[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the inactivating properties of liquid hydrogen peroxide (L-H(2)O(2)), vaporized hydrogen peroxide (V-H(2)O(2)), UV light, and a combination of V-H(2)O(2) and UV light were tested on murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) and bacteriophages (φX174 and B40-8) as models for human noroviruses. Disinfection of surfaces was examined on stainless steel discs based on European Standard EN 13697 (2001). For fresh-produce decontamination, a mixture of the viruses was inoculated onto shredded iceberg lettuce and treated after overnight incubation at 2°C. According to our results, L-H(2)O(2) (2.1%) was able to inactivate MNV-1 and φX174 on stainless steel discs by approximately 4 log(10) units within 10 min of exposure, whereas for B40-8, 15% of L-H(2)O(2) was needed to obtain a similar reduction in 10 min. Only a marginal reduction (≤1 log(10) unit after 5 min of exposure) by V-H(2)O(2) (2.52%) was achieved for the tested model viruses, although in combination with UV light, a 4-log(10)-unit decrease within 5 min of treatment was observed on stainless steel discs. Similar trends were observed for the decontamination of shredded iceberg lettuce, but the viral decline was reduced. These results demonstrated that both L-H(2)O(2) and a combination of V-H(2)O(2) and UV light can be used for norovirus inactivation on surfaces; V-H(2)O(2) (2.52%) in combination with UV light is promising for decontamination of fresh produce with much less consumption of water and disinfectant.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 02/2011; 77(4):1399-404. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In November 2008, a technical guidance document on the challenge test protocol was published by the EU CRL (Community of Reference Laboratory) for L. monocytogenes. This document describes the practical aspects on the execution of a challenge test in order to comply to the EU Commission regulation N° 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuff. In this guideline two approaches are specified. On the one hand challenge tests, based on actual data measurements at the beginning and end of the shelf-life of products stored under reasonably foreseen T-profile, are described. On the other hand, growth potential is calculated by predictive models using a validated maximum specific growth rate. The present study evaluates the two above mentioned approaches on cold smoked salmon, a typical risk product for L. monocytogenes. The focus is on: (i) the relative importance of intrabatch versus interbatch variability, (ii) the concept of a simple challenge test based on actual data at start and end of shelf life versus a modelling approach and (iii) the interpretation of challenge tests. Next to this, available tertiary models were used to estimate the growth potential of these products based on their initial physicochemical characteristics. From the results it could be concluded that in some batches considerable intrabatch variability was obtained. In general, however, the interbatch variability was significantly higher than intrabatch variability. Concerning the two above mentioned methods for challenge tests, it can be stated that the first approach (simple challenge test) can be set up rather rapidly and is cost-effective for SMEs (small and medium enterprises) but provides only a single isolated outcome. This implies that challenge tests should be redone if changes occur in composition or production process. The second (modelling) approach, using extended challenge tests to establish growth parameters needs larger set ups and more complicated data analysis, which makes them more expensive. Using available tertiary models has the major advantage that the most important intrinsic and extrinsic factors can be included for the prediction of the growth parameter. It was clear that product specific models, taking into account the interaction effects with background flora, performed the best. Regarding the challenge tests, it can be concluded that the best approach to choose will depend on the particular context as in the end both approaches will lead to the same conclusion.
International journal of food microbiology 01/2011; 145(1):176-85. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study on Zygosaccharomyces bailii, three growth/no growth models have been developed, predicting growth probability of the yeast at different conditions typical for acidified foods (Dang, T.D.T., Mertens, L., Vermeulen, A., Geeraerd, A.H., Van Impe, J.F., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., 2010. Modeling the growth/no growth boundary of Z. bailii in acidic conditions: A contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives. International Journal of Food Microbiology 137, 1-12). In these broth-based models, the variables were pH, water activity and acetic acid, with acetic acid concentration expressed in volume % on the total culture medium (i.e., broth). To continue the previous study, validation experiments were performed for 15 selected combinations of intrinsic factors to assess the performance of the model at 22°C (60days) in a real food product (ketchup). Although the majority of experimental results were consistent, some remarkable deviations between prediction and validation were observed, e.g., Z. bailii growth occurred in conditions where almost no growth had been predicted. A thorough investigation revealed that the difference between two ways of expressing acetic acid concentration (i.e., on broth basis and on water basis) is rather significant, particularly for media containing high amounts of dry matter. Consequently, the use of broth-based concentrations in the models was not appropriate. Three models with acetic acid concentration expressed on water basis were established and it was observed that predictions by these models well matched the validation results; therefore a "systematic error" in broth-based models was recognized. In practice, quantities of antimicrobial agents are often calculated based on the water content of food products. Hence, to assure reliable predictions and facilitate the application of models (developed from lab media with high dry matter contents), it is important to express antimicrobial agents' concentrations on a common basis-the water content. Reviews over other published growth/no growth models in literature are carried out and expressions of the stress factors' concentrations (on broth basis) found in these models confirm this finding.
