[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous study showed that repetitive mild decontamination treatments with intense light pulses (ILP) and lactic acid (LA) can induce increased resistance in surviving pathogenic cells. Research has evaluated the potential of increased resistance to enhance the persistence of resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 under suboptimal growth conditions. Growth of resistant variants and parental strains was determined by optical density (OD) measurements in nutrient broths with different pH values and NaCl concentration, at low temperature. The real lag phase was calculated, and results indicated that intense light pulses (ILP) resistant variants needed longer time to initiate growth compared to their parental strains, for both L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 when incubated at 7 °C and 10 °C, respectively. These selected variants were of the similar resistance towards heat and low pH (no cross-tolerance). Nevertheless, lactic acid (LA) resistant variant of L. monocytogenes was cross-protected when exposed to low pH, but not when treated with heat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, diversity and characteristics of Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from food products marketed in Belgium. The food products investigated in this study included cooked pasta, lasagna, béchamel sauce, bolognaise sauce, fresh minced beef, fresh-cut vegetables and raw basmati rice. B. cereus group spp. were detected in 56.3% (324 of 575) of the samples giving rise to 380 strains. The highest incidence (100%) occurred in the raw basmati rice. Although only 10 (2.6%) of the 380 isolates were determined to be psychrotolerant (able to grow at ≤7°C), 25 (6.2%), 189 (49.7%) and 334 (87.9%) isolates were able to grow at mild temperature abuse conditions of 8°C, 9°C and 10°C, respectively. The large diversity of the isolates obtained (overall and between isolates obtained from the same product type) was highlighted by the results of the (GTG)(5) PCR fingerprinting of 80 selected isolates. Sixty-one of these 80 isolates belonged to 15 distinct clusters (≥85% Pearson correlation) whereas the remaining 19 were each clustered separately. Further diversity was also found in the distribution of toxin genes as 16 different profiles were observed in the 80 selected isolates. Whilst none of 80 selected strains harboured the ces gene required for the production of the emetic toxin cereulide, 42 strains (52.5%) carried all seven genes required for the production of the diarrhoeal enterotoxins: haemolytic BL, non-haemolytic enterotoxin and cytotoxin K. The results of this study highlight not only the omnipresence but also the highly diverse ecology of B. cereus spp. within and across several food product types available on the retail market in Belgium. They should also provide the impetus for more studies to enable detailed risk assessment studies to be performed.
International journal of food microbiology 07/2011; 150(1):34-41. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of acid treatment -before and during heat inactivation- on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 cells at lethal temperatures. E. coli cells were grown in Brain Heart Infusion broth until they reached the stationary phase (≈10(9) cfu/mL). Approximately 30 min before thermal inactivation the early stationary phase cells were added in Brain Heart Infusion broth with a specific pH value, achieved with addition of either acetic (50% (v/v)), lactic (50% (v/v)) or hydrochloric acid (30% (v/v)), and inactivation experiments took place at 54 °C and 58 °C. The inactivation dynamics are analysed using the inactivation model of Geeraerd et al. (2000). This enables to define the induced thermotolerance of E. coli as a prolongation of the shoulder and/or a reduction of the inactivation rate. Generally, addition of acids increased the heat resistance of E. coli. The induced resistance depends on the type of acid and on the quantity added, i.e. different levels of acidification lead to a different level of heat resistance. This work provides additional knowledge on the reaction of bacterial cultures to heat after acid treatment -before and during heat treatment- and, therefore, it contributes to an improved understanding of the effect of acid exposure on the bacterial heat resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth/no growth (G/NG) studies that include the effect of medium structure have typically been performed for (pathogenic) bacteria and on the basis of gelatin/agar as a gelling agent. In this study, the growth potential of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was