[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A multidisciplinary approach represents the best method to interact with patients. Neoplastic and renal diseases are closely related to each other because of an increased risk of cancer among individuals with end-stage renal disease and because of the high prevalence of renal failure in cancer patients. Physicians should be able to know how to prevent and treat the possible complications which may appear during the course of neoplastic disease that may lead to kidney damage such as the Acute Tumor Lysis Syndrome, disorders of hydroelectrolitic balance, metabolic alterations in the calcium-phosphorus, anemia, interstitial and glomerular impairment due to chemotherapy. It is very important to know patients' renal function and directly monitor it, before and during treatment, using formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and above all, specific biomarkers are more early and sensitive than the increase of creatinine, like neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Additionally, physician should consider that alteration of GFR or substitutive renal treatments severely influence dosage of tumor markers and it could lead to wrong diagnosis of cancer. The aim of this article is to provide a review of problems related to cancer relevant in the development of renal failure and try to define the best therapeutic strategies to cope with possible kidney imbalances induced by cancer or its treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Indole-3-acetic acid is the main auxin produced by plants and plays a key role in the plant growth and development. This hormone is also present in humans where it is considered as a uremic toxin deriving from tryptophan metabolism. However, beyond this peculiar aspect, the involvement of auxin in human pathophysiology has not been further investigated. Since it is a growth hormone, we evaluated its proliferative properties in an in vitro model of mammalian renal tubular epithelial cells. We employed an experimental model of renal tubular epithelial cells belonging to the LLC-PK1 cell line that is derived from the kidney of healthy male pig. Growth effects of auxin against LLC-PK1 cell lines were determined by a rapid colorimetric assay. Increasing concentrations of auxin (to give a final concentration from 1 to 1000 ng/mL) were added and microplates were incubated for 72 h. Each auxin concentration was assayed in four wells and repeated four times. Cell proliferation significantly increased, compared to control cells, 72 h after addition of auxin to cultured LLC-PK1 cells. Statistically significant values were observed when 100 ng/mL (p < 0.01) and 1000 ng/mL (p < 0.05) were used. In conclusion, auxin influences cell growth not only in plants, where its role is well documented, but also in mammalian cell lines. This observation opens new scenarios in the field of tissue regeneration and may stimulate a novel line of research aiming at investigating whether this hormone really influences human physiology and pathophysiology and in particular, kidney regeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudoaneurysms (PAs) developing at the site of vascular anastomosis after organ transplantation are a rare but serious complication. We report a series of 3 cases of PA observed in a single center over a period of 18 years. The mode of presentation was acute bleeding in 2 cases. In the third patient, who underwent combined kidney and pancreas transplantation, the PA on the renal graft was discovered by chance. Graft removal associated with iliac artery ligation and extra-anatomic femoro-femoral bypass represents the standard treatment. However, interposition of a venous homograft may allow preservation of inferior limb perfusion and possibly graft salvage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimSemaphorin 3A urinary levels represent an early, predictive biomarker of acute kidney injury and positively correlate with albumin-to-creatinine ratio and serum creatinine in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. Our purpose has been to evaluate semaphorin 3A serum levels in a cohort of haemodialysis patients, the influence of a single haemodialysis session on its concentrations, and the potential correlation with clinical and biochemical parameters.Methods
We enrolled 18 patients chronically receiving haemodialysis with Acetate-Free Biofiltration technique and 16 healthy subjects as controls. Peripheral venous blood samples were obtained from patients at different time intervals: start of dialysis (pre-HD), middle and end of the treatment (post-HD). We also collected dialysate samples by the QuantiscanTM monitoring system (Hospal, Bologna, Italy).ResultsSemaphorin 3A was significantly lower in haemodialysis patients at baseline compared to controls (median 19.50 [interquartile range 1.00-65.00] versus 97.50 [23.50-161.00] ng/ml, P=0.0237). It underwent a statistically significant reduction during a single haemodialysis session (from 19.50 [1.00-65.00] to 0.86 [0.82-4.21] ng/ml, P<0.0001), with a reduction ratio of 65.92±33.51%. The median concentration in dialysate was 54.00 (15.00-102.00) ng/ml. Pre-HD values were directly related to serum vitamin D (r=0.872;P=0.001) and inversely correlated with calcium levels (r=-0.426;P=0.012) and calcium x phosphate product (r=-0.422;P=0.0252).Conclusion
Semaphorin 3A removal during haemodialysis may be clinically relevant due to its involvement in different aspects of cell physiology and, of particular interest to dialysis patients, in bone remodelling. Indeed, semaphorin 3A both inhibits osteoclastic bone reabsorption and increases osteoblastic new bone formation so playing a dual osteoprotective role.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) aimed at reducing the injuries of recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the incidence of nerve injuries with or without IONM. Studies published from January 1994 to February 2012 in English language on humans were identified. Heterogeneity of studies was checked by the Higgins test. Summary estimates of predictive values of injury were made using the Mantel-Haenszel test based on the fixed-effects model. Publication bias was assessed by a funnel plot and Egger's method. Eight articles were selected accounting a total of 5257 nerves at risk. IONM revealed a significant impact in preventing transient injuries (positive predictive value = 5% [95% CI: 2-8], negative = 96% [95% CI: 91-100], relative risk = 0.73 [95% CI: 0.54-0.98], p = 0.035), whereas they failed to demonstrate effect on permanent injuries (positive predictive value = 2% [95% CI: 0.6-3.8], negative 99% [95% CI: 97-100], relative risk = 0.73 [95% CI: 0.44-1.23], p = 0.235). This meta-analysis demonstrated the merit of IONM in preventing transient injury during thyroidectomy. No advantage was found in permanent injuries.
Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica: organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale 08/2014; 34(4):223-229. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Delayed graft function (DGF) is still a major issue in kidney transplantation. Plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were evaluated in a population of kidney donors and recipients to investigate their performance to predict early renal function. Design and methods: Plasma (pNGAL) and urine (uNGAL) samples were obtained from donors before organ procurement, and from recipients before transplantation, and then 6, 24 and 48 h after the procedure. Kidney transplantations were performed from both living donors (LDs, n = 17) and deceased donors (DDs, n = 80). Recovery of renal function was evaluated as the time to reach serum creatinine <2 mg/l or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) > 40 mL/min. Logistic regression was used to assess the ability of different variables to predict the occurrence of DGF. Results: Plasma NGAL levels were significantly lower in LDs than in DDs. No episodes of DGF were recorded among LD kidney recipients, but DGF was observed in 25% of patients in the DD group. There was no correlation between donor pNGAL and uNGAL values and the occurrence of post-transplant DGF. Recipient pNGAL performed better than uNGAL in terms of predicting DGF occurrence. Donor pNGAL and uNGAL values did not influence the time needed to reach serum creatinine levels of <2 mg/dl after transplantation. When time to reach eGFR of >40 mL/min is considered, only donor uNGAL seems to be a predictor of graft function recovery. However, recipient pNGAL values obtained 24 and 48 h after transplantation, but not uNGAL values, were found to be a significant predictor of graft function recovery. Conclusions: Plasma NGAL level determination in recipients, but not in donors, proved to be a reliable predictor of DGF occurrence and renal function restoration, but too long for an interval to be able to compete with biomarkers currently used in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apelin regulates angiogenesis, stimulating endothelial cell proliferation and migration. It is upregulated during tumor angiogenesis, and its overexpression was reported to increase tumor growth. Furthermore, apelin controls vasopressin release and body fluid homeostasis. The aim of this study was to examine the correlations between apelin expression and clinical outcomes in oncologic patients, such as cancer disease progression and patient's survival. Apelin levels were evaluated in a cohort of 95 patients affected by different varieties of cancer. Partial remission and stable disease were assigned to the 'no progression' group, comparing it with the progressor group. Patients were followed up for 2 years. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was employed for identifying the progression of the oncologic disease and Kaplan-Meier curves assessed the survival. Adjusted risk estimates for progression endpoint were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Oncologic patients had higher apelin levels compared with healthy subjects, and apelin was closely related to the stages of the disease. In the hyponatremia group, apelin values were significantly higher than patients with eunatremia. After the follow-up of 24 months, 41 patients (43 %) reached the endpoint. Progressor subjects presented significantly increased apelin values at baseline compared with non-progressor. Univariate followed by multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that apelin predicted cancer progression independently of other potential confounders. In patients with cancer, apelin closely reflects the stage of the disease and represents a strong and independent risk marker for cancer progression.
