[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telechelic water-soluble HPMA copolymers and HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin (DOX) conjugates have been synthesized by RAFT polymerization mediated by a new bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA) that contains an enzymatically degradable oligopeptide sequence. Postpolymerization aminolysis followed by chain extension with a bis-maleimide resulted in linear high molecular weight multiblock HPMA copolymer conjugates. These polymers are enzymatically degradable; in addition to releasing the drug (DOX), the degradation of the polymer backbone resulted in products with molecular weights similar to the starting material and below the renal threshold. The new multiblock HPMA copolymers hold potential as new carriers of anticancer drugs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocytic uptake and subcellular trafficking of a large array of HPMA (N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide) based copolymers possessing positively or negatively charged residues, or hydrophobic groups were evaluated by flow cytometry and living cell confocal microscopy in cultured prostate cancer cells. The degrees of cellular uptake of various copolymer fractions with narrow polydispersities were quantified. The copolymer charge was the predominant physicochemical feature in terms of cellular uptake. Fast and efficient uptake occurred in positively charged copolymers due to non-specific adsorptive endocytosis, whereas slow uptake of negatively charged copolymers was observed. The uptake of copolymers was also molecular weight dependent. The copolymers were internalized into the cells through multiple endocytic pathways: positively charged copolymers robustly engaged clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis and dynamin-dependent endocytosis, while weakly negatively charged copolymers weakly employed these pathways; strongly negatively charged copolymers only mobilized macropinocytosis. HPMA copolymer possessing 4 mol% of moderately hydrophobic functional groups did not show preferential uptake. All copolymers ultimately localized in late endosomes/lysosomes via early endosomes; with varying kinetics among the copolymers. This study indicates that cell entry and subsequent intracellular trafficking of polymeric drug carriers are strongly dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanocarrier, such as charge and molecular weight.
Journal of Controlled Release 04/2010; 143(1):71-9. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 17-methoxy group of geldanamycin was substituted with 1,3-diaminopropane and 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane to introduce a primary amino group useful for conjugation with targeting moieties and drug carriers. We have developed a procedure that has provided improved yield and reproducibility of the syntheses. Both geldanamycin derivatives demonstrated antiproliferative activity towards the human ovarian carcinoma cell line, A2780.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The overview covers the discovery of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers, initial studies on their synthesis, evaluation of biological properties, and explorations of their potential as carriers of biologically active compounds in general and anticancer drugs in particular. The focus is on the research in the authors' laboratory - the development of macromolecular therapeutics for the treatment of cancer and musculoskeletal diseases. In addition, the evaluation of HPMA (co)polymers as building blocks of modified and new biomaterials is presented: the utilization of semitelechelic poly(HPMA) and HPMA copolymers for the modification of biomaterial and protein surfaces and the design of hybrid block and graft HPMA copolymers that self-assemble into smart hydrogels. Finally, suggestions for the design of second-generation macromolecular therapeutics are portrayed.
Advanced drug delivery reviews 11/2009; 62(2):122-49. · 11.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antitumor activity of a colon-specific N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer - 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) conjugate (P-9-AC) was assessed in orthotopic and subcutaneous animal (HT29 xenograft) tumor models. P-9-AC treatment of mice bearing orthotopic colon tumors, with a dose of 3 mg/kg of 9-AC equivalent every other day for 6 weeks, resulted in regression of tumors in 9 of 10 mice. A lower dose of P-9-AC (1.25 mg/kg of 9-AC equivalent) every other day for 8 weeks inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth in all mice. No liver metastases were observed. Colon-specific release of 9-AC from polymer conjugates enhanced antitumor activity and minimized the systemic toxicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several drug delivery designs combine synthetic drug carriers with covalently conjugated targeting moieties. Such modifications of monoclonal antibodies (mAb), or their Fab' fragments, inevitably result in diminished affinity for their targeted tissue. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, high molecular weight, branched N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers were synthesized and conjugated with Fab' fragments of the anti-CD20 antibody, 1F5. This produced multivalent conjugates with varying valency (amount of Fab' per macromolecule) targeted to the B-cell antigen CD20. Evaluation of a multivalent effect was done by determining the apparent K(D) at low concentrations of conjugates, the Sips heterogeneity factor, a, and the binding enhancement factors of each construct. The results clearly indicated that multivalency could improve the affinity of the HPMA copolymer-Fab' conjugates to that of unconjugated mAb.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN), and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral. METHODS AND FINDING: The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined polymer therapeutic designed to target both tumor and endothelial compartments of bone metastases and calcified neoplasms at a single administration. This new approach of co-delivery of two synergistic drugs may have clinical utility as a potential therapy for angiogenesis-dependent cancers such as osteosarcoma and bone metastases.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(4):e5233. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enzyme-based hybrid hydrogels were prepared by covalently incorporating an adenylate kinase mutant, possessing two thiol groups, into HPMA copolymer- or PEG-based hydrogel structures. The nanoscale conformational change of enzyme, triggered by substrate recognition, translated into macroscopic motion of hydrogels.