investigated in two model systems that resemble the macroscopic physicochemical and rheological properties of acidic sauces. In a Carbopol model system, the effect of pH (3.5-4.5), glycerol concentration (17-32%), acetic acid concentration (1.5-2.0%) and medium structure (3 levels) was investigated. In xanthan gum, the behavior of the yeast was studied at different levels of pH (3.5-4.5), NaCl concentration (0.5-13.5%), acetic acid concentration (0-2.0%) and medium structure (2 levels). Rheologically, viscoelastic moduli failed to discriminate between different forms of microbial growth, whereas yield stress data appeared to provide a better indication. In general, G/NG results revealed an unexpected increase of growth probability as a function of medium structure, both at 22 and 30 °C. Whether this behavior is the result of an underlying growth-promoting mechanism could not be explained from a macroscopic point of view (e.g., macrorheology, a(w)), but may be more related to the local microscopic properties of the gels. In a second part of this study, the potential use and information content of optical density measurements for G/NG data collection in structured media were critically evaluated and confronted with their practical relevance to the food industry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major objective of this study was to determine the influence of the initial headspace and dissolved O(2) level and vacuum packaging on growth and diarrhoeal enterotoxin production by Bacillus weihenstephanensis on potato based ready-to-eat food products. In general, the lower the initial headspace or dissolved O(2) level the slower the maximum growth rate (μ(max), log(10) CFU g(-1) d(-1)), the longer the lag phase duration (λ, d) and the smaller the maximum population density (N(max), log(10) CFU g(-1)) became. The slowest μ(max), the longest λ and the smallest N(max) were generally found for growth under vacuum packaging. This implies shorter shelf-lives will occur at higher initial headspace or dissolved O(2) levels as the growth of B. weihenstephanensis to the infective dose of 10(5) CFU g(-1) in such atmospheres takes a shorter time. Significant consumption of dissolved O(2) only occurred when growth shifted from the lag to the exponential phase and growth generally transitioned from the exponential to the stationary phase when the dissolved O(2) levels fell below ca. 75 ppb. Diarrhoeal enterotoxin production (determined via detection of the L2 component of haemolytic BL) was similar for growth under initial headspace O(2) levels of 1-20.9%, and was only reduced when growth took place under vacuum packaging. The reduction in L2 production when growth took place under vacuum was most probably related to the low final cell densities observed under this condition. Both growth and L2 production were inhibited over a 32-day incubation period at 7 °C by 40% CO(2) irrespective of the headspace or dissolved O(2) levels. The results illustrate the importance of residual O(2) and CO(2) on the shelf-stability and safety of modified atmosphere packaged potato based ready-to-eat food products with regards to B. weihenstephanensis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binnen het Europees project PathogenCombat is het diagnose instrument ontwikkeld. Hiermee krijgt de voedingsmiddelenproducent een indruk van het risiconiveau van de context waarin zijn voedselveiligheidssysteem opereert. Daarnaast geeft het inzicht in het prestatieniveau van zowel het systeem zelf als van de microbiële output van het systeem.
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie: actueel tijdschrift voor de voedingsmiddelenindustrie in de Benelux. 03/2011;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To quantify the influence of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 cells at static temperatures.
Stationary-phase E. coli cells were inactivated at 52, 54 and 58°C. The heat resistance is described as reduction in the inactivation rate, k(max) , and/or an increase in the time for one decimal reduction, D, and/or an increase in the time for the fourth decimal reduction, t(4D) .
Resistance of E. coli changed - increased - at all temperatures under study. Generally, the addition of TMAO to the growth medium protected E. coli cells, leading to an increase in their heat resistance, i.e. reduced k(max) and increased D and t(4D) values are obtained.
Additional knowledge on the reaction of E. coli to heat in the presence of the organic osmolyte TMAO at lethal temperatures is provided. This work contributes to an improved understanding of the level of the resistance of bacteria to heat in the presence of osmolytes.
