present the first structural model of a TRP channel pore. We conclude that main structural features of the outer pore, namely a selectivity filter preceded by a pore helix, are conserved between K(+) channels and TRPV6. However, the selectivity filter of TRPV6 is wider than that of K(+) channels and lined by amino acid side chains rather than main chain carbonyls.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(15):15223-30. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1, now TRPV1) was the founding member of a subgroup of cation channels within the TRP family. The TRPV subgroup contains six mammalian members, which all function as Ca2+ entry channels gated by a variety of physical and chemical stimuli. TRPV4, which displays 45% sequence identity with TRPV1, is characterized by a surprising gating promiscuity: it is activated by hypotonic cell swelling, heat, synthetic 4alpha-phorbols, and several endogenous substances including arachidonic acid (AA), the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG, and cytochrome P-450 metabolites of AA, such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. This review summarizes data on TRPV4 as a paradigm of gating diversity in this subfamily of Ca2+ entry channels.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRPV4 is a Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-permeable cation channel within the vanilloid receptor subgroup of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family, and it has been implicated in Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in several tissues, including brain and vascular endothelium. TRPV4-activating stimuli include osmotic cell swelling, heat, phorbol ester compounds, and 5',6'-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, a cytochrome p450 epoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA). It is presently unknown how these distinct activators converge on opening of the channel. Here, we demonstrate that blockers of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and cytochrome p450 epoxygenase inhibit activation of TRPV4 by osmotic cell swelling but not by heat and 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate. Mutating a tyrosine residue (Tyr-555) in the N-terminal part of the third transmembrane domain to an alanine strongly impairs activation of TRPV4 by 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate and heat but has no effect on activation by cell swelling or AA. We conclude that TRPV4-activating stimuli promote channel opening by means of distinct pathways. Cell swelling activates TRPV4 by means of the PLA(2)-dependent formation of AA, and its subsequent metabolization to 5',6'-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid by means of a cytochrome p450 epoxygenase-dependent pathway. Phorbol esters and heat operate by means of a distinct, PLA(2)- and cytochrome p450 epoxygenase-independent pathway, which critically depends on an aromatic residue at the N terminus of the third transmembrane domain.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2004; 101(1):396-401. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mg2+ is an essential ion involved in a multitude of physiological and biochemical processes and a major constituent of bone tissue. Mg2+ homeostasis in mammals depends on the equilibrium between intestinal Mg2+ absorption and renal Mg2+ excretion, but little is known about the molecular nature of the proteins involved in the transepithelial transport of Mg2+ in these organs. Recently, it was shown that patients with mutations in TRPM6, a member of the transient receptor potential family of cation channels, suffer from hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH) as a result of impaired renal and/or intestinal Mg2+ handling. Here, we show that TRPM6 is specifically localized along the apical membrane of the renal distal convoluted tubule and the brush-border membrane of the small intestine, epithelia particularly associated with active Mg2+ (re)absorption. In kidney, parvalbumin and calbindin-D28K, two divalent-binding proteins, are co-expressed with TRPM6 and might function as intracellular Mg2+ buffers in the distal convoluted tubule. Heterologous expression of wild-type TRPM6 but not TRPM6 mutants identified in HSH patients induces a Mg2+- and Ca2+-permeable cation channel tightly regulated by intracellular Mg2+ levels. The TRPM6-induced channel displays strong outward rectification, has a 5-fold higher affinity for Mg2+ than for Ca2+, and is blocked in a voltage-dependent manner by ruthenium red. Our data indicate that TRPM6 comprises all or part of the apical Mg2+ channel of Mg2+-absorbing epithelia.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2004; 279(1):19-25. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyposmolar perfusion of intact trabecular meshwork (TM) induces a decrease in its hydraulic conductivity (Lp). However, exposure to agents that elevate intracellular cAMP in TM cells increases Lp. Since volume of TM cells could directly influence porosity of the TM and hence Lp, this study has investigated changes in volume in response to acute hyposmotic shock (i.e. regulatory volume decrease or RVD) and elevated cAMP in cultured TM cells.
Bovine trabecular meshwork cells (BTMC), grown on glass coverslips and loaded with the fluorescent dye MQAE, were used to measure rapid changes in cell volume using the principle of dynamic fluorescence quenching. Activation of volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC) was assessed by measuring volume-sensitive Cl(-) currents (I(Cl,swell)) in the whole cell configuration of the patch clamp technique and by determining the swelling-induced enhancement in I(-) permeability using the halide-sensitivity of MQAE. Expressions of ClC (chloride channels of the ClC gene family), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels were examined by RT-PCR. Elevation of cAMP in response to forskolin was confirmed by determining the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-1 (CREB, ATF-1), which form the downstream targets of protein kinase A.
As a response to hyposmotic shock, there was an acute increase in cell volume but there was no robust RVD. Patch clamp experiments showed activation of a characteristic Cl(-) current in response to cell swelling. This Cl(-) current was inhibited by NPPB (100microM) and fluoxetine (50microM), both of which are known blockers of VRAC. Experiments, which used the halide-sensitivity of MQAE, also indicated a 9-fold increase in I(-) influx upon cell swelling (8.9+/-4.6; n=9), consistent with activation of a VRAC-like Cl(-) current. To examine whether RVD is limited by K(+) conductance, the swollen cells were exposed to gramicidin, which is known to induce cation channel activity. Such a maneuver led to secondary swelling with [Na(+)](o)=140mM but a rapid shrinkage [Na(+)](o)=8mM indicating that the RVD is limited by cationic conductance necessary for K(+) efflux. Exposure to forskolin, which resulted in CREB and ATF-1 phosphorylation, caused a reversible decrease in cell volume (14.5+/-5%; n=20) under isosmotic and hyposmotic conditions. RT-PCR analysis confirmed expression of ClC-2, ClC-5, and Pgp Cl(-) channels in bovine TM cells. However, ClC-3 and CFTR were not expressed.