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 12/2008; 130(47):15760-1. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wide variety of therapeutic agents may benefit by specifically directing them to the mitochondria in tumor cells. The current work aimed to design delivery systems that would enable a combination of tumor and mitochondrial targeting for such therapeutic entities. To this end, novel HPMA copolymer-based delivery systems that employ triphenylphosphonium (TPP) ions as mitochondriotropic agents were developed. Constructs were initially synthesized with fluorescent labels substituting for drug and were used for validation experiments. Microinjection and incubation experiments performed using these fluorescently labeled constructs confirmed the mitochondrial targeting ability. Subsequently, HPMA copolymer-drug conjugates were synthesized using a photosensitizer mesochlorin e 6 (Mce 6). Mitochondrial targeting of HPMA copolymer-bound Mce 6 enhanced cytotoxicity as compared to nontargeted HPMA copolymer-Mce 6 conjugates. Minor modifications may be required to adapt the current design and allow for tumor site-specific mitochondrial targeting of other therapeutic agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological activities of sequential combinations of anticancer drugs, SOS thiophene (SOS) and mesochlorin e 6 monoethylenediamine (Mce 6), in the form of free drugs, nontargeted N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-drug conjugates, P-GFLG-Mce 6 and P-GFLG-SOS (P is the HPMA copolymer backbone and GFLG is the glycylphenylalanylleucylglycine spacer), and Fab'-targeted HPMA copolymer-drug conjugates, P-(GFLG-Mce 6)-Fab' and P-(GFLG-SOS)-Fab' (Fab' from OV-TL16 antibodies complementary to CD47), were evaluated against human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cells. Mce 6, SOS, P-GFLG-Mce 6, P-GFLG-SOS, P-(GFLG-Mce 6)-Fab', and P-(GFLG-SOS)-Fab', when used as single agents or in binary combination, exhibited cytotoxic activities against OVCAR-3 cells, as determined using a modified MTT assay. The binding and internalization of P-(GFLG-Mce 6)-Fab' and P-(GFLG-SOS)-Fab' by OVCAR-3 cells were visualized by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The results confirmed an enhanced biorecognition by OVCAR-3 cells of Fab'-targeted HPMA copolymer conjugates over nontargeted conjugates. The median-effect analysis and the determination of the combination index (CI) were used to describe the drug interaction and quantify the synergism, antagonism, or additivity in anticancer effects. The sequential combinations of SOS+Mce 6 and P-GFLG-SOS+P-GFLG-Mce 6 displayed very strong synergism to synergism in the entire range of cell inhibition levels ( f a = 0.5 - 0.95). The P-(GFLG-SOS)-Fab'+P-(GFLG-Mce 6)-Fab' exhibited a strong synergism for f a values up to about 0.85, but showed synergistic effect and nearly additive effect at f a = 0.9 and 0.95, respectively. These observations support the continuation of in vivo investigations of these conjugates for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel polymeric delivery systems for the photosensitizer mesochlorin e6 (Mce6) were synthesized to overcome problems of systemic toxicity. A disulfide bond was included to allow for quick release of Mce6 from the N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer backbone once internalized in tumor tissue. The synthesized conjugates demonstrated a time-dependent reductive cleavage with an accompanying increase in the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation on exposure to DTT. Quicker release kinetics and a higher cytotoxicity in SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma cells were obtained as compared to polymer conjugate with a proteolytically cleavable GFLG spacer. These novel conjugates hold promise as clinically relevant drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy of cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of bone-targeting N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-alendronate conjugates were evaluated following intravenous administration of radioiodinated conjugates to young healthy BALB/c mice. The synthesis of a polymerizable and cathepsin K cleavable alendronate derivative, N-methacryloylglycylglycylprolylnorleucylalendronate, enabled the preparation of HPMA copolymer-alendronate conjugates with varying composition. Using the RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) polymerization technique, four conjugates with different molecular weight and alendronate content and two control HPMA copolymers (without alendronate) with different molecular weight were prepared. The results of biodistribution studies in mice demonstrated a strong binding capacity of alendronate-targeted HPMA copolymer conjugates to bone. Conjugates with low (1.5 mol%) alendronate content exhibited a similar bone deposition capacity as conjugates containing 8.5 mol % of alendronate. The molecular weight was an important factor in the biodistribution of the HPMA copolymer conjugates. More conjugate structures need to be evaluated, but the data suggest that medium molecular weights (50-100 kDa) might be effective drug carriers for bone delivery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone-targeting N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-PGE(1) conjugates, containing cathepsin K sensitive spacers, were incubated with induced osteoclasts and osteoblasts, their precursors, and control non-skeletal cells. The release of PGE(1) was monitored by an HPLC assay. In both murine and human cell lines, osteoclasts appeared to be the most active cells in the cleavage (PGE(1) release). Incubation with osteoblasts also resulted in fast PGE(1) release, whereas precursor and control cells released PGE(1) with a substantially slower rate than bone cells (apparently through ester bond cleavage). Experiments in the presence of inhibitors revealed that other enzymes, in addition to cathepsin K, were participating in the cleavage of the conjugate. Confocal fluorescence studies exposed internalization of the conjugate by endocytosis with ultimate localization in the lysosomal/endosomal compartment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To quantitate and predict colon-specific 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) release from the N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-9-AC conjugate and its absorption behavior after oral administration in rats.