Clinical and Experimental Medicine 01/2014; 15(1). DOI:10.1007/s10238-014-0272-y · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human relaxin-2 (hereafter simply defined as "relaxin") is a 6-kDa peptidic hormone best known for the physiological role played during pregnancy in the growth and differentiation of the reproductive tract and in the renal and systemic hemodynamic changes. This factor can also be involved in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and heart failure, in the molecular pathways of fibrosis and cancer, and in angiogenesis and bone remodeling. It belongs to the relaxin peptide family, whose members comprehensively exert numerous effects through interaction with different types of receptors, classified as relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors (RXFP1, RXFP2, RXFP3, RXFP4). Research looks toward the in-depth examination and complete understanding of relaxin in its various pleiotropic actions. The intent is to evaluate the likelihood of employing this substance for therapeutic purposes, for instance in diseases where a deficit could be part of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, also avoiding any adverse effect. Relaxin is already being considered as a promising drug, especially in acute heart failure. A careful study of the different RXFPs and their receptors and the comprehension of all biological activities of these hormones will probably provide new drugs with a potential wide range of therapeutic applications in the near future.
Medicinal Research Reviews 01/2014; 34(1). DOI:10.1002/med.21277 · 8.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of recombinant human erythropoietin has marked a turning point in the treatment of anaemia secondary to chronic kidney disease. However, the potentially fatal cardio- and cerebrovascular complications of the intake of high-doses of ESAs (erythropoiesis-stimulating agents), such as those observed in athletes who resort to doping, reason out the ever-prevalent debate concerning the balance between the risks and benefits of ESA administration for therapeutic purposes. Hence, there is still a discussion as to what values haemoglobin should ideally be maintained at. Additional concerns arise in cancer patients due to the ability of erythropoietin to act as an angiogenic and, in general, as a cell growth factor, because this might favour the progression of neoplastic disease. We summarized the prominent points of the latest guidelines on the management of anaemia in nephropathic patients, also identifying the possible risks that may result from the tendency to aim at too low haemoglobin levels.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 09/2013; 21. DOI:10.2174/09298673113206660270 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasopressin (AVP) plays a detrimental role in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Copeptin represents a measurable substitute for circulating AVP whereas apelin counteracts AVP signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of apelin and copeptin for the progression of ADPKD disease. 52 ADPKD patients were enrolled and followed until the end of the observation period or the primary study endpoint was reached, defined by the combined outcome of decrease of glomerular filtration rate associated with a total renal volume increase. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was employed for identifying the progression of renal disease and Kaplan-Meier curves assessed the renal survival. Adjusted risk estimates for progression endpoint and incident renal replacement therapy (RRT) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. ADPKD patients were characterized by lower apelin levels and higher copeptin levels when compared with healthy subjects. These biomarkers were strictly correlated with osmolality and markers of renal function. At ROC analysis, apelin and copeptin showed a very good diagnostic profile in identifying ADPKD progression. After the follow up of 24 months, 33 patients reached the endpoint. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that apelin predicted renal disease progression and incident RRT independently of other potential confounders. Apelin is associated with kidney function decline in ADPKD, suggesting that it may be a new marker to predict kidney outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) increased before the onset of microalbuminuria in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), representing an important biochemical parameter with high sensitivity and specificity to make a precocious diagnosis of "normoalbuminuric" diabetic nephropathy (DN). Serum NGAL (sNGAL) and urinary NGAL (uNGAL) levels were evaluated in a cohort of fifty patients affected by T1DM. They had no signs of clinical nephropathy. Thirty-five healthy subjects (HS) were recruited. sNGAL levels were significantly higher compared with those measured in HS [193.7 (103.2-405.4) vs. 46.4 (39.8-56.2) ng/ml; p < 0.0001], as were uNGAL levels [25.5 (14.2-40.2) vs. 6.5 (2.9-8.5) ng/ml; p < 0.0001]. sNGAL was found to be directly correlated with glycated hemoglobin. uNGAL also positively correlated with albuminuria, whereas an inverse correlation was found with uric acid. After multivariate analysis, significance was maintained for the correlation between uNGAL and microalbuminuria. In ROC analysis, sNGAL showed a good diagnostic profile such as uNGAL. NGAL increases in patients with T1DM, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing an early biomarker of "normoalbuminuric" DN with a good sensitivity and specificity. NGAL measurement could be useful for the evaluation of early renal involvement in the course of diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Ultrafiltration failure and peritonitis are the most important limitations of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of our study was to evaluate peritoneum damage through neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), white blood cell (WBC) count and cancer antigen 125 (CA125).
Patients and methods: Thirty patients with peritonitis and 30 patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were studied for 12 months. In the peritonitis group, blood samples and peritoneal fluid (lp) were collected before the onset of peritonitis, at the onset of peritonitis (T1) and every day until its resolution. CAPD patients were divided into 3 groups according to the treatment received. Long-dwell effluents were collected for NGAL, WBC count and Ca125 assessment.
