Michael W Otto

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

Are you Michael W Otto?

Claim your profile

Publications (312)1392.2 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a generally effective treatment for treating anxiety disorders, there is clearly still room for further improvements. Recent advances in neuroscience of extinction learning led to novel clinical strategies to augment exposure-based treatments with d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glycine recognition site of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of DCS as an augmentation strategy of CBT for anxiety disorders. The adequacy of the CBT to be augmented, the dose of DCS, and the timing and duration of augmentation efforts all appear to be important moderating variables. Moreover, there is evidence that DCS may also augment fear memory reconsolidation if the fear level remains high after the exposure. Future studies need to examine whether DCS can augment CBT when administered after exposure in order to develop a tailored administration strategy to maximize its clinical utility.
    Current Psychiatry Reports 01/2015; 17(1):532. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that families with a parent who has bipolar disorder (BD) may experience family functioning difficulties. However, the association between family functioning and psychopathology among offspring of parents with BD, and offspring characteristics that may moderate this association, remains poorly understood. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between family functioning (cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict) and psychopathology in 117 offspring (ages 5-18) of 75 parents with BD. We also examined whether age and sex differences moderated these associations. We measured offspring psychopathology by examining current dimensional symptoms and DSM-IV emotional and behavioral disorders. Correlational analyses indicated that higher family conflict and lower cohesion were associated with higher internalizing and externalizing symptoms in offspring. Lower family cohesion was also associated with current offspring mood disorders. Moderation analyses indicated, first, that the link between lower family cohesion and internalizing symptoms was stronger for younger offspring compared to older offspring. Second, higher family conflict and current mood disorder were associated in younger males but not in older males or in females. Results remained the same after controlling for parental anxiety or substance use disorder comorbidity. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for family functioning when working with offspring at risk for BD, while also recognizing that the connections between family functioning and offspring outcomes are complex and differ based on offspring sex and developmental stage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Many patients diagnosed with opioid dependence do not adequately respond to pharmacologic, psychosocial, or combination treatment, highlighting the importance of novel treatment strategies for this population. The current study examined the efficacy of a novel behavioral treatment focusing on internal cues for drug use (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Interoceptive Cues; CBT-IC) relative to an active comparison condition, Individual Drug Counseling (IDC), when added to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) among those who had not responded to MMT. Participants (N=78) were randomly assigned to receive 15 sessions of CBT-IC or IDC as an adjunct to ongoing MMT and counseling. Oral toxicology screens were the primary outcome. Results indicated no treatment differences between CBT-IC and IDC and a small, significant reduction of self-reported drug use, but no change on toxicology screens. Tests of potential moderators, including sex, anxiety sensitivity, and coping motives for drug use, did not yield significant interactions. Among opioid-dependent outpatients who have not responded to MMT and counseling, the addition of IDC or CBT-IC did not result in additive outcome benefits. These results highlight the need for more potent treatment strategies for opioid dependence, particularly among those who do not fully respond to frontline treatment.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 11/2014; 46(5):402-11. · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three exercise paradigms: (1) a single session of exercise, (2) a session of exercise following a program of regular exercise, and (3) resting BDNF levels following a program of regular exercise. Moderators of this effect were also examined. Results demonstrated a moderate effect size for increases in BDNF following a single session of exercise (Hedges' g = 0.46, p < 0.001). Further, regular exercise intensified the effect of a session of exercise on BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.59, p = 0.02). Finally, results indicated a small effect of regular exercise on resting BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.27, p = 0.005). When analyzing results across paradigms, sex significantly moderated the effect of exercise on BDNF levels, such that studies with more women showed less BDNF change resulting from exercise. Effect size analysis supports the role of exercise as a strategy for enhancing BDNF activity in humans, but indicates that the magnitude of these effects may be lower in females relative to males.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research. 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A moderate to vigorous intensity exercise program is emerging as a promising strategy for reducing anxiety sensitivity (AS). Initial evidence suggests that the effects of exercise on mental health outcomes may vary as a function of gender, with men benefitting more than women. Building upon this evidence, the present study tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on AS would vary as a function of gender, such that the effect would be stronger for men than for women. We tested this hypothesis using the data from a published study (Smits et al., 2008). In this study, participants (N = 60) with elevated levels of AS were randomly assigned to a two-week exercise intervention [EX] or a waitlist control condition [WL]. Results revealed that males showed significantly greater initial AS reductions relative to females (following 1 week of exercise). However, these gender differences were no longer evident at the end of the intervention. Possible mechanisms for the observed findings and directions for future research are discussed.