Letters in Applied Microbiology 02/2011; 52(2):116-22. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the inactivating properties of liquid hydrogen peroxide (L-H(2)O(2)), vaporized hydrogen peroxide (V-H(2)O(2)), UV light, and a combination of V-H(2)O(2) and UV light were tested on murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) and bacteriophages (φX174 and B40-8) as models for human noroviruses. Disinfection of surfaces was examined on stainless steel discs based on European Standard EN 13697 (2001). For fresh-produce decontamination, a mixture of the viruses was inoculated onto shredded iceberg lettuce and treated after overnight incubation at 2°C. According to our results, L-H(2)O(2) (2.1%) was able to inactivate MNV-1 and φX174 on stainless steel discs by approximately 4 log(10) units within 10 min of exposure, whereas for B40-8, 15% of L-H(2)O(2) was needed to obtain a similar reduction in 10 min. Only a marginal reduction (≤1 log(10) unit after 5 min of exposure) by V-H(2)O(2) (2.52%) was achieved for the tested model viruses, although in combination with UV light, a 4-log(10)-unit decrease within 5 min of treatment was observed on stainless steel discs. Similar trends were observed for the decontamination of shredded iceberg lettuce, but the viral decline was reduced. These results demonstrated that both L-H(2)O(2) and a combination of V-H(2)O(2) and UV light can be used for norovirus inactivation on surfaces; V-H(2)O(2) (2.52%) in combination with UV light is promising for decontamination of fresh produce with much less consumption of water and disinfectant.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 02/2011; 77(4):1399-404. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In November 2008, a technical guidance document on the challenge test protocol was published by the EU CRL (Community of Reference Laboratory) for L. monocytogenes. This document describes the practical aspects on the execution of a challenge test in order to comply to the EU Commission regulation N° 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuff. In this guideline two approaches are specified. On the one hand challenge tests, based on actual data measurements at the beginning and end of the shelf-life of products stored under reasonably foreseen T-profile, are described. On the other hand, growth potential is calculated by predictive models using a validated maximum specific growth rate. The present study evaluates the two above mentioned approaches on cold smoked salmon, a typical risk product for L. monocytogenes. The focus is on: (i) the relative importance of intrabatch versus interbatch variability, (ii) the concept of a simple challenge test based on actual data at start and end of shelf life versus a modelling approach and (iii) the interpretation of challenge tests. Next to this, available tertiary models were used to estimate the growth potential of these products based on their initial physicochemical characteristics. From the results it could be concluded that in some batches considerable intrabatch variability was obtained. In general, however, the interbatch variability was significantly higher than intrabatch variability. Concerning the two above mentioned methods for challenge tests, it can be stated that the first approach (simple challenge test) can be set up rather rapidly and is cost-effective for SMEs (small and medium enterprises) but provides only a single isolated outcome. This implies that challenge tests should be redone if changes occur in composition or production process. The second (modelling) approach, using extended challenge tests to establish growth parameters needs larger set ups and more complicated data analysis, which makes them more expensive. Using available tertiary models has the major advantage that the most important intrinsic and extrinsic factors can be included for the prediction of the growth parameter. It was clear that product specific models, taking into account the interaction effects with background flora, performed the best. Regarding the challenge tests, it can be concluded that the best approach to choose will depend on the particular context as in the end both approaches will lead to the same conclusion.