Results: In the peritonitis group, at time T1, NGAL levels were higher compared with baseline values. lpNGAL levels decreased at least 24 hours earlier than peritoneal WBC (lpWBC). At ROC analysis, lpNGAL was characterized by a very good diagnostic profile identifying treatment failure. In CAPD patients, the highest NGAL values were observed in the icodextrin group. An inverse correlation between lpNGAL, pKt/V and peritoneal ultrafiltration volume was also found.
Conclusion: Mesothelial cells have an active role in the structural and functional alteration of the peritoneum during PD, and NGAL represents a valid biomarker for peritoneum evaluation.
Journal of nephrology 05/2013; 26(6). DOI:10.5301/jn.5000271 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Arterial anastomosis in transplant patients with severe aortic and iliac atheromatosis is technically challenging and may jeopardize the success of the transplantation procedure. The aim of this retrospective study was to report short- and long-term results of a consecutive series of kidney transplant patients in whom the renal artery was implanted on a prosthetic vascular graft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical charts and outpatient clinical records of patients who had undergone renal artery implantation on a prosthetic graft were reviewed. Data on patient characteristics, indications for transplantation, prior vascular procedures, surgical technique, and postoperative and long-term outcome were collected. RESULTS: The renal artery was implanted on a prosthetic graft in the course of 27 kidney transplantation procedures. Patients were divided into three groups according to the timing of the vascular intervention in relation to the transplantation. In group A (n = 22), the vascular prosthesis was implanted before kidney transplantation, in group B (n = 2), prosthetic iliac artery replacement and kidney transplantation were performed simultaneously, while in group C (n = 3), the vascular prosthesis was implanted after kidney transplantation. After a median follow-up of 50.5 months, one case of early arterial thrombosis was observed (3.7 %). Infectious complications occurred in two patients (7.4 %) related to mycotic pseudoaneurysms. One hematoma and one evisceration were also encountered, but no late arterial thrombosis nor stenosis were noted. Mean creatinine levels at 1 and 5 years of follow-up were 1.32 ± 0.36 and 1.27 ± 0.56 mg/dl, respectively. Five-year patient and graft survival rates were 85.2 and 74 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Grafting of the renal artery to a vascular prosthesis is feasible and yields good results, despite the technical difficulties involved. We stress the importance of good teamwork.
World Journal of Surgery 04/2013; 37(7). DOI:10.1007/s00268-013-2028-3 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) develops in 10% of patients after surgical abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a predictor of AKI and Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) represent a potential repair mechanism for vascular lesions. We evaluated the diagnostic power of serum (s) and urine (u) NGAL in detecting a possible event of AKI in patients undergoing surgical treatment for AAA repair. We also investigated the influence of vascular injury on EPCs. Methods: We examined 50 patients who underwent open AAA repair. Blood and urine was collected preoperatively and every hour after surgery until 8 h to quantify sNGAL, uNGAL and circulating EPCs. AKI, was defined as a ≥25% decrease in eGFR compared with baseline values. Results: There was an inverse correlation between eGFR, sNGAL and uNGAL, while a direct correlation between sNGAL, APACHE II Score and EPCs was found. At receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, sNGAL and uNGAL showed a very good diagnostic profile. Kaplan Meier curves showed that NGAL is a highly sensitive predictor of incidence of AKI. Univariate followed by multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that uNGAL and sNGAL predicted AKI independently of other potential confounders, including eGFR and APACHE II Score. Patients had at baseline and after surgical stress a significantly higher number of EPCs than control group. Methods: We examined 50 patients who underwent open AAA repair. Blood and urine was collected preoperatively and every hour after surgery until 8 h to quantify sNGAL, uNGAL and circulating EPCs. AKI, was defined as a ≥25% decrease in eGFR compared with baseline values. Results: There was an inverse correlation between eGFR, sNGAL and uNGAL, while a direct correlation between sNGAL APACHE II Score and EPCs was found. At receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, sNGAL and uNGAL showed a very good diagnostic profile. Kaplan Meier curves showed that NGAL is a highly sensitive predictor of incidence of AKI. Univariate followed by multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that uNGAL and sNGAL predicted AKI independently of other potential confounders, including eGFR and APACHE II Score. Patients had at baseline and after surgical stress a significantly higher number of EPCs than control group. Conclusions: NGAL represents an independent renal predictor of incidence of AKI. EPCs reflect the degree of vascular damage and could be considered as an indicator of disease with a reparative-regenerative vascular-endothelial function.
Current Vascular Pharmacology 06/2012; 11(6). DOI:10.2174/157016111106140128124607 · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the balance between arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and apelin during hemodialysis and its role in hypotension onset and in the inflammation status.