    Mental Health and Physical Activity 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Compensatory eating in response to exercise may be an obstacle to achieving weight loss and fitness goals, yet little is known about how individuals perceive and explain their eating behaviors in response to exercise. In this study we develop and conduct preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of the Compensatory Eating Motives Questionnaire (CEMQ), a self-report questionnaire of motives for compensatory eating. Initial development and testing of the CEMQ was conducted in two samples of college students (n = 119 and n = 174). Seventy-seven percent reported engaging in compensatory eating. Factor analysis of the CEMQ yielded factors representing three domains of motives for compensatory eating: Eating for Reward, Eating for Recovery, and Eating for Relief. Each factor demonstrated adequate internal consistency, and the factor structure of the CEMQ was replicated. Correlational analyses between the three CEMQ subscales and trait questionnaires were consistent with hypotheses for convergent and divergent validity. These results encourage further investigation of compensatory eating as a potential obstacle to weight loss and support the continued assessment of the 15-item CEMQ as a tool to measure three conceptually distinct motives for compensatory eating. Furthermore, they demonstrate that motives for compensatory eating may be differentially predicted by traits and attitudes.
    Behavioral medicine (Washington, D.C.). 08/2014;
  • Source
    Dataset: Jordan
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The course of bipolar disorder progressively worsens in some patients. Although responses to pharmacotherapy appear to diminish with greater chronicity, less is known about whether patients' prior courses of illness are related to responses to psychotherapy.
    Psychological medicine. 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Depression is frequently characterized by patterns of inflexible, maladaptive, and ruminative thinking styles, which are thought to result from a combination of decreased attentional control, decreased executive functioning, and increased negative affect. Cognitive Control Training (CCT) uses computer-based behavioral exercises with the aim of strengthening cognitive and emotional functions. A previous study found that severely depressed participants who received CCT exhibited reduced negative affect and rumination as well as improved concentration. Aims: The present study aimed to extend this line of research by employing a more stringent control group and testing the efficacy of three sessions of CCT over a 2-week period in a community population with depressed mood. Method: Forty-eight participants with high Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores were randomized to CCT or a comparison condition (Peripheral Vision Training; PVT). Results: Significant large effect sizes favoring CCT over PVT were found on the BDI-II (d = 0.73, p < .05) indicating CCT was effective in reducing negative mood. Additionally, correlations showed significant relationships between CCT performance (indicating ability to focus attention on CCT) and state affect ratings. Conclusions: Our results suggest that CCT is effective in altering depressed mood, although it may be specific to select mood dimensions.
    Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 03/2014; · 1.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective Offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) are at increased risk for developing a range of psychiatric disorders. Although genetic factors clearly confer risk to offspring, environmental factors also play a role in increasing vulnerability. Such environmental factors may occur at the initial stages of development in the form of obstetric complications (OCs). The current investigation examined the relationship between OCs and the development of psychopathology in offspring at risk for BD and the influence of parental psychopathology in this relationship.Methods This cross-sectional study included 206 offspring of 119 parents with BD. Probit regression analyses examined associations between: (1) OC history and offspring psychopathology; and (2) maternal lifetime comorbid anxiety diagnoses and OCs in pregnancy/delivery with their offspring. Path analyses then tested whether OCs mediate the relationship between maternal comorbid anxiety disorders and offspring lifetime psychopathology.ResultsResults indicated a specific association between OCs, particularly delivery complications, and increased risk for offspring anxiety disorders. Data also showed a significant relationship between maternal anxiety disorder comorbidity and OCs. Finally, path analyses suggested that delivery complications act as a mediator in the relationship between comorbid maternal anxiety disorder and offspring anxiety disorder.Conclusions Our findings lend support to the importance of identifying and reducing anxiety in pregnant woman with BD. The identification of OCs as early vulnerability factors for psychopathology in offspring at familial risk may also lead to earlier detection and intervention in these offspring.