International journal of food microbiology 01/2011; 145(1):258-66. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incorporation of active oxygen scavengers in polymer packaging materials is essential to allow packaging of oxidation sensitive products. Opposed to the currently available chemical oxygen scavengers, systems based upon natural and biological components could have advantages towards consumer perception and sustainability. A modelsystem for a new oxygen scavenging poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottle is proposed using an endospore-forming bacteria genus Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as the active ingredient. Spores were incorporated in poly(ethylene terephthalate, 1,4-cyclohexane dimethanol) (PETG), an amorphous PET copolymer having a considerable lower processing temperature and higher moisture absorption compared to PET. To asses spore viability after incorporation, a method was optimized to extract spores from PETG using a chloroform/water mixture. Samples were also analyzed using a Live/Dead BacLight Bacterial Viability kit. It was shown that endospores were able to survive incorporation in PETG at 210°C. Incorporated spores could actively consume oxygen for minimum 15days, after an activation period of 1–2days at 30°C under high humidity conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The health benefits of consuming organic compared to conventional foods are unclear. This study aimed at evaluating the nutrient and contaminant intake of adults through consumption of organic versus conventional vegetables, namely carrots, tomatoes, lettuce, spinach and potatoes. A probabilistic simulation approach was used for the intake assessment in two adult populations: (1) a representative sample of Belgians (n=3245) and (2) a sample of Flemish organic and conventional consumers (n=522). Although significant differences in nutrient and contaminant contents were previously found between organic and conventional vegetables, they were inconsistent for a component and/or vegetable. These findings were translated here into inconsistent intake assessments. This means that the intake of specific nutrients and contaminants can be higher or lower for organic versus conventional vegetables. However, when considering the consumption pattern of organic consumers, an increase in intake of a selected set of nutrients and contaminants is observed, which are explained by the general higher vegetable consumption of this consumer group. In public health terms, there is insufficient evidence to recommend organic over conventional vegetables. The general higher vegetable consumption of organic compared to conventional consumers outweighs usually the role of differences in nutrient and contaminant concentrations between organic and conventional vegetables.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2010; 48(11):3058-66. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The total volatile basic nitrogen fraction (TVB-N) is often used as a quality parameter in the fish industry to assess spoilage. This parameter often leads to discussions between producers and retailers when it comes to defining clear limits of acceptability for modified atmosphere (MA) packed fish and fishery products. Suggested product limits (mg N/100 g fish) do not always correlate with the presence of off-odors. Gray shrimp are an economic valuable, very perishable niche product, where the TVB-N fraction plays an important role considering its shelf life. This research focuses on the effect of a shrimp matrix and its pH on the volatilization of these formed bases, revealing the relationship between concentrations in the fishery product and the concentrations of these bases present in the headspace of the packed product. Especially, the pH of the product, which is lowered when fishery products are packed under a carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere, appeared to have an immense effect on the volatilization of these bases. The effect of the fish matrix itself is established by means of calculated equilibration constants (dimensionless) being 2.13×10(-4)±0.38×10(-4) for trimethylamine, 6.34×10(-5)±1.71×10(-5) for dimethylamine, and 2.58×10(-5)±0.49×10(-5) for ammonia. Comparison of these constants with the equilibration constants of an aqueous solution indicated the retention of these bases in the product. This article provides not only the important insights for the interpretation of TVB-N values in modified atmosphere packaged gray shrimp but also the methodology to extend these findings to other fish and fishery products.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2010; 58(22):11864-9. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of Campylobacter jejuni at single-cell level when exposed to different concentrations of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)). The parameter of choice, intracellular pH (pH(i)), was determined by using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy with a pH-sensitive, ratiometric 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester probe. In addition, the culturability expressed in colony counts was determined. Our results revealed that several subpopulations with different physiological states, as judged by their pH(i), were created by ClO(2) treatment. The greater the concentration of ClO(2), the smaller the subpopulation of healthy cells with pH(i) > 6.8 and the smaller the colony count as determined on nonselective agar plates. ClO(2) at concentrations (60 ppm) induced injuries that resulted in complete loss of culturability and adversely affected the ability to resuscitate under subsequent more favorable conditions. The presence of injured cells in food could present a risk for public health. Additional hurdles have to be included in food preservation to suppress the survival and recovery of injured cells.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 10/2010; 8(2):325-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth inhibiting effects of NaCl and selected simple salt replacers (CaCl(2), MgCl(2), KCl and MgSO(4)) on the growth of Lactobacillus sakei were studied in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth at 7 degrees C over a water phase concentration of 0 to 6.4%. The divalent chloride salts (CaCl(2) in particular) generally had the largest antimicrobial activities at equivalent water phase concentrations, molalities or water activity (a(w)) values. MgSO(4) had not only the least antimicrobial activity but also the smallest a(w) depressing capacity. The results also showed that the antimicrobial effects of CaCl(2) were not fully accounted for by its a(w) depressing effects. Challenge tests performed on cooked ham and white sauce showed that reduction of NaCl levels by 28 and 33%, respectively, had no influence on the microbial stability of these products to L. sakei. Ultimately the study concluded that the microbiological consequences of the full or partial replacement of NaCl on the growth of L. sakei largely depend on the initial level of NaCl, the level of replacement and the nature of the salt replacer used. Altered stability to L. sakei is most likely given a high initial NaCl level, combined with a large level of partial replacement with either CaCl(2) (increased stability) or MgSO(4) (reduced stability) as the replacer.
International journal of food microbiology 09/2010; 143(1-2):9-16. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of NaCl and various NaCl replacers (CaCl(2), MgCl(2), KCl and MgSO(4)) on the growth of Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger was evaluated at 22 degrees C. In addition, challenge tests were performed on white bread to determine the consequences of NaCl reduction with or without partial replacement on the growth of P. roqueforti. From the results obtained it can be concluded that at equivalent water phase concentrations the isolates exhibited differing sensitivities to the salts evaluated with NaCl and MgCl(2) having the greatest inhibitory action on the growth of A. niger and P. roqueforti, respectively. MgSO(4) had the least antifungal activity. At equivalent molalities, CaCl(2) had in general the largest antifungal activity. Although the water activity (a(w)) lowering effects of the compounds studied play a large role in explaining the trends observed, at equivalent water phase concentrations MgCl(2) was found to have a smaller inhibitory effect on A. niger than that expected from its a(w) depressing effect. The challenge tests revealed that no difference occurred in the growth of P. roqueforti on standard white bread, bread with 30% less NaCl and bread in which 30% of the NaCl has been partially replaced by a mixture of KCl and Sub4Salt. These results are of importance in assessing the possible microbiological consequences of NaCl reduction or replacement in bread and similar bakery products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Validation was conducted on the basis of an extensive microbiological assessment scheme (MAS). The assumption behind the food safety performance diagnosis is that food businesses which evaluate the performance of their food safety management system in a more structured way and according to very strict and specific criteria will have a better insight in their actual microbiological food safety performance, because food safety problems will be more systematically detected. The diagnosis can be a useful tool to have a first indication about the microbiological performance of a food safety management system present in a food business. Moreover, the diagnosis can be used in quantitative studies to get insight in the effect of interventions on sector or governmental level.