International journal of food microbiology 01/2011; 145(1):176-85. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study on Zygosaccharomyces bailii, three growth/no growth models have been developed, predicting growth probability of the yeast at different conditions typical for acidified foods (Dang, T.D.T., Mertens, L., Vermeulen, A., Geeraerd, A.H., Van Impe, J.F., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., 2010. Modeling the growth/no growth boundary of Z. bailii in acidic conditions: A contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives. International Journal of Food Microbiology 137, 1-12). In these broth-based models, the variables were pH, water activity and acetic acid, with acetic acid concentration expressed in volume % on the total culture medium (i.e., broth). To continue the previous study, validation experiments were performed for 15 selected combinations of intrinsic factors to assess the performance of the model at 22°C (60days) in a real food product (ketchup). Although the majority of experimental results were consistent, some remarkable deviations between prediction and validation were observed, e.g., Z. bailii growth occurred in conditions where almost no growth had been predicted. A thorough investigation revealed that the difference between two ways of expressing acetic acid concentration (i.e., on broth basis and on water basis) is rather significant, particularly for media containing high amounts of dry matter. Consequently, the use of broth-based concentrations in the models was not appropriate. Three models with acetic acid concentration expressed on water basis were established and it was observed that predictions by these models well matched the validation results; therefore a "systematic error" in broth-based models was recognized. In practice, quantities of antimicrobial agents are often calculated based on the water content of food products. Hence, to assure reliable predictions and facilitate the application of models (developed from lab media with high dry matter contents), it is important to express antimicrobial agents' concentrations on a common basis-the water content. Reviews over other published growth/no growth models in literature are carried out and expressions of the stress factors' concentrations (on broth basis) found in these models confirm this finding.
International journal of food microbiology 01/2011; 145(1):258-66. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The health benefits of consuming organic compared to conventional foods are unclear. This study aimed at evaluating the nutrient and contaminant intake of adults through consumption of organic versus conventional vegetables, namely carrots, tomatoes, lettuce, spinach and potatoes. A probabilistic simulation approach was used for the intake assessment in two adult populations: (1) a representative sample of Belgians (n=3245) and (2) a sample of Flemish organic and conventional consumers (n=522). Although significant differences in nutrient and contaminant contents were previously found between organic and conventional vegetables, they were inconsistent for a component and/or vegetable. These findings were translated here into inconsistent intake assessments. This means that the intake of specific nutrients and contaminants can be higher or lower for organic versus conventional vegetables. However, when considering the consumption pattern of organic consumers, an increase in intake of a selected set of nutrients and contaminants is observed, which are explained by the general higher vegetable consumption of this consumer group. In public health terms, there is insufficient evidence to recommend organic over conventional vegetables. The general higher vegetable consumption of organic compared to conventional consumers outweighs usually the role of differences in nutrient and contaminant concentrations between organic and conventional vegetables.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2010; 48(11):3058-66. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) treatment is currently considered as an attractive non-thermal process for preserving food. Since the first level of interaction between HPCD and the bacterial cells is lowering of the pH, knowledge of the pH of a food product in contact with CO2 at high-pressure conditions is essential for a better understanding of the inactivation mechanism of HPCD. Therefore, a mathematical model was developed to predict the pH in complex aqueous food systems in contact with CO2 at high-pressure conditions as function of pressure, temperature and buffer capacity. In addition, a spectrofluorometric method using calcein as fluorescent pH indicator was designed for the in situ measurement of the pH of complex aqueous systems in contact with pressurized CO2 as function of pressure (10.5–18.0MPa), temperature (25–35°C), initial pH (4.0–8.0), working volume ratio (41.6–70.0%) and broth composition (0.1M citrate buffer, 0.1M phosphate buffer and 10% whey protein). To mimic a complex matrix, the bacterial Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth was used.In general, there was a good agreement between the measured and predicted pH values. Only for the lowest initial pH of the broth, a discrepancy between the measured and calculated pH values was noticed, implying that the proposed model needs some further refinement to properly take into account non-ideality of the liquid phase. Furthermore, the pH of the broth was significantly influenced by the initial pH of the solution but was not dependent on pressure, temperature and working volume ratio. The addition of complementary buffers to the broth also influenced the pH drop and this effect was dependent on the initial pH of the solution.