We enrolled 50 patients chronically treated with hemodialysis. We assessed plasmatic osmolality, AVP, apelin, mean blood pressure (BP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and β(2)-microglobulin.
Apelin rises during dialytic treatment (from 0.68 ± 0.34 to 1.89 ± 0.56 pg/ml, p < 0.0001), while plasmatic osmolality (from 325 ± 4.54 to 311 ± 1.20 mosm/kg H(2)O, p < 0.0001), AVP (from 4.28 ± 1.12 to 2.48 ± 0.50 pg/ml, p < 0.0001) and mean BP (from 124 ± 6 to 110 ± 7 mm Hg, p < 0.0001) decrease. At multivariate regression with respect to apelin, only mean BP remains (r = -0.95, p < 0.0001). We also correlated the AVP/apelin ratio with BP. Moreover, apelin is inversely related to hsCRP (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001).
The AVP/apelin balance changes with plasmatic osmolality variations induced by hemodialytic sessions and could represent a physiopathological marker of arterial hypo- and hypertension. Finally, apelin appears inversely related to inflammation markers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uremic patients are characterized by a "pro-arrhythmic substrate." Arrhythmia appearance during hemodialysis (HD) is an unexpected event with a high incidence of mortality and morbidity and difficult to record in patients repeatedly checked using electrocardiogram (ECG). Furthermore the carrying out of this important examination by classical devices during HD is uncomfortable and sometimes stressful for the patient. It may be very useful to monitor the patient's cardiac activity during the whole HD session. We tried to overcome these difficulties using Whealthy(®) (Wearable Health Care System), a wearable system in a T-shirt composed of conductors and piezoresistive materials, integrated to form fibers and threads connected to tissular sensors, electrodes, and connectors. ECG and pneumographic impedance signals are acquired by the electrodes in the tissue, and the data are registered by a small computer and transmitted via GPRS or Bluetooth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obestatin is a 23-amino acid peptide hormone released from the stomach and is present not only in the gastrointestinal tract, but also in the spleen, mammary gland, breast milk and plasma. Obestatin appears to function as part of a complex gut-brain network whereby hormones and substances from the stomach and intestines signal the brain about satiety or hunger. In contrast to ghrelin, which causes hyperphagia and obesity, obestatin appears to act as an anorectic hormone, decreasing food intake and reducing body weight gain. Further studies have shown that obestatin is also involved in improving memory, regulating sleep, affecting cell proliferation, increasing the secretion of pancreatic juice enzymes and inhibiting glucose-induced insulin secretion. This hormone has not only been studied in the field of physiology but also in the fields of obesity and diabetes mellitus, and in patients with psychogenic eating disorders. Obestatin has a role in regulating the cell cycle by exerting proliferative effects that may be seen in cell physiology and oncology. Given the current controversy regarding the effects of obestatin and its cognate ligand, this article provides the latest review of the physiological and pathological characteristics of this hormone.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 12/2011; 59(2-4):193-9. DOI:10.1159/000334106 · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubulo-interstitial fibrosis constitutes the final common pathway for all pathological conditions that evolve towards chronic kidney disease, and transforming growth factor-β1 plays a key role in this process. Furthermore, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears not only to be a simple marker of renal injury but also an active player in disease progression. We are not yet able to control and modulate this phenomenon. Therefore, a better understanding of fibrogenic molecular mechanisms is necessary to detect possible therapeutic strategies that interfere with fibrosis and then stop the progression of renal disease. The line of research called 'regenerative medicine' works toward this. According to many authors, the formation of a fibrotic extracellular matrix disrupts the cells' polarity and stimulates their proliferation, creating conditions for cancer development. However, there is another plausible hypothesis: is it possible that fibrosis provides a sort of 'protection' from the development of a cancer as a consequence of the intense proliferation that characterizes any inflammatory process? In superior organisms, and also in humans, regeneration may have been selected negatively and replaced by fibrosis in the course of evolution, to warrant species survival: in fact, unchecked pluripotent cell production and proliferation can lead to tumour development and the potential death of a single individual. Hence, tumours might be the outcome of the failure of fibrotic processes, most likely due to some mediators predominating over others. So, valid experimental models are necessary to understand the interactions that exist between fibrosis and tumours and to evaluate the real advantage of therapies that aim to inhibit the fibrotic process at the renal level or that of other organs. The ideal approach would be to limit fibrosis and then organ function loss but without exposing the patient to risks of developing a tumour, starting from as early as the drugs prescribed.