Drug distribution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the plasma concentration-time profile of 9-AC released from the HPMA copolymer conjugate were predicted using the degradation, transit, and absorption rate constants in cecum. The fate of 9-AC in cecum and liver was measured by in-situ cecum absorption and liver perfusion.
Following oral administration of the conjugate, 9-AC was released rapidly in cecum. Based on the pharmacokinetic model, up to 60% of the dose was in the cecum at ~6 h, and 7% of the dose still remained there at 24 h. The predicted plasma concentration curve for released 9-AC after an oral dose of 3 mg/kg of 9-AC equivalent increased gradually and reached a peak of 98 nM at 7 h, then started decreasing slowly to 16 nM at 24 h. The bioavailability value was estimated as 0.31 after the first-pass elimination.
A pharmacokinetic model delineated the impact of GI transit, drug absorption rate, and first-pass metabolism on drug disposition following oral administration of HPMA copolymer-9-AC conjugate in rats.
Pharmaceutical Research 02/2008; 25(1):218-26. · 4.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the stability of HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) conjugates in plasmas of different species and to identify the enzymes responsible for the cleavage of the ester bond.
The conjugates were incubated in human, rat, and mouse plasma at 37 degrees C in the presence and absence of specific esterase inhibitors. The released PGE(1) was analyzed using an HPLC assay. To evaluate the effect of the conformation of the conjugate on the rate of PGE(1) release, its structure was modified by the attachment of hydrophobic side chains.
The rate of PGE(1) release was strongly species dependent. Whereas the conjugate was stable in human plasma, the PGE(1) release in rat or mouse plasma was substantial. In rat plasma, the ester bond cleavage was mainly catalyzed by butyrylcholinesterase; in mouse plasma, in addition to butyrylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase also contributed to the cleavage. The formation of compact polymer coils stabilized the ester bond.
HPMA copolymer-PGE(1) conjugates are strong candidates as novel therapeutics for the treatment of osteoporosis. The observed species differences in plasma stability of ester bonds are of importance, because the ovariectomized rat model is recommended by the FDA for pre-clinical evaluation.
Pharmaceutical Research 01/2008; 24(12):2270-80. · 4.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A water soluble N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) conjugate was designed for oral colon-specific drug delivery in the treatment of colon cancer. Comparative studies between the polymer conjugate and free drug have been performed to assess their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics in mice. After oral administration of equal doses of the polymer conjugate or free 9-AC, the drug concentrations in major organs at fixed time points were determined using an HPLC-fluorescence assay. Only 2+/-1% of 9-AC released from the polymer conjugate was detected in the small intestine (SI), and the mean peak concentration of free 9-AC was 45-fold higher than that from released drug. Colon-specific release of 9-AC produced high local concentrations. The mean peak concentration of released 9-AC in cecal contents, feces, cecal tissue, and colon tissue were, respectively, 3.2-fold, 3.5-fold, 2.2-fold and 1.6-fold higher than that using free 9-AC. In plasma, the high and sharp drug concentration profile from free drug was in contrast to the relatively low and flat pharmacokinetic profile obtained from drug released from the HPMA copolymer. There was no significant difference between released and free drug for the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and bioavailability values. As a consequence of the colon-specific release of unmodified 9-AC from the polymer conjugate, antitumor efficacy can be anticipated to be enhanced due to prolonged colon tumor exposure to higher and more localized drug concentrations.