Journal of Supercritical Fluids The 11/2010; 55(1):77-85. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of Campylobacter jejuni at single-cell level when exposed to different concentrations of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)). The parameter of choice, intracellular pH (pH(i)), was determined by using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy with a pH-sensitive, ratiometric 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester probe. In addition, the culturability expressed in colony counts was determined. Our results revealed that several subpopulations with different physiological states, as judged by their pH(i), were created by ClO(2) treatment. The greater the concentration of ClO(2), the smaller the subpopulation of healthy cells with pH(i) > 6.8 and the smaller the colony count as determined on nonselective agar plates. ClO(2) at concentrations (60 ppm) induced injuries that resulted in complete loss of culturability and adversely affected the ability to resuscitate under subsequent more favorable conditions. The presence of injured cells in food could present a risk for public health. Additional hurdles have to be included in food preservation to suppress the survival and recovery of injured cells.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 10/2010; 8(2):325-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The total volatile basic nitrogen fraction (TVB-N) is often used as a quality parameter in the fish industry to assess spoilage. This parameter often leads to discussions between producers and retailers when it comes to defining clear limits of acceptability for modified atmosphere (MA) packed fish and fishery products. Suggested product limits (mg N/100 g fish) do not always correlate with the presence of off-odors. Gray shrimp are an economic valuable, very perishable niche product, where the TVB-N fraction plays an important role considering its shelf life. This research focuses on the effect of a shrimp matrix and its pH on the volatilization of these formed bases, revealing the relationship between concentrations in the fishery product and the concentrations of these bases present in the headspace of the packed product. Especially, the pH of the product, which is lowered when fishery products are packed under a carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere, appeared to have an immense effect on the volatilization of these bases. The effect of the fish matrix itself is established by means of calculated equilibration constants (dimensionless) being 2.13×10(-4)±0.38×10(-4) for trimethylamine, 6.34×10(-5)±1.71×10(-5) for dimethylamine, and 2.58×10(-5)±0.49×10(-5) for ammonia. Comparison of these constants with the equilibration constants of an aqueous solution indicated the retention of these bases in the product. This article provides not only the important insights for the interpretation of TVB-N values in modified atmosphere packaged gray shrimp but also the methodology to extend these findings to other fish and fishery products.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2010; 58(22):11864-9. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective of this work was to explore the applicability of the Intense Light Pulses (ILP) for decontamination of a stainless steel meat contact surface, exemplified by a slicing knife, as a function of time between contamination and decontamination, number of light pulses applied, and the prior contact with different meat matrices. Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were chosen as the challenge microorganisms. The ILP system was a laboratory-scale four-lamp batch system generating 3 J/cm2 with an input voltage of 3000 V. The results obtained demonstrate successful application of ILP treatment for reduction of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 on a surface of stainless steel slicing knife. The inactivation effectiveness depended on the type of meat product that was in the contact with the treated surface and on the time between the contamination and the ILP treatment. Statistical analysis showed the significant interaction between the time and type of meat product on the effectiveness of ILP treatment. The highest effectiveness of the ILP (the complete inactivation of 6.5 log CFU/side of knife) was obtained when the knife surface was in contact with the products containing lower fat and protein content and when it was treated with pulsed light as fast as possible after the contamination (within 60 s). The decontamination efficacy of ILP treatment could not be improved by multiple light pulses if lost due to the extended time between the moment of contamination and ILP treatment. Results showed that the suggested approach can be very effective as an intervention strategy along meat processing lines preventing cross-contamination between the equipment and the final product.
Journal of Food Engineering 10/2010; · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth inhibiting effects of NaCl and selected simple salt replacers (CaCl(2), MgCl(2), KCl and MgSO(4)) on the growth of Lactobacillus sakei were studied in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth at 7 degrees C over a water phase concentration of 0 to 6.4%. The divalent chloride salts (CaCl(2) in particular) generally had the largest antimicrobial activities at equivalent water phase concentrations, molalities or water activity (a(w)) values. MgSO(4) had not only the least antimicrobial activity but also the smallest a(w) depressing capacity. The results also showed that the antimicrobial effects of CaCl(2) were not fully accounted for by its a(w) depressing effects. Challenge tests performed on cooked ham and white sauce showed that reduction of NaCl levels by 28 and 33%, respectively, had no influence on the microbial stability of these products to L. sakei. Ultimately the study concluded that the microbiological consequences of the full or partial replacement of NaCl on the growth of L. sakei largely depend on the initial level of NaCl, the level of replacement and the nature of the salt replacer used. Altered stability to L. sakei is most likely given a high initial NaCl level, combined with a large level of partial replacement with either CaCl(2) (increased stability) or MgSO(4) (reduced stability) as the replacer.