    Depression and Anxiety 03/2014; · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    World psychiatry: official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) 02/2014; 13(1):95-6. · 8.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: De novo fear conditioning paradigms have served as a model for how clinical anxiety may be acquired and maintained. To further examine variable findings in the acquisition and extinction of fear responses between clinical and non-clinical samples, we assessed de novo fear conditioning outcomes in outpatients with either anxiety disorders or depression and healthy subjects recruited from the community. Overall, we found evidence for attenuated fear conditioning, as measured by skin conductance, among the patient sample, with significantly lower fear acquisition among patients with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. These acquisition deficits were evident in both the simple (considering the CS + only) and differential (evaluating the CS + in relation to the CS-) paradigms. Examination of extinction outcomes were hampered by the low numbers of patients who achieved adequate conditioning, but the available data indicated slower extinction among the patient, primarily panic disorder, sample. Results are interpreted in the context of the cognitive deficits that are common to the anxiety and mood disorders, with attention to a range of potential factors, including mood comorbidity, higher-and lower-order cognitive processes and deficits, and medication use, that may modulate outcomes in fear conditioning studies, and, potentially, in exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy.
    Behavior Therapy. 01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Individuals with panic disorder (PD) exhibit a hypersensitivity to inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2), possibly reflecting a lowered threshold for sensing signals of suffocation. Animal studies have shown that CO2-mediated fear behavior depends on chemosensing of acidosis in the amygdala via the acid sensing ion channel ASIC1a. We examined whether the human ortholog of the ASIC1a gene, ACCN2, is associated with the presence of PD and with amygdala structure and function. Methods We conducted a case-control analysis (N=414 PD cases, 846 healthy controls) of ACCN2single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PD. We then tested whether variants showing significant association with PD are also associated with amygdala volume (n=1,048) and/or task-evoked reactivity to emotional stimuli (n=103) in healthy individuals. Results Two SNPs at the ACCN2 locus showed evidence of association with PD: rs685012 (OR=1.32, gene-wise corrected p=0.011) and rs10875995 (OR=1.26, gene-wise corrected p=0.046). The association appeared to be stronger when early-onset (age ≤ 20) PD cases and when cases with prominent respiratory symptoms were compared to controls. The PD risk allele at rs10875995 was associated with increased amygdala volume (p=0.035), as well as task-evoked amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry faces (p=0.0048). Conclusions Genetic variation at ACCN2 appears to be associated with PD and with amygdala phenotypes that have been linked to anxiety proneness. These results support the possibility that modulation of acid-sensing ion channels may have therapeutic potential for PD.
    Biological psychiatry 01/2014; · 8.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of somatic arousal, has been linked to both maladaptive eating behavior as well as exercise avoidance in both self-report and laboratory-based experiments. The current pilot study sought to extend these finding to the naturalistic setting. A sample of 32 adults completed affect and dietary monitoring and wore actigraphs across a three-day monitoring period. Results indicated that high AS was associated with greater calorie consumption overall in women and less consumption in men, and high AS predicted an increase in calories consumed following participants’ greatest increase in negative affect in both sexes. For physical activity, results indicated an AS by BMI interaction such that obese individuals with high AS engaged in less moderate-intensity physical activity, whereas the opposite was true for normal weight individuals. These results indicate that AS may represent a double-edged risk factor for obesity contributing to both exercise avoidance and calorie consumption.
