[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein S (PS) acts as a cofactor for activated protein C in the plasma anticoagulant system. PS Lys196-to-Glu (K196E) mutation is a genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism in Japanese individuals. Because of the substantial overlap in PS anticoagulant activity between KK (wild-type) and KE (heterozygous) genotypes, it is difficult to identify PS K196E carriers by measuring PS activity. Here, we generated monoclonal antibodies specific to the PS K196E mutant and developed a simple and reliable method for the identification of PS K196E carriers. We immunized mice with a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-conjugated synthetic peptide with Glu196. The hybridoma cells were screened for the binding ability of the produced antibodies to recombinant mutant EGF-like domains of PS (Ile117-Glu283). We obtained three hybridoma cell lines producing PS K196E mutation-specific antibodies. We established a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system in which the PS K196E mutation-specific monoclonal antibody was used as a detection antibody. We measured human plasma samples by using this system and successfully discriminated 11 individuals with the KE genotype from 122 individuals with the KK genotype. The ELISA system using the PS K196E mutation-specific antibody is a useful tool for the rapid identification of PS K196E carriers, who are at a higher risk for venous thromboembolism.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0133196. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0133196 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs), the diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is made by ruling out Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-associated HUS and ADAMTS13 activity-deficient thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), often using the exclusion criteria for secondary TMAs. Nowadays, assays for ADAMTS13 activity and evaluation for STEC infection can be performed within a few hours. However, a confident diagnosis of aHUS often requires comprehensive gene analysis of the alternative complement activation pathway, which usually takes at least several weeks. However, predisposing genetic abnormalities are only identified in approximately 70% of aHUS. To facilitate the diagnosis of complement-mediated aHUS, we describe a quantitative hemolytic assay using sheep red blood cells (RBCs) and human citrated plasma, spiked with or without a novel inhibitory anti-complement factor H (CFH) monoclonal antibody. Among 45 aHUS patients in Japan, 24% (11/45) had moderate-to-severe (≥50%) hemolysis, whereas the remaining 76% (34/45) patients had mild or no hemolysis (<50%). The former group is largely attributed to CFH-related abnormalities, and the latter group has C3-p.I1157T mutations (16/34), which were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Thus, a quantitative hemolytic assay coupled with RFLP analysis enabled the early diagnosis of complement-mediated aHUS in 60% (27/45) of patients in Japan within a week of presentation. We hypothesize that this novel quantitative hemolytic assay would be more useful in a Caucasian population, who may have a higher proportion of CFH mutations than Japanese patients.
PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0124655. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0124655 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Japan, low-dose rivaroxaban [15 mg QD/10 mg QD for creatinine clearance of 30-49 mL/min] was approved for clinical use in NVAF patients partly because of its unique pharmacokinetics in Japanese subjects. The aim of the study was to determine the anticoagulation intensity of rivaroxaban and its determinant factors in Japanese stroke patients.
Consecutive stroke patients with NVAF admitted between July 2012 and December 2013 were studied. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and estimated plasma concentration of rivaroxaban (Criv) based on an anti-factor Xa chromogenic assay were measured just before and 4 and 9 h after administration at the steady state level of rivaroxaban. Determinant factors for Criv were explored using a linear mixed-model approach.
Of 110 patients (37 women, 75±9 years old), 59 took 15 mg QD of rivaroxaban and 51 took 10 mg QD. Criv at 4 h was 186 ng/mL for patients taking 15 mg QD and 147 ng/mL for those taking 10 mg QD. Both PT and aPTT were positively correlated with Criv. Criv was 72% lower at 4 h in 15 patients receiving crushed tablets than in the other patients, and tablet crushing was significantly associated with lower Criv (adjusted estimate -0.43, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.26) after multivariate-adjustment.
The anticoagulation effects of rivaroxaban in the acute stroke setting for Japanese NVAF patients were relatively low as compared with those in the ROCKET-AF and J-ROCKET AF trials. Tablet crushing, common in dysphagic patients, decreased Criv.
PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113641. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113641 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pregnant women, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) does not precisely reflect the anticoagulant effect of a therapeutic dose of heparin. However, the measurement of anti-Xa activity can be used to monitor the anticoagulant effect of heparin, since the plasma concentrations of coagulation factors increase in pregnant women. We evaluated the in vitro effects of increased concentrations of fibrinogen and other coagulation factors (FVII, FVIII, and FIX) on the results of assays of APTT and anti-Xa activity in plasma samples with various therapeutic concentrations of unfractionated heparin (UFH). In the presence of UFH, APTT was shortened by increased concentrations of fibrinogen, FVII, or FVIII, and this effect was much stronger when the FVIII concentration was increased. In the plasma samples containing 0.5 or 0.7 U/mL of UFH, the APTT was shortened by approximately half or one-third, respectively, when 6 U FVIII/mL was added to the sample. The anti-Xa activity was not influenced by increased concentrations of the coagulation factors. In the present study, we also evaluated the sensitivities to UHF of four APTT reagents, and found a 1.65-fold difference in the sensitivity to UFH among APTT reagents. Our results demonstrate that increased FVIII concentration shortens APTT under therapeutic doses of UFH, and that APTT thus underestimates the anticoagulant effect of UFH in pregnant women, mainly due to the increased FVIII concentration.
International Journal of Hematology 11/2014; 101(2). DOI:10.1007/s12185-014-1702-z · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) can be distinguished from typical or Shiga-like toxin-induced HUS. The clinical outcome is unfavorable; up to 50% of affected patients progress to end-stage renal failure and 25% die during the acute phase. Multiple conditions have been associated with aHUS, including infections, drugs, autoimmune conditions, transplantation, pregnancy, and metabolic conditions. aHUS in the nontransplant postsurgical period, however, is rare. An 8-month-old boy underwent surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia developed 25 days later, and aHUS was diagnosed. Further evaluation revealed that his complement factor H (CFH) level was normal and that anti-FH antibodies were not detected in his plasma. Sequencing of his CFH, complement factor I, membrane cofactor protein, complement factor B, and thrombomodulin genes was normal. His ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin-1 repeats 13) activity was also normal. However, he had a potentially causative mutation (R425C) in complement component C3. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that his father and aunt also had this mutation; however, they had no symptoms of aHUS. We herein report a case of aHUS that developed after cardiovascular surgery and was caused by a complement C3 mutation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Severe hypertension (HTN) and acute kidney injury frequently associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) were refractory to various therapies in the pre-eculizumab era. Here we report the case of a 4-month-old boy who developed aHUS presenting with undetectable C3 protein, no predisposing mutations in complement factors, and no antibodies against factor H.
Repeated plasma infusions and nine sessions of plasmapheresis were ineffective. The patient initially required continuous hemodiafiltration and thereafter peritoneal dialysis. Despite vigorous antihypertensive treatment and improved fluid overload with dialysis, HTN persisted. His low C3 level (<20 mg/dl) suggested unrestricted complement activation. Therefore, based on the suspicion of unrestricted complement cascade in the pathogenesis, treatment with eculizumab, a human anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, was initiated with the aim of controlling disease activity.
Eculizumab therapy resulted in the control of severe HTN and cessation of peritoneal dialysis.
This infant with HTN and acute kidney injury associated with aHUS was treated successfully with eculizumab.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is caused by abnormalities of the complement system and has a significantly poor prognosis. The clinical phenotypes of 12 patients in nine families with aHUS with familial or recurrent onset and ADAMTS13 activity of ≥20 % treated at the Mie University Hospital were examined. In seven of the patients, the first episode of aHUS occurred during childhood and ten patients experienced a relapse. All patients had renal dysfunction and three had been treated with hemodialysis. Seven patients experienced probable triggering events including common cold, influenza, bacterial infection and/or vaccination for influenza. All patients had entered remission, and renal function was improved in 11 patients. DNA sequencing of six candidate genes, identified a C3 p.I1157T missense mutation in all eight patients in six families examined and this mutation was causative for aHUS. A causative mutation THBD p.D486Y was also identified in an aHUS patient. Four missense mutations, CFH p.V837I, p.Y1058H, p.V1060L and THBD p.R403K may predispose to aHUS manifestation; the remaining seven missense mutations were likely neutral. In conclusion, the clinical phenotypes of aHUS are various, and there are often trigger factors. The C3 p.I1157T mutation was identified as the causative mutation for aHUS in all patients examined, and may be geographically concentrated in or around the Mie prefecture in central Japan.
International Journal of Hematology 08/2014; 100(5). DOI:10.1007/s12185-014-1655-2 · 1.92 Impact Factor