TM cells respond to acute hyposmotic shock in an osmometric manner, but their RVD is limited by K(+) conductance. The lack of CFTR expression and decrease in cell volume in response to forskolin concomitant with hyposmolarity suggest that elevated cAMP activates a K(+) conductance. Thus, the altered resistance to aqueous outflow in response to hyposmotic perfusion of the TM and elevated cAMP may be attributed to persistent cell swelling and cell shrinkage, respectively.
Experimental Eye Research 02/2004; 78(1):15-26. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRPM4 is a Ca2+-activated but Ca2+-impermeable cation channel. An increase of [Ca2+]i induces activation and subsequent reduction of currents through TRPM4 channels. This inactivation is strikingly decreased in cell-free patches. In whole cell and cell-free configuration, currents through TRPM4 deactivate rapidly at negative potentials. At positive potentials, currents are much larger and activate slowly. This voltage-dependent behavior induces a striking outward rectification of the steady state currents. The instantaneous current-voltage relationship, derived from the amplitude of tail currents following a prepulse to positive potentials, is linear. Currents show a Boltzmann type of activation; the fraction of open channels increases at positive potentials and is low at negative potentials. Voltage dependence is not due to block by divalent cations or to voltage-dependent binding of intracellular Ca2+ to an activator site, indicating that TRPM4 is a transient receptor potential channel with an intrinsic voltage-sensing mechanism. Voltage dependence of TRPM4 may be functionally important, especially in excitable tissues generating plateau-like or bursting action potentials.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2003; 278(33):30813-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRPV4 is a widely expressed cation channel of the 'transient receptor potential' (TRP) family that is related to the vanilloid receptor VR1 (TRPV1). It functions as a Ca2+ entry channel and displays remarkable gating promiscuity by responding to both physical stimuli (cell swelling, innoxious heat) and the synthetic ligand 4alphaPDD. An endogenous ligand for this channel has not yet been identified. Here we show that the endocannabinoid anandamide and its metabolite arachidonic acid activate TRPV4 in an indirect way involving the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase-dependent formation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Application of 5',6'-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid at submicromolar concentrations activates TRPV4 in a membrane-delimited manner and causes Ca2+ influx through TRPV4-like channels in vascular endothelial cells. Activation of TRPV4 in vascular endothelial cells might therefore contribute to the relaxant effects of endocannabinoids and their P450 epoxygenase-dependent metabolites on vascular tone.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The selectivity filter of all known T-type Ca2+ channels is built by an arrangement of two glutamate and two aspartate residues, each one located in the P-loops of domains I-IV of the alpha1 subunit (EEDD locus). The mutations of the aspartate residues to glutamate induce changes in the conduction properties, enhance Cd2+ and proton affinities, and modify the activation curve of the channel. Here we further analyze the role of the selectivity filter in the gating mechanisms of T-type channels by comparing the kinetic properties of the alpha1G subunit (CaV3.1) to those of pore mutants containing aspartate-to-glutamate substitution in domains III (EEED) or IV (EEDE). The change of the extracellular pH induced similar effects on the activation properties of alpha1G and both pore mutants, indicating that the larger affinity of the mutant channels for protons is not the cause of the gating modifications. Both mutants showed alterations in several gating properties with respect to alpha1G, i.e., faster macroscopic inactivation in the voltage range from -10 to 50 mV, positive voltage shift and decrease in the voltage sensitivity of the time constants of activation and deactivation, decrease of the voltage sensitivity of the steady-state inactivation, and faster recovery from inactivation for long repolarization periods. Kinetic modeling suggests that aspartate-to-glutamate mutations in the EEDD locus of alpha1G modify the movement of the gating charges and alter the rate of several gating transitions. These changes are independent of the alterations of the selectivity properties and channel protonation.
The Journal of General Physiology 07/2003; 121(6):529-40. · 4.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since Ca2+ is a major competitor of protons for the modulation of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, we have studied the modulation by extracellular Ca2+ of the effects of proton on the T-type Ca2+ channel alpha1G (CaV3.1) expressed in HEK293 cells. At 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ concentration, extracellular acidification in the pH range from 9.1 to 6.2 induced a positive shift of the activation curve and increased its slope factor. Both effects were significantly reduced if the concentration was increased to 20 mM or enhanced in the absence of Ca2+. Extracellular protons shifted the voltage dependence of the time constant of activation and decreased its voltage sensitivity, which excludes a voltage-dependent open pore block by protons as the mechanism modifying the activation curve. Changes in the extracellular pH altered the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation and deactivation kinetics in a Ca2+-dependent manner, but these effects were not strictly correlated with those on activation. Model simulations suggest that protons interact with intermediate closed states in the activation pathway, decreasing the gating charge and shifting the equilibrium between these states to less negative potentials, with these effects being inhibited by extracellular Ca2+. Extracellular acidification also induced an open pore block and a shift in selectivity toward monovalent cations, which were both modulated by extracellular Ca2+ and Na+. Mutation of the EEDD pore locus altered the Ca2+-dependent proton effects on channel selectivity and permeation. We conclude that Ca2+ modulates T-type channel function by competing with protons for binding to surface charges, by counteracting a proton-induced modification of channel activation and by competing with protons for binding to the selectivity filter of the channel.
The Journal of General Physiology 07/2003; 121(6):511-28. · 4.73 Impact Factor