    Eating Behaviors. 01/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preclinical and clinical trials suggest that yohimbine may augment extinction learning without significant side effects. However, previous clinical trials have only examined adults with specific phobias. Yohimbine has not yet been investigated in the augmentation of exposure therapy for other anxiety disorders. Adults (n = 40) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social anxiety disorder were randomized to placebo or yohimbine HCl (10.8 mg) 1 hour before each of four exposure sessions. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, each treatment session, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up. Yohimbine was well tolerated. Yohimbine augmentation, relative to placebo augmentation, resulted in faster improvement and better outcomes on self-report measures of social anxiety disorder severity (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, d = .53) and depressed mood severity (Beck Depression Inventory, d = .37) but not on the clinician-rated measures (Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale, d = .09; Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale, d = .25). Between-group differences on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were moderated by the level of fear reported at the end of an exposure exercise (end fear), such that the advantage of yohimbine over placebo was only evident among patients who reported low end fear. The results provide moderate support for yohimbine as a therapeutic augmentation strategy for exposure therapy in social anxiety disorder, one that may be especially effective when coupled with successful exposure experiences. Beneficial effects for yohimbine were readily evident for self-report measures but not for clinician-rated outcomes of social anxiety severity and improvement.
    Biological psychiatry 10/2013; · 8.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Relatively little is known about psychological predictors of the onset of mania among individuals with bipolar disorder, particularly during episodes of depression. In the present study we investigated attributional style as a predictor of onset of hypomanic, manic or mixed episodes among bipolar adults receiving psychosocial treatment for depression. We hypothesized that "extreme" (i.e., excessively pessimistic or optimistic) attributions would predict a greater likelihood of developing an episode of mood elevation. Outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder (N = 105) enrolled in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) were randomly allocated to one of three types of intensive psychotherapy for depression or a brief psychoeducational intervention. Patients completed a measure of attributional style at baseline and were followed prospectively for up to one year. All analyses were by intent to treat. Logistic regressions and Cox proportional hazards models indicated that extreme (both positively- and negatively-valenced) attributions predicted a higher likelihood of (and shorter time until) transition from depression to a (hypo)manic or mixed episode (ps < .04), independent of the effects of manic or depressive symptom severity at baseline. Extreme attributions were also retrospectively associated with more lifetime episodes of (hypo)mania and depression (ps < .05). Evaluating extreme attributions may help clinicians to identify patients who are at risk for experiencing a more severe course of bipolar illness, and who may benefit from treatments that introduce greater cognitive flexibility.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 10/2013; 47(10):1329-1336. · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research has shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of somatic arousal, predicts distress and maladaptive coping in a range of psychiatric conditions. More recently, the role of AS has been examined in pathological eating. In the current investigation, a two-study design was employed to examine the role of AS and eating expectancies in both self-reported and actual eating behavior. For Study 1, 42 overweight/obese participants completed questionnaires assessing AS, as well as eating behaviors and attitudes. In Study 2, 60 participants representing all weight ranges completed the same questionnaire battery and underwent a negative mood induction task followed by food exposure. Results of this study revealed a 3-way interaction between Anxiety Sensitivity Index-mental concerns subscale, Eating Expectancy Inventory—eating leads to feeling out of control subscale, and BMI suggesting that those elevated on all 3 constructs consumed the most calories. Results are discussed in relation to better understanding the role of AS and eating expectancy and its utility in identifying a subset of overweight/obese individuals at risk for maladaptive eating behavior.