International journal of food microbiology 07/2010; 141 Suppl 1:S180-7. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this review has been to disclose collected information on benefits and risks of selected "less-than - sterilizing" processes applied to control microbial hazards in food that was meticulously collected and critically reviewed during five years of EU Sixth framework project "Pathogen Combat". The target organisms of the project, and thus of this review, too, were Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni. Due to their specific response and high relevancy to the food safety, foodborne viruses and spores, were also discussed within the scope of this review. Selected treatments comprised High Pressure Processing, Intense Light Pulses, treatments with organic acids, treatments with chlorine dioxide and for their relevancy also mild heat treatments and Pulsed Electric Field processing were included. The main aspects included in this review were principles of the processes used and their application, sub-lethal injury and its consequences on microbial food safety, and legal platform and its impact on wide use of the treatments. Finally a reflection has been made to combined application of different hurdles and accompanying risks.
International journal of food microbiology 07/2010; 141 Suppl 1:S29-42. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative risk assessment studies performed elsewhere showed the importance of reducing counts of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken carcasses for decrease of incidence of human campylobacteriosis. The current study indicated that 1.8 log CFU/g reduction of inoculated C. jejuni (6 log CFU/g) can be achieved by decontamination with lactic acid buffered with sodium lacatate (LA/NaLA, 10% w/v, pH 3.0). Subsequent packaging under modified atmosphere of 80% O(2)/20%N(2) resulted in additional reduction of approximately 1.2 log CFU/g. These results were confirmed in naturally contaminated samples (2-3 log CFU/g) resulting in immediate reduction of present C. jejuni under the limit of enumeration (1 log CFU/g). However, enrichment showed presence of C. jejuni in 10g of sample. Under 80% O(2) LA/NaLA treated C. jejuni remained detectable per 10g until day 7, after which no positive samples were found until the end of the two-weeks storage. Under 80% CO(2) LA/NaLA treated C. jejuni remained fluctuating at 10 CFU/g until the end of two-weeks storage. Control cells were reduced by approx. 1.5 log CFU/g during storage under 80% O(2)/20% N(2), whereas no reduction was observed under 80% CO(2)/20% N(2). The present study showed the potential of buffered lactic acid and high-O(2) MAP to reduce C. jejuni both on inoculated and naturally contaminated samples. The immediate effect of decontamination was further extended by additive, not synergistic, effect of 80% O(2), suggesting the practical value of the tested concept in combating C. jejuni on chicken carcasses.
International journal of food microbiology 06/2010; 140(2-3):201-6. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate whether bacterial cells could develop resistance (as a part of their adaptation strategy) to high-pressure CO(2) (HPCD) inactivation.
Alternating cycles of exposure to pressurized CO(2) (10.5 MPa, 35 degrees C, 400 min(-1), 70% working volume ratio during 10 min) and re-growth of the surviving subpopulation were used to investigate possible increases in the resistance of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes to HPCD. The results show an increased resistance of both pathogens tested after seven cycles of inactivation. Increase in the resistance after 15 cycles resulted in a difference of 2.4 log CFU ml(-1) in log N(0)/N(i) when parental (N(0)) and treated cultures (N(i)) of E. coli and L. monocytogenes were compared.
Current findings indicate the ability of micro-organisms to adapt to HPCD preservation technology.
The occurrence of HPCD-resistant micro-organisms could pose a new hazard to the safety and stability of HPCD-processed foods.