Journal of Controlled Release 03/2007; 117(2):179-85. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor-binding peptides are suitable targeting moieties for macromolecular therapeutics. Binding several targeting peptides to one macromolecule may improve biorecognition due to the multivalency effect. On the other hand, the resulting amphipathic structure of such conjugates may result in the association of side-chains with a concomitant decrease in the accessibility of the side-chain-bound ligands. Using the one-bead one-compound combinatorial method, we have recently identified a heptapeptide (YILIHRN; HP) ligand for the CD21 receptor (Biomacromolecules 7, 3037, 2006). Here, we evaluated the relationship between structure and self-association of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-HP conjugates using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to evaluate their conformation in solution. In addition to HP, HPMA copolymers containing side-chains terminating in tryptophan (energy donor) and dansyl (energy acceptor) were synthesized, and solutions were evaluated using an excitation wavelength of 295 nm (ratio of emission intensity 510 nm/370 nm indicated energy transfer efficiency). It was found that higher HP content correlated with higher FRET efficiency, indicating the formation of compact coils. Modification of the HPMA copolymer backbone by the incorporation of acrylic acid (AA) comonomer units resulted in decreased FRET efficiency, presumably due to the expansion of the polymer coils as a result of electrostatic repulsion. The dependence of FRET efficiency on pH was in agreement with the ionization profile of the AA residues. To determine the effect of HP content on enzymatic drug release kinetics, HPMA copolymer-HP conjugates containing GFLG side-chains terminating with doxorubicin (DOX) were incubated with papain and the release of free DOX monitored. When HP content increased above a particular threshold, the rate of DOX release decreased as a result of self-association of HPMA copolymer-GFLG-DOX-HP conjugates. The FRET data correlated well with hydrodynamic volumes determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), with molecular weights determined by light scattering, and with the kinetics of drug release.
Journal of Drug Targeting 01/2007; 15(7-8):465-74. · 2.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HPMA copolymer-d-aspartic acid octapeptide (D-Asp8) conjugates have been found to target the entire skeleton after systemic administration. In a recent study using the ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis, we surprisingly discovered that D-Asp8 would favorably recognize resorption sites in skeletal tissues, while another bone-targeting moiety, alendronate (ALN), directs the delivery system to both formation and resorption sites. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses reveal that ALN has a stronger binding force to hydroxyapatite (HA) than D-Asp8. In vitro HA binding studies indicate that D-Asp8 is more sensitive to change of HA crystallinity than ALN. Because the bone apatite in the newly formed bone (formation sites) usually has lower crystallinity than the resorption sites (mainly mature bone), we believe that the favorable recognition of D-Asp8 to the bone resorption sites could be attributed to its relatively weak binding to apatite, when compared to bisphosphonates, and the different levels of crystallinity of bone apatite at different functional domains of the skeleton.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteotropicity of novel bone-targeted HPMA copolymer conjugates has been demonstrated previously with bone histomorphometric analysis. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of this delivery system were investigated in the current study with healthy young BALB/c mice. The 125I-labeled bone-targeted and control (nontargeted) HPMA copolymers were administered intravenously to mice, and their distribution to different organs and tissues was followed using gamma counter and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Both the invasive and noninvasive data further confirmed that the incorporation of D-aspartic acid octapeptide (D-Asp8) as bone-targeting moiety could favorably deposit the HPMA copolymers to the entire skeleton, especially to the high bone turnover sites. To evaluate the influence of molecular weight, three fractions (Mw of 24, 46, and 96 kDa) of HPMA copolymer-D-Asp8 conjugate were prepared and evaluated. Higher molecular weight of the conjugate enhanced the deposition to bone due to the prolonged half-life in circulation, but it weakened the bone selectivity. A higher content of bone-targeting moiety (D-Asp8) in the conjugate is desirable to achieve superior hard tissue selectivity. Further validation of the bone-targeting efficacy of the conjugates in animal models of osteoporosis and other skeletal diseases is needed in the future.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel bone targeting, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer based, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) delivery system was designed, synthesized and characterized. PGE1 was bound to the polymer backbone via a spacer, composed of a cathepsin K sensitive tetrapeptide (Gly-Gly-Pro-Nle) and a self-eliminating 4-aminobenzyl alcohol structure. The HPMA copolymer conjugates were prepared by photo-initiated free radical copolymerization of HPMA, PGE1-containing macromonomer, and optionally a comonomer containing a reactive p-nitrophenyl ester group. The latter group was used as attachment points for the D-aspartic acid octapeptide targeting moieties. Incubation of the PGE1-containing macromonomer and HPMA copolymer-PGE1 conjugates with cathepsin K resulted in release of unmodified PGE1. The rate of release depended on the composition of the conjugate. The higher the PGE1 content in the conjugate, the slower the PGE1 release. This appeared to be the result of association of hydrophobic side-chains in aqueous media, which rendered the formation of the enzyme substrate complex more difficult. The data seems to indicate that HPMA copolymer-PGE1 conjugates have a potential in the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone diseases.
Journal of Drug Targeting 08/2006; 14(6):425-35. · 2.77 Impact Factor