    Cognitive Therapy and Research 10/2013; · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder have a lifetime anxiety disorder. Individuals with both bipolar disorder and a co-occurring anxiety disorder experience longer illness duration, greater illness severity, and poorer treatment response. The study explored whether comorbid lifetime anxiety in bipolar patients moderates psychotherapy treatment outcome. METHOD In the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression, participants received up to 30 sessions of intensive psychotherapy (family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, or cognitive-behavioral therapy) or collaborative care, a three-session comparison treatment, plus pharmacotherapy. Using the number needed to treat, we computed effect sizes to analyze the relationship between lifetime anxiety disorders and rates of recovery across treatment groups after 1 year. RESULTS A total of 269 patients (113 women) with a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=177) or without a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=92) were included in the analysis. Participants with a lifetime anxiety disorder were more likely to recover with psychotherapy than with collaborative care (66% compared with 49% recovered over 1 year; number needed to treat=5.88, small to medium effect). For patients without a lifetime anxiety disorder, there was no difference between rates of recovery in psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (64% compared with 62% recovered; number needed to treat=50, small effect). Participants with one lifetime anxiety disorder were likely to benefit from intensive psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (84% compared with 53% recovered; number needed to treat=3.22, medium to large effect), whereas patients with multiple anxiety disorders exhibited no difference in response to the two treatments (54% compared with 46% recovered; number needed to treat=12.5, small effect). CONCLUSIONS Depressed patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid anxiety may be in particular need of additional psychotherapy for treating acute depression. These results need to be replicated in studies that stratify bipolar patients to treatments based on their anxiety comorbidity status.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 09/2013; · 14.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sleep quality may be an important, yet relatively neglected, predictor of treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. Specifically, poor sleep quality may impair memory consolidation of in-session extinction learning. We therefore examined sleep quality as a predictor of treatment outcome in CBT for social anxiety disorder and the impact of d-cycloserine (DCS) on this relationship. One hundred sixty-nine participants with a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV generalized social anxiety disorder were recruited across three sites. Participants were enrolled in 12 weeks of group CBT. Participants randomly received 50 mg of DCS (n = 87) or pill placebo (n = 82) 1 hr prior to sessions 3-7. Participants completed a baseline measure of self-reported sleep quality and daily diaries recording subjective feelings of being rested upon wakening. Outcome measures including social anxiety symptoms and global severity scores were assessed at each session. Poorer baseline sleep quality was associated with slower improvement and higher posttreatment social anxiety symptom and severity scores. Moreover, patients who felt more "rested" after sleeping the night following a treatment session had lower levels of symptoms and global severity at the next session, controlling for their symptoms and severity scores the previous session. Neither of these effects were moderated by DCS condition. Our findings suggest that poor sleep quality diminishes the effects of CBT for social anxiety disorder and this relation is not attenuated by DCS administration. Therapeutic attention to sleep quality prior to initiation of CBT and during the acute treatment phase may be clinically indicated.
    Depression and Anxiety 08/2013; · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of the current study was to identify individual characteristics that (a) predict symptom improvement with group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD; i.e., prognostic variables) or (b) moderate the effects of d-cycloserine (DCS) versus placebo augmentation of CBT for SAD (i.e., prescriptive variables). Method: Adults with SAD (N = 169) provided Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale scores in a trial evaluating DCS augmentation of group CBT. Rate of symptom improvement during therapy and posttreatment symptom severity were evaluated using multilevel modeling. As predictors of these 2 parameters, we selected the range of variables assessed at baseline (demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, personality traits). Using step-wise analyses, we first identified prognostic and prescriptive variables within each of these domains and then entered these significant predictors simultaneously in 1 final model. Results: African American ethnicity and cohabitation status were associated with greater overall rates of improvement during therapy and lower posttreatment severity. Higher initial severity was associated with a greater improvement during therapy but also higher posttreatment severity (the greater improvement was not enough to overcome the initial higher severity). DCS augmentation was evident only among individuals low in conscientiousness and high in agreeableness. Conclusions: African American ethnicity, cohabitation status, and initial severity are prognostic of favorable CBT outcomes in SAD. DCS augmentation appears particularly useful for patients low in conscientiousness and high in agreeableness. These findings can guide clinicians in making decisions about treatment strategies and can help direct research on the mechanisms of these treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 08/2013; · 4.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,392.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Boston University
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Psychology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Neurophysiology Laboratory
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2013
    • McLean Hospital
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Temple University
      • Department of Psychology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • Rush University Medical Center
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • University of Regina
      • Department of Psychology
      Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      • Department of Psychology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2012
    • National Center for PTSD
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2007–2012
    • Southern Methodist University
      • Department of Psychology
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 1992–2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2011
    • New York State
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1992–2011
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2003–2010
    • Hospital De Clínicas De Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2008
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Psychology
      College Park, MD, United States
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
    • University of Louisville
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Louisville, KY, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Center for Autism and Related Disorders
      Burbank, California, United States
  • 1997–2004
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Psychology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • Concordia University Montreal
      • Department of Psychology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1999
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Worcester, MA, United States
  • 1994–1996
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
    • Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York City, NY, United States