Letters in Applied Microbiology 06/2010; 50(6):653-6. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the relationship between (irreversible) membrane permeabilization and loss of viability in Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells subjected to high pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) treatment at different process conditions including temperature (35-45 degrees C), pressure (10.5-21.0 MPa) and treatment time (0-60 min) was examined. Loss of membrane integrity was measured as increased uptake of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide (PI) with spectrofluorometry, while cell inactivation was determined by viable cell count. Uptake of PI by all three strains indicated that membrane damage is involved in the mechanism of HPCD inactivation of vegetative cells. The extent of membrane permeabilization and cellular death increased with the severity of the HPCD treatment. The resistance of the three tested organisms to HPCD treatment changed as a function of treatment time, leading to significant tailing in the survival curves, and was dependent on pressure and temperature. The results in this study also indicated a HPCD-induced damage on nucleic acids during cell inactivation. Transmission electron microscopy showed that HPCD treatment had a profound effect on the intracellular organization of the micro-organisms and influenced the permeability of the bacterial cells by introducing pores in the cell wall.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that food structure causes slower growth rates and narrower growth boundaries of bacteria compared to laboratory media. In predictive microbiology, both a(w) or corresponding solute concentration (mainly NaCl) have been used as a growth influencing factor for kinetic models or growth/no growth interface models. The majority of these models have been based on data generated in liquid broth media with NaCl as the predominant a(w) influencing solute. However, in complex food systems, other a(w) influencing components might be present, next to NaCl. In this study, the growth rate of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in the growth region and the growth/no growth response was tested in Tryptic Soy Broth at 20 degrees C at varying gelatin concentration (0, 10, 50 g L(-1) gelatin), pH (3.25-5.5) and water activity (a(w)) (0.929-0.996). From the viewpoint of water activity, the results suggest that NaCl is the main a(w) affecting compound. However, gelatin seemed to have an effect on medium a(w) too. Moreover, there is also an interaction effect between NaCl and gelatin. From the microbial viewpoint, the results confirmed that the a(w) decreasing effect of gelatin is less harmful to cells than the effect of Na(+) ions. The unexpected shift of the growth/no growth interface to more severe conditions when going from a liquid medium to a medium with 10 g L(-1) gelatin is more pronounced when formulating the models in terms of a(w) than in terms of NaCl concentrations. At 50 g L(-1) gelatin, the model factored with NaCl concentration shifts to milder conditions (concordant to literature results) while the model with a(w) indicates a further shift to more severe conditions, which is due to the water activity lowering effect of gelatin and the interaction between gelatin and NaCl. The results suggest that solute concentration should be used instead of a(w), both for kinetic models in the growth region and for growth/no growth interface models, if the transferability of models to solid foods is to be increased.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is a direct mass spectrometric technique that allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of a large number of volatile organic compounds. Because of its speed and ease of use, this nondestructive technique could be considered as a practical tool for quality control. This research focuses on the possibilities of direct headspace sampling by SIFT-MS for the quantification of the volatile basic nitrogen content (TVB-N) of fish fillets. These volatile bases [trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA), and ammonia] give additional information in conjunction with the sensory scoring and microbiological analysis about the quality of the fish fillets. This research validates in a first part the SIFT-MS method for the quantification of the volatile bases in mixed cod samples. With regard to the investigated linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery, limit of detection, and limit of quantification, SIFT-MS appeared to be an adequate technique for measuring volatile bases spiked on cod. In the second part of this research, the technique was validated for the analysis of volatile bases on cod fillets during a storage experiment under ice. A good correlation was obtained between the proposed direct headspace sampling and traditional methods. The sensitivity of the SIFT-MS method can be improved when cod fillets are made more alkaline (pH >11) during sampling.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2010; 58(9):5213-9. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As mild decontamination treatments are gaining more and more interest due to increased consumer demands for fresh foods, it is of great importance to establish the influence of decontamination treatments on the subsequent bacterial behaviour under suboptimal storage conditions. For this purpose Campylobacter jejuni cells treated with lactic acid (LA, 3% lactic acid, pH 4.0, 2 min) or chlorine dioxide (ClO(2), 20 ppm, 2 min) were inoculated in Bolton broth (pH 6.0) and incubated under 80% O(2)/20% N(2), 80% CO(2)/20% N(2), air or micro-aerophilic (10% CO(2)/85% N(2)/5% O(2)) atmosphere, at 4 degrees C during 7 days. Treatment with water served as a control. The most suppressive atmosphere for the survival of C. jejuni was O(2)-rich atmosphere, followed by air, micro-aerophilic and CO(2)-rich atmosphere. The survival of C. jejuni was dependent on the type of initial decontamination treatment, with water treated cells showing the greatest survival followed by LA and ClO(2) treated cells. Intracellular pH (pH(i)) of individual C. jejuni cells was determined using Fluorescence Ratio Imaging Microscopy (FRIM). At all tested conditions, different subpopulation of the cells could be distinguished based on their pH(i) values. The pH(i) response was independent on the surrounding atmosphere since similar distribution of the subpopulations was observed for all tested atmospheres. However, the pH(i) response was dependent on the initial decontamination treatment. The investigation of intracellular parameters gave an insight into pathogen behaviour under stressful conditions at intracellular level. The results obtained in this study highlighted the importance of combining decontamination technologies with subsequent preservation techniques to the control survival and growth of foodborne pathogens.