International journal of food microbiology 09/2010; 143(1-2):9-16. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of NaCl and various NaCl replacers (CaCl(2), MgCl(2), KCl and MgSO(4)) on the growth of Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger was evaluated at 22 degrees C. In addition, challenge tests were performed on white bread to determine the consequences of NaCl reduction with or without partial replacement on the growth of P. roqueforti. From the results obtained it can be concluded that at equivalent water phase concentrations the isolates exhibited differing sensitivities to the salts evaluated with NaCl and MgCl(2) having the greatest inhibitory action on the growth of A. niger and P. roqueforti, respectively. MgSO(4) had the least antifungal activity. At equivalent molalities, CaCl(2) had in general the largest antifungal activity. Although the water activity (a(w)) lowering effects of the compounds studied play a large role in explaining the trends observed, at equivalent water phase concentrations MgCl(2) was found to have a smaller inhibitory effect on A. niger than that expected from its a(w) depressing effect. The challenge tests revealed that no difference occurred in the growth of P. roqueforti on standard white bread, bread with 30% less NaCl and bread in which 30% of the NaCl has been partially replaced by a mixture of KCl and Sub4Salt. These results are of importance in assessing the possible microbiological consequences of NaCl reduction or replacement in bread and similar bakery products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates the need for scientific research and development of new and/or improved tools, techniques and practices to adapt the current risk management systems. In this paper, a conceptual research approach is presented to analyse the complexity of the climate change and globalization challenge on the fresh produce supply chain taken as a case study. The factors which affect the vulnerability of the fresh produce chain demand a multidisciplinary research approach. The proposed knowledge-based modelling system is believed to be a most appropriate way to identify problems and to offer solutions to monitor and prevent microbiological food safety risks during all phases of food production and supply. To explore the potential impact of climate change and globalization, baseline information can be obtained by surveillance and performance measurement of implemented food safety management systems. Simulation of climate change scenarios and the logistic chain of fresh produce, along with mathematical models to optimize packaging technology to maintain quality and safety of fresh produce are tools to provide insights in the complex dynamic ecosystem. They are the basis for elaboration of risk assessment studies to scientifically support management options and decisions to new microbiological threats related to globalization and climate change in the fresh produce supply chain. This research concept as such will contribute to develop strategies in order to guarantee the (microbiological) food safety of fresh produce on the long term
Food Research International 08/2010; · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this review has been to disclose collected information on benefits and risks of selected "less-than - sterilizing" processes applied to control microbial hazards in food that was meticulously collected and critically reviewed during five years of EU Sixth framework project "Pathogen Combat". The target organisms of the project, and thus of this review, too, were Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni. Due to their specific response and high relevancy to the food safety, foodborne viruses and spores, were also discussed within the scope of this review. Selected treatments comprised High Pressure Processing, Intense Light Pulses, treatments with organic acids, treatments with chlorine dioxide and for their relevancy also mild heat treatments and Pulsed Electric Field processing were included. The main aspects included in this review were principles of the processes used and their application, sub-lethal injury and its consequences on microbial food safety, and legal platform and its impact on wide use of the treatments. Finally a reflection has been made to combined application of different hurdles and accompanying risks.
International journal of food microbiology 07/2010; 141 Suppl 1:S29-42. · 3.01 Impact Factor