International journal of food microbiology 01/2010; 141 Suppl 1:S140-6. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between water activity (aw) and concentration of NaCl, sucrose and various simple and commercial salt, sugar and fat replacers was determined. The model originally developed by Favetto and Chirife (1985) and extended by Roa and Tapia (1998) was successfully used to model the relationship between aw and molality of the binary and multi-component aqueous solutions. These models were then reparameterized to enable the aw to be modeled as function of the water phase concentrations of binary and multi-component solutions. This reparameterization enables the modeling of the aw depressing effects of compounds for which sufficient data required to calculate the molecular weight cannot be obtained. Both models were successfully used to predict the aw of some food products including meat and fish products and mayonnaises with average deviations of 0.0052 from the measured aw, and bias and accuracy factors of 0.995 and 1.0057, respectively.
Journal of Food Engineering. 01/2010; 96(3):433-439.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: http://edepot.wur.nl/175678
Changes in food supply chains, health and demographic situations, lifestyle and social situations, environmental conditions, and increased legislative requirements have led to significant efforts in the development of quality and safety management systems in agribusiness and food industry worldwide (Ropkins and Beck, 2000; Efstratiadis, Karirti, and Arvanitoyannis, 2000; Jacxsens, et al, 2009a, Luning and Marcelis, 2009a). Nowadays, companies have implemented various quality assurance (QA) guidelines and standards, such as GMP and HACCP guidelines (like General Principles of food hygiene (Codex Alimentarius 2003), GFSI guidance document (GFSI (2007), and quality assurance standards (like ISO 9001:2008 (2008), ISO22000:2005 (2005), BRC (2008), and IFS (2007) into their company own food safety management system. The performance of such systems in practice is, however, still variable. Moreover, the continuous pressure on food safety management system (FSMS) performance and the dynamic environment wherein the systems operate (such as emerging pathogens, changing consumer demands, developments in preservation techniques) require that they can be systematically analysed to determine opportunities for improvement (Wallace, et al, 2005; Manning et al, 2006; Van der Spiegel et al, 2006; Cornier et al, 2007; Luning et al, 2009a). Within the European project entitled ‘PathogenCombat- EU FOOD-CT-2005-007081’ various tools have been developed to support food companies and establishments in systematically analysing and judging their food safety management system and its microbiological performance as basis for strategic choices on interventions to improve the FSMS performance. This chapter describes briefly principles of the major tools that have been developed and some others, which are still under still under construction.
¿Cómo puedo aumentar la seguridad alimentaria de mis productos? [= How to improve the food safety of my products?], 01/2010: chapter Tools to support the self assessment of the performance of Food Safety Management Systems: pages 31-43; Instituto Tomás Pascual Sanz/Universidad de Burgos., ISBN: 9788478670543
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates the need for scientific research and development of new and/or improved tools, techniques and practices to adapt the current risk management systems. In this paper, a conceptual research approach is presented to analyse the complexity of the climate change and globalization challenge on the fresh produce supply chain taken as a case study. The factors which affect the vulnerability of the fresh produce chain demand a multidisciplinary research approach. The proposed knowledge-based modelling system is believed to be a most appropriate way to identify problems and to offer solutions to monitor and prevent microbiological food safety risks during all phases of food production and supply. To explore the potential impact of climate change and globalization, baseline information can be obtained by surveillance and performance measurement of implemented food safety management systems. Simulation of climate change scenarios and the logistic chain of fresh produce, along with mathematical models to optimize packaging technology to maintain quality and safety of fresh produce are tools to provide insights in the complex dynamic ecosystem. They are the basis for elaboration of risk assessment studies to scientifically support management options and decisions to new microbiological threats related to globalization and climate change in the fresh produce supply chain. This research concept as such will contribute to develop strategies in order to guarantee the (microbiological) food safety of fresh produce on the long term